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Reservoir Geomechanics

In situ stress and rock mechanics applied to reservoir processes


Week 2 Lecture 4
Constitutive Laws Chapter 3

Mark D. Zoback
Professor of Geophysics
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Section 1
Basic Definitions
Poroelasticity and Effective Stress
Section 2
Viscoplasticity (Creep) in Weak
Sands
Section 3
Viscoplasticity (Creep) in Shales

Outline
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Laboratory Testing
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)

Figure 3.2 pg.58 Stanford|ONLINE gp202.class.stanford.edu#

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Constitutive Laws
Figure 3.1 a,b pg.57 Stanford|ONLINE gp202.class.stanford.edu#

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Common Elastic Modulii
In all cases replace
stress (S) with effective
stress (!) for uid
saturated porous rock.
Youngs Modulus, E
S
11
only non-zero stress
11
11
S
E
!
=
Possions Ratio, "
S
11
only non-zero stress
11
33
!
!
" = #
G =
1
2
S
13
!
13
"
#
$
$
%
&
'
'
Shear Modulus, G
S
ij
only non-zero stress
Bulk Modulus, K
(Compressibility, # = K
-1
)

00
00
S
K
!
=
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Elastic Modulii and Seismic Waves
In an elastic, isotropic, homogeneous solid
!
+
=
3
G 4
K
V
p
P wave
!
=
G
V
s
Shear Wave
Liquid G = 0 , V
s
= 0
3
G 4
K V M
2
p
+ = ! =
M Modulus
( )
2
s
2
p
2
s
2
p
V V 2
V 2 V
!
!
= "
Liquid " = 0.5
Poissons Ratio
*
25 . 0 = !
73 . 1
3
1
V
V
s
p
= =
Poisson Solid $ = G
* common value for rocks
Equation 3.5 pg.63
Equation 3.6 pg.64
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Constitutive Laws
Figure 3.1 a,b pg.57 Stanford|ONLINE gp202.class.stanford.edu#

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Continuum Approach to Effective Stress

Stress = Force/Area
Total
S = F/A
T

For an impermeable
membrane:
Assumptions:
Volume large compared to elements
Interconnected porosity
Statistically Averaged Volumes
a 0
lim a!
c
= !
g
Intergranular Stress:
Effective Stress:
!
g
= S - (1 - a) P
p
= S - P
p

Force Balance at Grain
Scale:
F
T
= F
g
where a = A
c
/A
T
S A
T
= A
c
!
c
+ (A
T
- A
c
)P
p

S = a!
c
+ (1 - a)P
p
where a = A
c
/A
T

A
c
!
g
stress acting on grains
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P
p
does not affect shear stress or shear strain, but does
affect elastic moduli, rock strength, frictional strength
Simple (Terzaghi) form
p ij ij ij
P S ! " = #
Exact form
p ij ij ij
P S ! " # = $
Biot Constant
g
b
K
K
1! = " 1 0 ! " !
K
b
% Drained bulk modulus of porous rock
K
g
% Bulk modulus of solid grains
Solid rock without pores. No pore pressure inuence
Extremely compliant porous solid. Maximum pore pressure inuence
Lim & = 0
' ( 0
Lim & = 1
K
b
( 0
Equations 3.8 & 3.10 pg.66 & 68
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Effective Stress
Figure 3.5 c pg.67
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Laboratory Measured Values of Alpha
!
ij
=
1
2G
S
ij
"#
ij
S
00
( )
+
1
3K
#
ij
S
00
"
$
3K
#
ij
P
p
Shear strain not affected by P
p
:

K
P
K
S
p
00
00
!
" = #
Elastic modulii (and strength) are dependent on effective stress
Complexity: Modulii are rate dependent because undrained rock
is stiffer than drained rock (pore uid supports external stress)
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Poroelasticity
Dispersion
2000
3000
4000
5000
4 5
Log Frequency (Hz)
1 cp
10 cp
100 cp
Vp
Vs
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
m
/
s
)

Log Lab
Figure 3.6 b pg.70
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Cycles of Hydrostatic Loading & Unloading Weak Sand
Figure 3.7 a,b pg.71
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Poro-Elastic Coupling Within a Reservoir
How !P
p
Affects !S
H
Using instantaneous application of force and pressure with no lateral strain:
( )
p v p H
P S P S !
"
"
! # $
%
&
'
(
)
#
= #
1
Take the derivative of both sides and simplify
( )
( )
p H
P
1
2 1
S !
" #
" #
$ = !
Pp
3
2
S
H
! = ! 1 , 25 . 0 = = ! "
if
g
b
K
K
! =1 "
S
v
S
H
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Section 1
Basic Definitions
Poroelasticity and Effective Stress
Section 2
Viscoplasticity (Creep) in Weak
Sands
Section 3
Viscoplasticity (Creep) in Shales

Outline
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Constitutive Laws
Figure 3.1 c,d pg.57 Stanford|ONLINE gp202.class.stanford.edu#

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Viscoelastic/Viscoplastic Deformation of
Unconsolidated Sands
The fact that the grains are not cemented allows these
materials to creep (deform as a function of time at a
constant stress or at constant strain, for stress to relax
with time).
The presence of clay greatly exacerbates creep in
uncemented sands.
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Loading History
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Ottawa Sand with Montmorillonite Clay
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Observations of Instantaneous and Viscous
Deformation in Dry Wilmington Sand
5
1
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
0
0
.
0
0
5
0
.
0
1
0
.
0
1
5
0
.
0
2
0
.
0
2
5
0
.
0
3
0
.
0
3
5
0
.
0
4
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
Drained Hydrostatic Load Cycling
Cleaned and Dried Wilmington Sand
C
o
n
f
i
n
i
n
g

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
M
P
a
)
A
x
i
a
l

S
t
r
a
i
n

(
i
n
/
i
n
)
Time (hr)
Confining Pressure
Instantaneous
Strain
Creep Strain
Figure 3.8 a pg.73
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Creep and Clay Content
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Stress History Triaxial Conditions
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Attributes of Viscoelastic/Viscoplastic Materials
Figure 3.10 a-d pg.75
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Wilmington Sand Stress Relaxation
Figure 3.11 a pg.77
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Ideal Viscoelastic Materials
(Time-Dependent Stress and Strain)
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Wilmington Creep and Standard Linear Solid
s
t
r
a
i
n

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Figure 3.12 pg.78
Exploring Viscoelastic Models
Getting the Constitutive Law Right Matters
29
Figure 3.13a pg.79 Stanford|ONLINE gp202.class.stanford.edu#

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Experimental Procedure - Attenuation
5
1
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
-
0
.
0
1
0
0
.
0
1
0
.
0
2
0
.
0
3
0
.
0
4
0
.
0
5
0
.
0
6
0
.
0
7
0
2
0
4
0
6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
Constant Frequency Test Procedure
Cleaned and Dried WIlmington Sand
Load Frequency = 1MPa/hr
C
o
n
f
i
n
i
n
g

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
M
P
a
)
A
x
i
a
l

S
t
r
a
i
n

(
i
n
/
i
n
)
Time (Hr)
Confining Pressure
Axial Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

Strain
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Attenuation Independent of Frequency
Figure 3.13b pg.79
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Experimental Procedure - Modulus Dispersion
5
1
0
1
5
2
0
0
0
.
0
0
5
0
.
0
1
0
.
0
1
5
0
.
0
2
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
Frequency Cycling Test Procedure
C
o
n
f
i
n
i
n
g

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
M
P
a
)
A
x
i
a
l

S
t
r
a
i
n

(
i
n
/
i
n
)
Time(hr)
Axial Strain
Confining Pressure
Pressure Amplitude
Mean
Pressure
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Best-fitting Model (Low Frequency)
Both the instantaneous (!
j
) and time-dependent components of
long term strain have power law functional forms.

Written in terms of porosity (to simulate compaction), we have



where the first term describes the instantaneous porosity change
and the second term describes the normalized creep strain, where:



Which leaves 4 unknowns:
2 constants (A, !
0
) and 2 exponents (b,d)
Determinable with 2 experiments

b
c j c
t A P t P ) / ( ) , ( ! =" "
d
c j
P
0
! ! =
Equation 3.16 pg.81
Equation 3.15 pg.80
i
i
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Best-Fitting Power Law Model
Fits very low frequency (reservoir compaction)
Intermediate frequency (laboratory testing)
High Frequency (seismic to sonic to ultrasonic
modulus dispersion)

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Modeling Instantaneous Strain in Dry
Wilmington Sand
'
i
= '
0
P
c
d
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.1 1 10 100
Wilmington Sand
Dry/Drained/Hydrostatic
Constant Rate Test
Rate = 10
-6
/s
y = 0.27107 * x^(-0.046452) R= 0.99479
P
o
r
o
s
i
t
y

Effective Pressure (MPa)
'
0
d
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Modeling Creep Strain in Dry
Field X (GOM) Sand
"(Pc,t) = "
i
- (Pc/A)t
b
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Creep Parameters For Two Uncemented Sands

Reservoir sand
A
(creep)
b
(creep)
"
0
(instant)
d
(instant)

Notes
Wilmington 5410.3 0.1644 0.271 -0.046 Stiffer and more viscous
GOM Field X 6666.7 0.2318 0.246 -0.152 Softer and less viscous
Table 3.2 pg.82
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Best-Fitting Model: Wilmington
Best-Fitting Model: Field X, GOM
Maximum field compaction predicted: >10%
Maximum field compaction predicted: ~1.5%
Observed field compaction ~ 2%
232 . 0 152 . 0
)
7 . 6666
( 246 . 0 ) , ( t
P
P t P
c
c c
! =
!
"
164 . 0 046 . 0
)
3 . 5410
( 271 . 0 ) , ( t
P
P t P
c
c c
! =
!
"
Equation 3.17 pg.81
Equation 3.20 pg.82
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Section 1
Basic Definitions
Poroelasticity and Effective Stress
Section 2
Viscoplasticity (Creep) in Weak
Sands
Section 3
Viscoplasticity (Creep) in Shales

Outline
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Organic Rich Shales
Bedding plane and sample cylinder axis is either
parallel (horizontal samples) or
perpendicular (vertical samples)
3-10 % porosity
All room dry, room temperature experiments
Sample group Clay Carbonate QFP TOC (wt%)
Barnett-dark 29-43 0-6 48-59 4.1-5.8
Barnett-light 2-7 37-81 16-53 0.4-1.3
Haynesville-dark 36-39 20-23 31-35 3.7-4.1
Haynesville-light 20-22 49-53 23-24 1.7-1.8
Fort St. John 32-39 3-5 54-60 1.6-2.2
Eagle Ford-dark 12-21 46-54 22-29 4.4-5.7
Eagle Ford-light 6-14 63-78 11-18 1.9-2.5
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Recent Publications
Physical properties of shale reservoir rocks

Sone, H and Zoback, M.D. (2013), Mechanical properties of shale-gas
reservoir rocksPart 1: Static and dynamic elastic properties and
anisotropy, Geophysics, v. 78, no. 5, D381-D392, 10.1190/GEO2013-0050.1

Sone, H and Zoback, M.D. (2013), Mechanical properties of shale-gas
reservoir rocksPart 2: Ductile creep, brittle strength, and their relation to
the elastic modulus, Geophysics, v. 78, no. 5, D393-D402, 10.1190/
GEO2013-0051.1
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Experimental Procedures
Hydrostatic, Triaxial Stage:
Pressure applied in steps
Held for 3 hrs 2 weeks
Failure & Friction: intact/frictional
rock strength




P
c
P
ax
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A Typical Experiment
Friction
Strength
Static
Modulii
Dilatancy
Creep?
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Experimental Procedures
Hydrostatic, Triaxial Stage:
Pressure applied in steps
Held for 3 hrs 2 weeks
Failure & Friction: intact/frictional
rock strength



From each pressure step,
The pressure ramp gives
elastic modulus
The pressure hold gives the
creep response

P
c
P
ax
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39%clay
25%
22% clay
33%
!" $%&'
Creep Increases with Clay Content
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Eagleford Shale
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Creep Strain vs. Clay and E
Amount of creep (ductility) depends on clay content and
orientation of loading with respect to bedding
Youngs modulus correlates with creep amount very well
Normal
To Bedding
Parallel
To Bedding
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Youngs Modulus
Youngs modulus falls within rough estimates of Voigt-Reuss
bounds
Anisotropy exists between vertical and horizontal samples
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Analysis of Viscoplasticity

1. Describe the behavior quantitatively to
! Creep Constitutive Relation
2. Relate the creep behavior to stress relaxation
using
! Boltzmann Superposition

3. Investigate the implications of creep over
geologic time scales
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Long term creep experiments
) log(t A
creep
= !
n
creep
Bt = !
Most creep observed were
only 3 hours long, and
suggested logarithm function
Long experiments show that
it is more closer to a power-
law in the long term
Furthermore, the total
response (elastic + creep)
can be described by a power
law
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Power-Law Parameters
n
Bt = !
Parameters B and n are found for every creep step by tting a line
to the creep compliance, J(t), in log-log space
*J(t) determined by deconvolving creep data with stress ramp input
Compliant rocks have higher B and higher n
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Contours are % strain under 50 MPa differential load
Reasonable axial strain magnitudes of 0.1~3%
Creep Strain over Geological Time
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" Stress Accumulation
under constant strain
rate
" 150 Ma - Half of age
of Barnett shale
" 10
-19
s
-1
- Stable
intraplate
" Significant stress
relaxation observed for
high n
n
t
n B
t
!
!
=
1
) 1 (
1
) ( " #
!
Predicting Stress Anisotropy over Geological Time
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