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Experiment No.1

AIM : To Observe the characteristics of compensated
Attenuator.

The attenuators are designed to change the magnitude of
the input signal as seen at input stage, while introducing
constant impedance on all ranges of the attenuator input.

When the full state is not available for feedback, we utilize
an observer. The observer design process is described and
the applicability of Ackermanns formula is established. The
state variable compensator is obtained by connecting the
full-state feedback law to the observer.

Attenuation is a general term that refers to any reduction in
the strength of a signal.
Attenuation occurs with any type of signal, whether digital or analog.
Sometimes called loss, attenuation is a natural consequence of signal
transmission over long distances.
The extent of attenuation is usually expressed in units called decibels (dBs).
If P
s
is the signal power at the transmitting end (source) of a communications
circuit and P
d
is the signal power at the receiving end (destination), then P
s
>
P
d
. The power attenuation A
p
in decibels is given by the formula:
A
p
= 10 log
10
(P
s
/P
d
)
Attenuation can also be expressed in terms of voltage. If A
v
is the voltage
attenuation in decibels, V
s
is the source signal voltage, and V
d
is the
destination signal voltage, then:
A
v
= 20 log
10
(V
s
/V
d
)

There are two types of Attenuators . This are as follows.,

1. Compensated .
2. Uncompensated .




2

RC attenuator(compensated) :-
It is required to attenuate all frequencies equal without as this compensation
and signal of HF measurements would always have to take the input circuit
RC time constant into account of that.

The input attenuator must provide the correct 1 -2-5 sequence while
maintaining constant input impedance, as well as maintain both the input
impedance a attenuation above the frequency range for which the
oscilloscope is designed.


Attenuators (Uncompensated ) :-

As found in Fig. ( circuit diagram ) , it gives a resistive divider attenuator
connected to an amplifier with a 10 pf input capacitance. If the input
impedance of the amplifier is high, the input impedance of the attenuator is
relatively constant negligible of the switch setting of the attenuator.

The input impedance, as found by the amplifier, variations or changes greatly
depending on the setting of the attenuator. Because of this, the RC time
constant and frequency response of the amplifier are based mostly on the
setting of the attenuator, which an unfavorable feature.


Fig.1.1 Uncompensated Attenuator


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Basic and Simple Compensated Attenuator :-

The capacitive voltage dividers enhance the HF response of the
attenuator. This combination of capacitive and combination of resistive
voltage dividers is known as a compensated attenuator.

For oscilloscopes where the frequency range increases to 100 MHz and
above, more complex dividers are used.

Their indicates an attenuator divider between the input and output of the
vertical deflection preamplifier.

The input attenuator gives switching powers of 10, while attenuator at the
output of the vertical preamplifier provides 1-2-5 attenuation.

Almost all oscilloscopes provide a switchable input coupling capacitor, as
shown in Fig.

The input impedance of an oscilloscope is 1 M which is shunted with an
input capacitance of 10-30 pf.

If a probe were connected to the oscilloscope, the input impedance at
the probe tip would have a greater capacitance due to the fact of the included
capacitance of the probe assembly and of the connecting shielded cable.

Fig.1.2 Simple compensated Attenuator
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If it is desired for HF oscilloscopes to have an input capacitance of much less
than 20-30 pf, an attenuator Figure 8.1 probe is used ,as shows in fig 8.1a
10 to 1 attenuator probe connected to the input of the oscilloscope.

Within the probe tip is a 9M resistor and shunted across this resistor is a
Capacitor.

This capacitor is fine-tuned( adjusted) so that the ratio of the shunt
capacitance to the series capacitance is exactly 10 to 1.

The attenuator probe generally called a 10 to 1 probe provides an
approximately 10 to 1 reduction in the input capacitance.

On the other hand, it is also gives a 10 to 1 reduction in overall oscilloscope
sensitivity.




Fig.1.3 Simple LR compensated Attenuator
The input capacitance is not constant from one oscilloscope to another as a
result the probe is provided with an adjustable compensating capacitor.

If the ratio of the series to shunt is not adjusted specifically (precisely) to 10
to 1, and the frequency response of the oscilloscope will be flat.

The attenuator circuit includes a resistive divider coupled to a capacitive
network including first and second capacitive dividers. The resistive divider is
configured to perform an N:1 attenuation of a signal in a low frequency
range.

The first and second capacitive dividers are configured to perform an N:1
attenuation in the high frequency range that is a product of the attenuation
provided by each (e.g., each performing an M:1 attenuation, where N=MM,
with the total attenuation of the capacitive dividers being N:1 where N=MM).

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A variable capacitance divider is coupled in parallel with the second
capacitive divider, and includes first and second variable capacitors that,
when adjusted, change the high frequency attenuation of the attenuator
circuit to match the value of the high frequency attenuation to that of the low
frequency attenuation.
















Fig.1.4 KI T compensated Attenuator



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6

Experiment No.2

AIM : To Observe the characteristics of compensated
Attenuator.


A. Milliameter :-

The basic instrument used to measure electrical Current is
some form of analog (moving pointer) ammeter .

A typical dAsenval analog meter movement is shown in below figure 1.


Fig.2.1 DAsenval analog Ammeter

By adding circuit components that are external to the meter, we can construct
instruments such as multi-range ammeters, voltmeters, and ohmmeters.
It turns out that every meter movement displays some amount of resistance (the
meter resistance, R
meter
).
In order to design additional configurations, we need to know the meter resistance.
EXTENDED-RANGE AMMETER:-
The basic meter movement shown can measure from 0 to 1 mA full-scale. In order
to extend the range of the meter, some external circuitry must be added.
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If the current to be measured exceeds the full-scale current of the meter movement,
a parallel, or shunt branch must be provided.
Consider the case shown below where the desired full-scale Load current to be
measured is 5 mA. Assume that the meter resistance is 100 .


Fig.2.2 Circuit for a 01 mA meter to measure a 5 mA full-scale current

1mAMeter
DC 100
0.000
A
+ -
Vsource
5 V
RLoad
1k
Rshunt
25
I
meter
I
shunt
I
Load
I
Load

8

The Load current is 5 mA (if the meter resistance is equal to 0). When the shunt
resistor is properly chosen, current division causes 1 mA to flow through the meter
and 4 mA to flow through the shunt resistor.

Since the meter movement and the shunt resistor are in parallel, they have the
same voltage drop across them, so, if the resistance of the meter is known, we can
determine the value of the shunt resistor from the following:


V =I R =I R
meter meter meter shunt shunt
I R
meter meter
R =
shunt
I
shunt


where

I
meter
is the full-scale current of the meter

and

I
shunt
= I
Load
- I
meter


The equivalent resistance of the meter circuit is now the parallel combination of the meter
resistance R
meter
and the shunt resistor R
shunt
.


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Shunts are used for the extension of range of Ammeters. So a good shunt
should have the following properties:-

The temperature coefficient of shunt should be low.
Resistance of shunt should not vary with time.
They should carry current without excessive temperature rise.
They should have thermal electromotive force with copper



B. VOLTMETERS :-

The basic instrument used to measure electrical Voltage is
some form of analog (moving pointer) ammeter .
A typical Volt meter movement is shown in below figure 1.


Fig.2.3 Analog Voltmeter
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Extending the Voltmeter Range :-

The value of the necessary series resistance is determined by the current
required for full scale deflection of the meter and by the range of voltage to
be measured.
Because the current through the meter circuit is directly proportional to the
applied voltage, the meter scale can be calibrated directly in volts for a fixed
series resistance.


Extended voltmeter ranges are created for sensitive meter
movements by adding series "multiplier" resistors to the movement
circuit, providing a precise voltage division ratio .








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