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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

POWER SYSTEMS LAB
Lab Manual

EEP 303

Dr. A.R. Abhyankar
(Course Coordinator)

Experiment No. 1

Determination of Positive, Negative and Zero-Sequence
Reactances of Synchronous Machine

MOTIVATION:
In balanced three-phase network complete symmetry or balance is maintained. The load
(or fault) impendances are the same on all three phases and the voltages, emfs and
currents are characterized by complete three phase symmetry, i.e. they are of equal
magnitude in each phase and displaced 120 degree in time. The networks can be analyzed
on single-phase basis. In the unsymmetrically faulted or loaded system, neither the
currents nor the voltages will possess three-phase symmetry. It is no longer possible to
limit the analysis to one phase, because coupling exists between the three phases. The
complexity of analysis can be offset to a considerable extent by interconnection of
sequence networks having positive-,negetive-, and zero-sequence reactances of the
machine.

OBJECTIVES:
To determine experimentally positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence reactances of a
synchronous machine.

THEORY:
Symmetrical Components

The basic feature of this method, as the name implies, is the resolution of the
unsymmetrical phase currents and voltages into a set of components that possess certain
symmetrical features. The positive-sequence components possess certain symmetrical;
features. The positive-sequence components possess three-phase symmetry having the
phase sequence RYB; the negative-sequence components possess three-phase symmetry
having the phase sequence RBY; and the zero-sequence are all of equal magnitude and
phase. The impedances offered to these sequence components are called positive-,
negative-, and zero-sequence impedances. As a consequence of symmetry between three
phases of a synchronous machine, no coupling exists between the positive-, negative-,
and zero sequence networks. An unbalanced three-phase network can be analyzed by
appropriate interconnection of the sequence networks.

Positive Sequence Reactance X
1:

A system component operating under balanced condition of current and voltage is in
effect in a positive sequence mode. The positive sequence reactance of a synchronous
Machine under steady state condition is the direct axis synchronous reactance X
d
of the
machine.
The positive-sequence impedance can also be defined as the impedance offered by
the machine to the flow of positive-sequence currents. A set of positive-sequence currents
in the armature winding creates a magnetic field that rotates in the normal direction of the
air gap.

Determination of positive-sequence reactance with the help of open circuit and short
circuit characteristics:
The synchronous machine is run at synchronous speed with the help of a prime mover
(d.c. motor).a curve between voltage and excitation is drawn on no load. The curve thus
obtained is the no-load or open circuit characteristics. At synchronous speed, a curve
between armature current and excitation current is drawn when the armature terminals are
short circuited. The curve thus obtained is the three-phase short circuit characteristics.
The saturated value of synchronous impedance at an excitation current
e
i is given by
SC
I
E
where E is the rated value of induced emf at an excitation current of and ISC is the
three-phase short circuit current at the same excitation current. (If the positive-sequence
resistance is neglected the positive-sequence reactance is same as the positive-sequence
impedance).

Determination of negative-sequence-reactance X
2
The negetive-sequence impedance of a synchronous machine is the impedance offered by
that machine to the flow of negetive-sequence current. A set of negative-sequence
currents in the armature creates in the air gap a magnetic field that rotates at synchronous
speed in the direction opposite to the normal direction of rotation. Thus the negetive
sequence magnetic field rotates with twice the normal speed with respect to the rotor.
Double frequency currents are established in the shorted rotor field winding and the
damper winding thus keeping the flux linkage of these windings almost constant at their
initial zero value.(The flux due to the armature current is forced into paths of high
reluctance which do not link any rotor circuits.) these paths are same as those of sub-
transient reactance. The armature flux linkage per armature ampere under this condition
is the negetive-sequence inductance L
2
. The negetive sequence is
2 2
L X e = .( see ref. 4.)
Since the mmf wave rotates at twice the synchronous speed with respect to the
rotor, it alternately meets reluctance of the two rotor axis (d- and q- axis), corresponding
to sub transient reactance
' '
d
X and
' '
q
X . For all practical purposes it is usually taken as the
arithmetical mean:

2
' ' ' '
2
q d
X X
X
+
=
Test for determining X
2
(Method I)
The synchronous machine is run at synchronous speed with the help of a prime mover.
The machine is unexcited and connected to a voltage source, which is gradually increased
till full load current flows. Power input is measured by a wattmeter. The terminals are so
connected that the direction of rotating field produced by the armature current is opposite
to the direction of rotation of the pole structure. It is important to keep the field winding
short circuited during the test. The negative-sequence impedance Z
2
is

2
2
2
I
V
Z = Where,
V
2
= Applied terminal voltage per phase
P = Power input per phase
I
2
= Current flowing per phase
X
2
= | sin
2
Z where
2 2
2
1
cos
I V
P
= |

Test for determining X
2
(Method II)
The negative sequence reactance X
2
can also be obtained by driving the machine at rated
speed with low excitation and with a sustained 2-phase short circuit between two of the
line terminals. Let the voltage between the open phase and any one of the short-circuited
phase be V
os
and the short-circuited current be I
SC
. If the wattmeter is connected with its
current coil excited by it measures the negative-sequence power loss (
2
2
R i loss). The
negative-sequence impedance Z
2
is

|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=

SC os
SC
os
I V
P
Z X
I
V
Z
1
2 2
2
cos
sin
3
|
| Where,

Zero-Sequence Reactance X
0
If zero sequence currents are applied to the armature, there is no space fundamental
mmf. Hence the reactance is small and is hardly affected by the motion of the rotor.
There is, in general, a third space harmonic of air gap mmf, which is stationary but
pulsating. This mmf is opposed by currents induced in the rotor circuits; therefore not
much air gap flux is produced. The zero-sequence currents produce leakage fluxes (slot-
leakage end-winding-leakage and differential leakage). Altogether very little flux is set
up, and the zero-sequence reactance is the lowest of the synchronous machine
reactances.(Ref.4.)
The actual value of X
0
varies through a wider range than that of the other reactances
and depends upon the pitch of the armature coils. The reactance is the least for a pitch of
two-thirds because then each slot has two coil sides carrying equal and opposite currents.

Test for determination of X
0

The machine is driven at rated speed with field winding short
circuited. All phases are connected in series and a single phase voltage is applied across
them. It may be sometimes more convenient to connect these phases in parallel. The
series connection is however preferred as the currents of the same magnitude and phase
angle are flowing through all the three phases, a condition which must be positively
fulfilled while determining X
0
. For series connection

0
0
0
3I
V
Z = Where,
V
0
= Applied voltage across the three phase windings in series.
I
0
= currents flowing i9n the three phase windings in series.
(If the zero sequence resistance is neglected then the zero-sequence reactance X
0
equals
the zero sequence impedance Z
0
).

PRE-EXPERIMENTAL QUIZ

1. What do you understand by the term phase sequence?
2. What is rotating field?
3. What is pulsating field?
4. Can zero-sequence currents produce rotating field?
5. What field can zero-sequence currents produce?
6. Explain how double frequency currents are produced in the rotor field when
negative-sequence currents are impressed on the armature.
7. If rotor is at stand still, what will be the frequency of rotor field currents
when (a) positive-sequence currents are impressed (b) negative-sequence currents are
impressed?
8. Explain why X
1
and X
2
are different in a synchronous machine where as
they are equal in transformers.
9. Explain why X
0
is quite small in a synchronous machine.
10. Explain how X
2
is the arithmetic mean of
' '
d
X and
' '
q
X .
11. Define positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence components of a set of
unbalanced three phasors.

EQUIPMENTS AND COMPONETS

1. A three-phase alternator coupled to a d.c. Motor.
2. a.c. voltmeters.
3. a.c./d.c. Ammeters.
4. Wattmeter.
5. Tachometer
6. Rheostat.
7. Three-phase variac.
8. Single-phase variac.

PROCEDURE, CONNECTION DIAGRAM AND EXPERIMENTATION

Determination of X
1
(a) Open Circuit Test:
(i) Run the synchronous machine at rated speed.
(ii) Connect a voltmeter across the machine terminals and measure the voltage
corresponding to field excitation given by ammeter reading. (Fig. 1 a)
(iii) Repeat step (ii) for different exciting currents and plot the open circuit
characteristics.

(b) Short Circuit Test:
(i) Run the machine at rated speed.
(ii) Apply low voltage to the field circuit so that exciting current is small. Alternately
connect a high resistance rheostat in the field circuit with full field voltage applied
(Fig. b). Connect an ammeter in the field circuit.
(iii) Apply three-phase short circuit at the synchronous machine terminals, with ammeter
connected in any phase.
(iv) Measure the short circuit current corresponding to the field current given by the
(v) The short circuit characteristics is given by joining the origin with the point in step 4.

Determination of X2
.
.(Method I)
(i) Short circuit the field winding.
(ii) Run the machine at rated speed.
(iii) Apply low voltage from a three-phase variac to the armature terminals with phase
sequence of the machine and supply reversed with respect to each other (Fig 2 a). The
armature current given by the ammeter reading should not exceed the rated value.
(iv) Measure the applied voltage, current and power inputs.

Determination of X2
.
.(Method II)
(i) Run the machine at rated speed.
(ii) Short circuit two phases of the alternator through an ammeter as shown in Fig 2b
(iii) Connect the voltage coil of the wattmeter and a voltmeter between the open phase
and any short circuited phase.
(iv) Gradually increase the excitation such that the short circuit current does not exceed

Determination of X0
:

(i) Connect the armature winding in parallel with proper polarity (Fig 3).
(ii) Short-circuit the field winding.
(iii) Run the machine at rated speed.
(iv) Apply low voltage from a variac and measure both voltage and current taken by
the armature winding.

DATA SHEET
Name plate details of the machine.
Name of the manufacturer:
Rated output:
Voltage rating:
Current rating:
No. of phases:
Frequency:

TABULATIONS:

Determination of X
1

O.C.C Table 1

S.No. Excitation I
e
Open Circuit Voltage

S.C.C: Excitation I
e ,
Short Circuit Current I
SC

Determination of X
2
(Method I)

Table 2
S.No. V
2
I
2

Determination of X
2
(Method II)

Table 3
S.No. V
os
I
SC

Determination of X
0

Table 4
S.No. V
0
I
0

DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS:

(a)Determination of X
1

Corresponding to rated voltage on open circuit the excitation (field current)
I
e
= from O.C.C
Corresponding to I
e
= E = per phase
From S.C.C the positive sequence reactance is
X
1
=
SC
I
E
=
(b)Determination of X
2
The negative-sequence impedance and reactance are

(Method I)
2
2
2
I
V
Z = ,
(Method II)
SC
os
I
V
Z
3
2
=
(c)Determination of X
0

The zero sequence reactance

3 /
0
0
0
I
V
X = (Parallel connection)

POST-EXPERIMENTAL QUIZ:

1. Explain why resistances are neglected in fault studies.
2. Does the positive-sequence impedance determined from O.C.C and S.C.C apply
to the steady state condition or transient condition?
3. The negative-sequence resistance is quite large compared to the positive-, or zero
sequence resistance. Explain.
4. If the armature windings of synchronous machine are connected in delta, how
would you determine the zero sequence reactance?
5. For the zero-sequence reactance if the windings are connected in parallel, will the
results so obtained be correct?
6. Do X
2
and X
0
vary in relation to saturation?
7. How would you connect the sequence network for a single line to ground fault on
the armature?
8. If the three-phase generated emfs are balanced, will you obtain negative sequence
voltage in the network under unsymmetrical fault condition?
9. What is the relationship between positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence currents
in case of a single line to ground fault for an unloaded alternator solidly grounded.
10. For three-phase fault on the synchronous machine armature, will there be many
negative-, and zero-sequence currents?

SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER EXPERIMENTATION

1. The value of positive-sequence reactance X
1
obtained from O.C.C. and S.C.C in
this experiment should be compared with the value of X
d
obtained from slip-test
2. The negative-sequence reactance can also be obtained from the following tests.
a) Open circuit characteristic
b) Short circuit characteristic in three-phase short circuit condition.
c) A sustained short circuit with two lines short circuited, and plotting the short
circuit characteristic.
3. The zero-sequence reactance can be obtained by plotting the short circuit
characteristic with a single line to neutral sustained short circuit on the graph for
item no. 2.

L F A
F FF
M
R
Y
B
Alternator
V
DC motor Starter
220 V
D.C
+
220 V
D.C
D.C.
Motor
Open-circuit test
R
Y
B
Alternator
A
Short-circuit test
Low
excitation
Field
-
+
-
L F A
F
FF
M
DC motor Starter
220 V
D.C
+
D.C.
Motor
-
A
220 V
D.C
Field
-
+
A

Fig. 1 O.C. and S.C. tests on alternator to determine X
1

Field
R
Y
B
Alternator
Determination of X
2
by application of negative
voltage to alternator
R
Y
B
L F A
F FF
M
DC motor Starter
220 V
D.C
+
D.C.
Motor
-
3 Phase
Variac
V

Fig 2.a Determination of X
2
(Method 1)

R
Y
B
Alternator
V
220 V
D.C
Field
-
+
A
L F A
F FF
M
DC motor Starter
220 V
D.C
+
D.C.
Motor
-
Determination of X
2
by two phase short circuit
test

Fig. 2.b: Determination of X
2
(Method 2)

R
Y
B
Alternator
Field
A
1 Phase
Variac
230 V
A.C
L F A
F FF
M
DC motor Starter
220 V
D.C
+
D.C.
Motor
-

Fig. 3: Determination of X
0

EXPERIMENT NO. 2

MEASUREMENT OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SEQUENCE IMPEDANCE OF
THREE PHASE THREE WINDING AND ZERO SEQUENCE IMPEDANCE OF
THREE PHASE TWO WINDING TRANSFORMERS

MOTIVATION:

The voltage drop caused by current of a certain sequence in any part of a balanced
circuit depends on the impedance of that part of the circuit to current of that sequence
.The impedances of a circuit to positive sequence, negative sequence and zero
sequence currents are referred to as positive-sequence, negative-sequence and zero-
sequence impedances respectively.

The analysis of an unsymmetrical fault on an otherwise symmetrical system can
be carried out by use of symmetrical components. The component currents of one phase
sequence cause voltage drops of like sequence only and are independent of currents of
other sequences. Thus in a balanced system, currents of any one sequence may be
considered to flow in an independent network composed of the impedances to the current
of that sequence only. The single phase equivalent circuit composed of the impedances
to currents of any one sequence only is called the sequence network for that particular
sequence.

The motivation of obtaining the values of the sequence impedances of a power
system is to enable us to construct the sequence networks for the complete system. This
allows us to study and examine the effect of unsymmetrical fault on the using the tool of
symmetrical components. In this experiment we will only learn about the measurement of
sequence impedances of three phase two winding and three phase winding transformers
experimentally.

OBJECTIVES:

(i ) To measure the positive and negative sequence impedance of a three phase three
winding transformer.

( ii ) To measure the zero sequence impedance of a three phase two winding transformer.

THEORY:
1). Three phase two winding transformer

The positive sequence impedance of a transformer equals, of course, leakage
impedance. It is obtained by a short circuit test similar to as is performed in a single
phase transformer. Since the transformer is a static device, the leakage impedance
will not change if the phase sequence is altered from RYB to RBY. Thus positive
and negative sequence impedances are identical.

Z
+
= Z
-
= Z
leakage

Measurement of Z
+
and Z
-
in p.u.

To measure this impedance, the low voltage side is short circuited and the
high voltage side is fed from a source at nominal frequency but reduced voltage in order
to circulate a 100% short circuit current in the windings. Under these conditions measure
the current drawn by and the power consumed by the transformer. From these data
determine the transformer leakage impedance which equals to positive and negative
sequence impedances.
V ph
*
= phase voltage in p.u. to circulate 1 p.u. rated current under short
circuit.

Z
+
*
= Z
-
*
= V ph
*
/ 1 p.u = V ph
*
= Z
*
L

R
*
L
(1.00)
2
= power consumed (3-phase)/ rated KVA of the transformer

Hence X
*
L
= [(Z
*
L
)
2
(R
*
L
)
2
]
1/2

Z
+
*
= Z
-
*
= R
L
+j X
L

*denotes per unit

Measurement of zero sequence impedance : (zo)

The zero sequence impedance of a transformer depends greatly on the winding
type (or Y) and also upon whether or not the neutrals are grounded.

Fig. 2.a depicts the test set up for finding Zo experimentally. Obviously Z
o

=E/I
o
, which depends in general upon the side of the transformer to which the transformer
to which the voltage source is connected i.e. the side from which the measurement is

Case A: Transformer Y-Y connected (both neutral solidly grounded) as in fig.2.4. in this
case Zo measured from any side will be the same.

Case B: Transformer Y- with neutral grounded, as in fig.2.1 the zero sequence
impedance measured from the Y side equals the leakage impedance. As the
secondary currents circulate in the delta, no zero sequence current will leave
the delta terminals.
If the transformer is excited from the side, no zero sequence current can
flow as no return path exists. Thus the zero sequence impedance as seen from
the side is infinite.

Case C: Transformer Y-Y, one neutral grounded as in fig.2.2. Although a path is
provided to ground for the zero sequence currents in the primaries, no such
path exists in the secondary. Consequently, from the zero sequence point of
view, the secondary will act as if open-circuited. This means that from the
primary side the zero seq. currents will meet a total interruption as return path
for these currents does not exist.

Since the magnetizing impedance is very large, for all practical purposes we
assume zero sequence impedance to be infinite from both terminals.

2) Three phase three winding transformer:

While both the primary and secondary winding of a two winding
transformer have the same KVA rating, all the three windings of a three
winding. Transformer may have different KVA ratings. The p.u. impedance in
the impedance diagram should therefore be expressed on a common KVA basis.

Three impedances are measured by standard short circuit test. These are:

Z
ps
= leakage impedance measured in primary with secondary short
circuited and tertiary open.

Z
pt
=leakage impedance measured in primary with tertiary short circuited
and secondary open.

Z
st
= leakage impedance measured in secondary with tertiary short
circuited and primary open.

Z
ps,
Z
pt,
Z
st
are evaluated as referred to the primary side.

Let Z
p
, Z
s
, and Z
t
be the impedance of the primary, secondary and tertiary
windings referred to primary circuit. Then from transformer theory we have

Z
ps
= Z
p
+ Z
s

Z
pt
= Z
p
+ Z
t

Z
st =
Z
s
+ Z
t

Solving the above three equations simultaneously, we can write

Z
p
=( Z
ps
+Z
pt
- Z
st
)/2

Z
s
=( Z
ps
+Z
st
- Z
pt
)/2

Z
t
=( Z
pt
+Z
st
- Z
ps
)/2

Z
p
, Z
s
, and Z
t
are the positive and negative sequence impedances of the three
windings respectively as shown in fig.2.5.

From the theory of the zero sequence impedance measurement for a three phase two
winding transformer for different connections and the consequent resulting zero
sequence impedance networks, one can readily obtain the zero sequence networks
for a three phase three winding transformer for different connections. The zero
sequence impedances from the positive or negative sequence and neutrals solidly
grounded is given in figure 2.6 (b).

PRE-EXPERIMENTAL QUIZ:

1. Define symmetrical components.
2. What if the importance of sequence impedances?

3. The internal voltages of a three phase synchronous generator corresponds to

(a) Positive sequence
.
(b) Negative sequence.
(c) Zero sequence.

4. The impedances of rotating machines to currents of the three sequence will
generally be
(a) Same for each sequence
(b) Different for each sequence
5. What is the utility of a three phase three winding transformer?
6. Why is tertiary connected in ?
7. What are the representative p.u. value for the sequence impedances for three
phase two winding and three phase three winding transformer ?

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENTS:
Three phase two winding transformer (or a blank of three single phase
two winding transformers), three phase three winding transformer and voltmeter,
ammeter and wattmeter of suitable ratings.

Procedure, connection diagrams, experimentation and precaution:

(A) Three-phase two-winding Transformer:
Measurement of zero sequence impedance.

These are measured for four different connections as shown in Fig.2.1 to Fig. 2.4

Use a single phase supply. Do not exceed the current loading of each winding beyond the
rating. Use in the circuit connection voltmeter and ammeter of proper ratings. Find the
zero sequence impedance from the relation

Z
o
=3E/I
Compare the value of this zero sequence impedance with the previously calculated
positive and negative sequence impedance.

(B) Three phase three winding transformer :
Measurement of positive and negative sequence impedances.(Fig. 2.5)
These are obtained experimentally from three independent short circuit measurements.
The positive and negative sequence impedances are equal to the leakage impedances.
Experimental procedure for the measurement of leakage impedances for a three phase
three winding transformer with primary connected in Y, secondary in Y and tertiary in
is given below. All impedances are referred to same KVA base and to a same voltage
base generally referred to primary circuit. Before performing the experiment obtain a
table as follows.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Winding Rated voltage Rated MVA
(Line to line KV) (Three phase)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Measurement 1: Obtain leakage impedance Z
ps
in p.u. measured in primary with secondary
short circuited and tertiary open.
Measurement 2: Obtain leakage impedance Z
pt
in p. u. measured in primary with tertiary
short circuited and secondary open
Measurement 3: Obtain leakage impedance Z
st
in p. u. measured in secondary with
tertiary short circuited and primary open
Measurement impedance impedance winding winding impedance
Measured Symbol short open in p.u
in winding circuited circuited
1. Primary Z
ps
Secondary Tertiary
2. Primary Z
pt
Tertiary Secondary
3. Secondary Z
st
Tertiary Primary

Z
p
= (Z
p s
+Z
pt
- Z
s t
)/2

Z
s
= (Z
p s
+Z
s t
- Z
pt
)/2

Z
t
= (Z
pt
+Z
st
- Z
p s
)/2
Where Z
p,
Z
s
and Z
t
are the

leakage impedances of the primary, secondary tertiary windings
referred to primary circuit as shown in the equivalent circuit of fig.2.6 (a).
After knowing the values of the leakage impedances for the primary, secondary and
tertiary, the zero sequence impedance networks can be established with out any
additional experimentation. If for the Y-Y- connection of the three phase three
winding transformer the neutrals are solidly grounded then the zero sequence
network is that given in fig.2.6 (b) .
For all the practical purposes the resistive parts of all impedances can be neglected
DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS :
Show detailed computations for obtaining the sequence impedances in p.u. through sample
calculations.
POST EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONS:
1. Do the positive and negative sequence impedances depending upon the transformer
connection?
2. Why is the magnetizing impedance not considered while determining sequence impedances?
3. Draw the zero sequence networks for the following transformer connections
(i) . / Y
( ii) / (iii) / (iv) Y/
(v) / (v)Y //
4. A transformer is Y/Y connected with neutrals grounded through Z
l
. Draw the zero sequence
networks .
5. For transformer with / connection, are the zero sequence impedances as viewed from
primary and secondary the same ?
6. Compare for different connections the zero sequence impedance values with those of positive
and negative sequence impedances ?
Draw the one line diagram for the zero sequence networks power systems given.

REFFERENCES :
1. Elements of power system analysis, William D.strevenson.
2. Electric energy systems theory an introduction, O.I. Elgerd, McGraw Hill.
3. Symmetrical components, Wagner and Evans.
4. Modern power system analysis, I.J.Nagarath and D.P.Kothari, Tata McGraw Hill.

Connection diagrams for the measurement of zeros sequence impedance
of three phase two winding transformer (Fig. 2.1 to Fig. 2.4).
I
O
3I
O
E
Fig. 2 (a)

A
E
I
O
I O
I
O
I=3I
O

Fig. 2.1

E
I=3I
O
I
O
I O
I
O

Fig. 2.2
E
I=3I
O
I
O
I O
I
O

Fig 2.3
E
I=3I
O
I
O
I O
I
O

Fig. 2.4
Open
Supply
T
P S
Fig. 2.5 THREE WINDING TRANSFORMER: +Ve & -Ve Seq. Impedance
Measurement
S.C. TEST-1: Excite P, Short S, Open T (Gives Z
PS
)
S.C. TEST-2: Excite P, Short T, Open S (Gives Z
PT
)
S
Open
S.C. TEST-3: Excite S, Short T, Open P (Gives Z
ST
)
Open
P
Supply
A
P
S
Short
T
A
P
Short
T
A
S
T
Short

Zs
Zt
Zp
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
P
S
T

Fig. 2.6 (b)

Experiment No. 3

i) IDMT CHARACTERISTICS OF AN OVERCURRENT RELAY

MOTIVATION:
Protective relays and relaying systems detect abnormal conditions like
faults in electrical circuits and operate automatic switchgear to isolate faulty equipment
from the system as quickly as possible. This limits the damage at the fault location and
prevents the effects of the fault spreading into the system. As a rule, short circuit
conditions in power systems are accompanied by large increase of the currents. The
protective relaying which responds to rises in current flowing through the protected
element over a predetermined value is called Over Current Protection and the relays
used for this purpose are known as over current relays. Earth fault protection can be
provided with normal over current relays if the minimum earth fault current is sufficient
in magnitude. The design of a comprehensive protection scheme in a power system
requires the detailed study of time-current characteristics of the various relays used in the
scheme. Thus, it is necessary to obtain the operating time-current characteristics of these
relays.

OBJECTIVE:
1. To obtain the IDMT characteristics of the Induction type over current relay
THEORY:
The over current relay works on the induction principle. The moving system
consists of an aluminum disc fixed on a vertical shaft and rotating on two jeweled
bearings, between the poles of an electromagnet and a damping magnet. The winding of
the electromagnet is provided with generally seven taps, which are brought on to the front
panel, and the required tap is selected by a push in type plug. The pick up current setting
can thus be varied by the use of such plug multiplier setting. The pick up current values
of earth fault relays are normally quite low.

The operating time of all over current relays tends to become asymptotic to a definite
minimum value with increase in the value of current. This is an inherent property of the
electromagnetic relays due to saturation of the magnetic circuit. By varying the point of
saturation, different characteristics can be obtained and these are:
1. Definite time
2. Inverse definite minimum time (IDMT)
3. very inverse
4. extremely inverse
The torque of these relays is proportional to
1 2 sin o
, where
1
and
2
are the two fluxes and
o
is the angle between them. Both fluxes are produced by the
same quantity in the case of single quantity relays (current or voltage operated). The
torque is proportional to I
2
(or V
2
) if the coil current is below saturation or KI
2
if the core
is made to saturate at a very early stage. The result is that, by increasing I, K decreases so
that the time of the operation remains the same over the working range. The time
characteristics so obtained is known as definite time characteristic.

If the core is made to saturate at a later stage, the characteristic obtained is known
as IDMT. The time-current characteristic is inverse over some range and after saturation
assumes the definite time form. In order to ensure selectivity, it is essential that the time
of operation of the relays should be dependent on the severity of the fault in such a way
that more severe the fault, the less is the time to operate, this being called the inverse time
characteristic. This will also ensure that a relay shall not operate under normal overload
conditions of short duration.

It is also essential that there shall be a definite minimum time of operation, which
can be adjusted to suit the requirements of the particular installation. At low values of
operating current the shape of the curve is determined by the effect of the restraining
force of the control spring, while at high values the effect of saturation predominates.
Different time settings can be obtained by moving a knurled clamping screw along a
calibrated scale graduated from 0.1 to 1.0 in steps of 0.05. This arrangement is called
time multiplier setting and will vary the travel of the disc required to close the contacts.
This will shift the time-current characteristic of the relay parallel to itself.

By delaying the saturation to a further point, the time current characteristics called
very-inverse and extremely-inverse can be obtained. In the laboratory, the operation of
the circuit breaker is simulated by a three phase contactor. The closure of the relay
contacts short-circuits the no volt coil of the contactor, which in turn disconnects the
faulty system.

PRE-EXPERIMENTAL QUIZ
1. What do you understand by (a) primary relay (b) secondary relay (c) auxiliary
relay?
2. What do you understand by (a) single quantity relays (b) double or more quantity
relays?
3. What are (a) direct acting (b) indirect acting relays?
4. What are the types of the over current and earth fault relays?
5. What is the purpose of shaded pole structure?
6. Can the earth fault and over current relays be actuated by both AC and DC?
7. What is meant by (a) pick up current (b) drop out current (c) drop out ratio
8. What sequence filter can be used for ground fault protection?
9. In systems with low ground fault current, is there a necessity to provide an earth
fault relay?
10. Where do you connect (a) over-current (b) earth fault relay in power system?
11. What is meant by (a) sensitivity (b) selectivity of a relay?

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT:

CDG 11 over-current relay, current transformer, 3 phase contactor, 1 phase load,
digital timer and ammeter.

PROCEDURE:

1. OVER-CURRENT RELAY
a. Study the construction of the relay and identify the various parts.
b. Connect as shown in the figure.
c. Set the pick up value of the current at 100% Full Load current by inserting
the plug in the groove.
d. Set the time multiplier setting initially at 1.0
the switch K. open the switch K to permit the adjusted current to flow
through the relay and record the time taken for this overload condition.
f. Vary the value f the load current in steps and record the time taken for the
operation of the relay in each case with the help of the timer.
g. Repeat the steps (e) and (f) for TMS values of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8
h. Repeat the above experiment with different pick up current values using
the plug setting bridge.

DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS
1. Plot operating time versus the multiples of plug setting value for different time
multiplier settings on the same graph for over current relay.
2. plot on a log-log sheet operating time versus the multiples of the plug setting
value for different time multiplier settings on the same graph sheet for the over
current relay. Plot the curves for earth fault relay as in (a) and (b)
3. observe the inverse nature of the characteristics as well as the definite minimum
time required for the operation of the relay in either case if possible.

POST EXPERIMENTAL QUIZ

a. When do you like to add a direction feature for over-current protection?
b. How can you make out whether the overcurrent or earh fault relay is sensitive to
direction?
c. Can the over current and earth fault relays be made to operate instantaneously and
how?
d. What do you understand by time and current grading of over current relays?
e. When do you use negative phase sequence filters?
f. Why is the relay disc normally not circular?
g. What are the equations of IDMT, very inverse and extremely inverse over-
current relay?

DATA SHEET

Type of the relay:

Pick up current (plug setting multiplier) = A

Serial
number
Current in
amperes
Current in
times the
plug setting
multiplier
Operating time in seconds for time multiplier
setting of
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

REFERENCES:

1. A.R. van C Warrington, Protective relays, their theory and Practice Volume I
and II, Chapman & Hall 1969
2. B. Ravindranath and M. Chander, Power System protection and switchgear,
Wiley Eastern Limited, 1976
3. V.A. Slabikov, Generation, protection and switchgear, Coimbatore Institute of
technology, Coimbatore, 1967
4. H> Cotton, The transmission and distribution of electrical energy, The FLBS
and The English university press, London, 1962
5. C.R Mason,The art and science of protective relays.

A
+
-
10 V
ACTUATOR
1
4
2 7
4
3
9 10
OVER CURRENT
RELAY
C.T.
5/5 Amp.

4
8
CONTACTOR
SINGLE PHASE
AUTO TRANSFORMER
RHEOSTAT
12 Ohm,12Amp
230 V
OVER CURRENT RELAY
EXPERIMENT NO. 4
PERCENTAGE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

MOTIVATION:

The principle of Unit protection systems was first established by Merz &
Price; their fundamental differential systems have formed the basis of many highly
developed protective arrangements for feeders, generators, transformers and bus bars.
The relays compare the currents entering & leaving the circuit element to be protected,
which should be the same under normal conditions and during an external fault. Any
difference current must be flowing into a fault within protected circuit. When this system
is applied to electrical equipment it is called differential current protection. When it is
applied to lines or cables it is called pilot differential protection, because pilot wires or an
equivalent link or channel is required to bring the current to the relay from the remote end
of the line. The study of construction and operating characteristics of a percentage
differential relay is extremely important.

OBJECTIVE:

(1) To study and determine the operating characteristics of a percentage differential relay
for 15% and 30% bias setting.
(2) Use the transformer differential relay for single phase transformer protection.
(3) Study the harmonic restrained feature of transformer differential protection.

THEORY:

The differential relay is one that operates when the vector difference of two
or more similar electrical quantities exceeds a predetermined value. This means for a
differential relay, it should have: (1) two or more similar electrical quantities, and (2)
these quantities should have phase displacement (Normally approx. 180
o
), for the
operation of the relay. The name is not due to a particular construction of the relay but is
due to the way in which the relay is connected in the circuit.

The simple differential protection scheme also known as Merz-Price
protection scheme assumes that the two CTs used were identical. But in practice it is not
true. The CTs of the type normally used do not transform their currents so accurately
under transient conditions especially. This is true because the short circuit current is
offset. i.e. it contains d.c. components. Suppose the two CTs under normal conditions
differ in their magnetic properties slightly in terms of different amounts of residual
magnetism or in terms of unequal burden on the two CTs, one of the CT will saturate
earlier during short circuit currents (offset current) and thus the two CTs will transform
their primary currents differentially even for a through fault condition. This effect is more
pronounced especially when the scheme is used for the protection of power transformers.
To accommodate these features, Merz-Price protection is modified by biasing the relay.
This is commonly known as biased differential protection or a percentage differential
protection and is shown in fig. 1.

The relay consists of an operating coil and a restraining coil. The operating coil is
connected to the mid-point of the restraining coil. The operating current is a variable
quantity because of the restraining coil. Normally, no current flows through the operating
coil under through fault conditions, but owing to the dissimilarities in CTs, the
differential current through the coil is ( i
1
- i
2
) and the equivalent current in the restraining
coil is ( i
1
+ i
2
)/2. The torque developed by the operating coil is proportional to the
ampere-turns. i.e.

T
o
(i
1
- i
2
) n
o

Where n
o
is the no. of turns in the operating coil. The torque due to restraining coil is:

T (i
1
+i
2
) n
r
/2

Where n
r
is the no.of turns in the restraining coil. At balance,

( i
1
- i
2
) n
o
= ( i
1
+ i
2
) n
r
/2

or

( i
1
- i
2
) n
r

_________ = _____
( i
1
+ i
2
)/2 n
o

The operating characteristic is shown in fig. 2. It is clear from the characteristic that
except for the affect of the control spring at low currents, the ratio of the differential
operating currents to the average restraining current is a fixed percentage. This is why it
is known as percentage differential relay.

PRE-EXPERIMENTAL QUIZ:

1. Differentiate between Merz-Price protection and percentage bias protection
schemes.
2. Why is a biased differential protection known as percentage bias protection
scheme?
3. Why is it claimed that current balance differential protection scheme is highly
dependable for the protection of electrical apparatus?
4. What problem can be caused due to non-identical characteristics of CTs?
5. Why is it necessary to provide percentage bias feature to differential relays?
6. What is the difference between transverse and longitudinal differential protection
schemes?

APPARATUS:

1. Ammeters 15A -- 2 nos.

2. Ammeter 5A -- 1 no.

3. Autotransformers -- 2 nos.

4. Rheostats 100 , 5A -- 2nos.

5. Current transformers -- 2 nos.

6. Percentage differential relay -- 1 no.

PROCEDURE:
(1) To study and determine the operating characteristics of a percentage differential
relay

Make the connections as shown in the Fig.4.1. To ascertain differential connections
of the CTs, the variacs are kept at minimum voltage position and the rheostats at the
maximum resistance position. The voltage of variac A is increased slightly so that there
is some current through the ammeter connected in the operating coil circuit. Now with
the increase in voltage of variac B if the current in the same ammeter starts decreasing,
the connections are proper i.e. differential, and if, the current increases, the connections
are cumulative & hence improper. Then any two terminals of one of the CTs should be
interchanged after switching off the power supply.

Once the polarities of the CTs for differential connections are ascertained,
variac A is selected as the operating variac and B as the resetting variac. Voltage of
variac A is increased till the relay operates which is indicated by the falling of the flag.
Note down the currents i
1
, i
2
and (i
1
i
2
). Repeat the procedure at least for 6 to 7
operating points.

In order to obtain the operating characteristics for a different bias setting,
the taps (three in case of English Electric Electromechanical relay) corresponding to the
desired setting are selected. The experiment is repeated as for the 1
st
setting. The
observations are tabulated in the following format.

(2) Transformer differential relay for single phase transformer protection.

i) Make connections as shown in Fig. 4.2
ii) Initially keep the switch (SW1) open. That means fault resistance is not connected.
iii) Slowly increase the voltage of variac. Relay will not operate.
iv) Now fault is simulated by adding a fault resistance (close SW1). The relay will trip
due to unbalanced current through CT1 and CT2.

(3) Harmonic restrained feature of transformer differential protection.

i) Make connections as per circuit diagram given in Fig. 4.3.
ii) Initially, keep the switch (SW2) open.
iii) Increase the current till the relay operates. Note down the current value.
iv) Close the switch (SW2).
v) Again, increase the current till the relay operates. Note down the current value.
The current at which relay operates now is more than the previous value because of
harmonic restrained feature of the relay.

DATA SHEET:

S.NO. i
1
i
2
i
1
i
2
(i
1
+i
2
)/2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Plot (i
1
i
2
) Vs (i
1
+i
2
)/2. The curves for the different tap settings must be
drawn on the same axis in order to have the relative idea of slopes or bias of the
characteristics.

The slopes of the two characteristics are calculated from the characteristics
drawn & the results should be compared with those of the bias selected on the relay.
Discrepancy, if any should be explained.

POST EXPERIMENTAL QUIZ:

1. Explain how the bias settings are adjusted in a relay. What changes are introduced
in the relay to obtain a particular setting?
2. What are the percentage biases usually provided for a (1) Generator (2)
Transformer and why?
3. Give some applications of percentage differential relay.
4. Draw a suitable diagram for differential protection of a delta star connected 3-
phase transformer.
5. Why is percentage bias setting for transformer differential protection is high as
compared to that for the percentage differential protection of a generator?
6. What do you understand by magnetizing inrush current of a transformer? How
would you prevent mal-operation of a percentage differential relay due to this
phenomenon?

i1 i2
i1-i2
i2 i1
i1

Fig. 4.1: Percentage Differential Protection

OPERATING
ZONE
i1-i2
(i1+i2)/2
NON-OPERATING
ZONE

5
DIFF.
RELAY
A A
A
30V
6
10
7 8
S1
S2
S1
S2 P2
P1 P1
P2
C.T. C.T.
Single
Phase
Variac
Single
Phase AC
Supply
Single
Phase AC
Supply
Single
Phase
Variac
Fig 4.2. Circuit for determination of relay characteristics

Single
Phase AC
Supply
CT 1 CT 2
P1 P2 P1 P2
S1 S2 S2 S1
Resistor
Fault
Resistor
1:1
Transformer
Fig 4.3. Circuit for single phase transformer protection
Single
Phase AC
Supply
A
A
DC
AC
7
10
RELAY

Fig 4.4. Circuit for demonstration of harmonic restraint feature

For a given IEEE 14 bus test system use Newton Raphson Load flow program to study
the following. Detailed procedure is given in additional sheets.

2. Line Over Load Alleviation using Generator Rescheduling

3. Reactive Rescheduling to Improve Voltage Profile

4. Line Over Load Alleviation using Series Compensation

5. Ferranti Effect

The loads in a power system are modeled as ZIP model or exponential model to
incorporate the load changes with system voltage (voltage dependent loads). Here we are
using ZIP model in which load modeling is done as

P
Li
= P
Loi *
(a
i
+b
i
V+c
i
V
2
).

Q
Li
= Q
Lo *
(c
i
+d
i
V+e
i
V
2
).

where P
Loi
and

Q
Loi

Where a, b, c and d, e, f are coefficients for constant power, constant current and constant
impendence components respectively.

BUS INJECTION MULTIPLIER ():

In order to incorporate change in loads/generations, load multiplier is used. The new
load at bus i is given by
P
Loi
= P
Loi
* (1+ )
Q
Loi
= Q
Loi
* (1+ )

and the corresponding change in power generated.
P
goi
=P
goi
* (1+ )

where P
Lo
, Q
Lo
, P
go

GENERATOR REPRESENTATION FOR PV BUS:

Real power generation and voltage magnitude are specified at a PV bus. The voltage at
such a bus can be maintained as long as reactive generations are within limits.

INPUT FILE:

User can create his/her own input file name it as per his/her wish. . The master data file is
(inputfile.m) and none of the students should alter this file. The input file has following
data

Bus data: Bus name/Bus no., status of bus(whether PV=1,PQ=2 or slack=0), initial
voltage magnitude, nominal voltage, initial angle, total power generation(P
g
+ jQ
g
), total
power demand(P
d
+ jQ
d
), Qmax, Qmin (reactive power limits),bus shunt (mho),a, b, c
(ZIP coefficients). For load bus initial voltage and angle can be taken as flat start 1 p.u. at
an angle 0 degrees. Real and reactive loads are the nominal values.
[Always a+b+c=1 and d+e+f=1] condition should be satisfied.

Linedata: starting bus name/bus no., ending bus name/bus no., line impedance(R + jX),
half line charging impedance (B/2*j), tap ratio (real tap+ imaginary tap*j].

SYSTEM STUDIES:

For performing system studies copy master input file to your own file in which you will
be making changes for different system studies. Do not alter master file under any
circumstances.
The executable file is NRLF
During execution of program you will be asked to specify load multiplier . Zero value
for indicates base case load/generations as given in data file.
Following are the hints for doing the system studies.
First take a printout of base LF input (only once) and output file (=0). This will be
useful in other studies.

This study should be done in the following stages.

Stage1: Consider only constant P, Q type of load, selecting load model appropriately.
Keep reactive limits Qmax, Qmin very high (say +100 and -100). Run LF with different
generally the approximate loadability limit given by maximum power theorem for the
network. Note down
critical
. (1+
critical
) is the actual scaling of base case load.

Stage 2: With reactive limits still same as in stage1, observe the effect of voltage
approximately. In this case is a load unit multiplier and not load power multiplier. You
can see that
critical
is higher then that in stage1.

Stage3: Again consider only constant P, Q type of load and have normal limits as given
in master data file. As you increase during the study for loadability limit determination,
you will see
critical
to be much lower than that in stage1.

Note: Use Constant PQ loads and very high Q limits in all the remaining studies.

LINE OVER LOAD ALLEVIATION USING GENERATION RESCHEDULING:

Study the line flow in the base case LF results. Identify one of the lines with
relatively heavy flow as overloaded by arbitrarily choosing its limit to be 0.9 to 0.95
times base case flow. The objective is now to reschedule real power generations at all
PV buses to alleviate this overload. (please note that in spite of the fact that out of total 4
PV buses only one has real generation in original data file, others being synchronous
condenser buses we consider all such buses to have real power generation capability for
this study). First obtain sensitivity of these generator buses to the flow on the line
designated as over loaded. This is done by running repeated load flows with each
generation perturbed by a few percentage (say .02 p u), one at time and observing the
change in line flow. The ratio of flow change to the generation change is the desired
sensitivity. Rank them in order of sensitivity. Normally an optimal power flow utilizes
this information to provide new generation schedule to achieve the objective. A crude
way is as follows:

Staring from top ranked generator, vary its generations to remove the overload.
The generation change limit being +/-0.1p.u. If this generator change cant completely
alleviate overload, try next generation in order of ranking. Simple a priori calculation
using sensitivity information will tell us how much approximate change and at how
generators will be required to achieve the objective. Take a final printout of the output
file reflecting these results.

LINE OVERLOAD ALLEVIATION USING SERIES COMPENSATION:

Series capacitive compensation is used to increase the loadability limit of a
transmission line. For a given loading and topology any such change causes re-routing of
power flows in the system. Following the procedure similar to that in line overload
alleviation using generation rescheduling, we can identify the line and amount of
compensation required to achieve the objective with minimum cost. Take a final printout
of output file.

VOLTAGE CONTROL:

Keep Q limits very high for this exercise). Study the bus voltages in output file (take
printout). Identify the lowest bus voltage as violating the minimum limit, say 1.0 p. u.
There could be more than one bus with voltages less than 1.0 p. u. however; we focus
only on worst bus voltage.
Voltages can be controlled by P-V bus voltage setting, transformer tapes and bus
shunts. In this exercise we will consider only P-V voltage settings as controls. The
sensitivities of load bus voltages to P-V bus controls are obtained using perturbation
technique similar in order of their sensitivities. Staring from the top ranked control see
how the designated bus voltages can be brought within limits (how many controls and
how much change). Assume maximum limit of P-V bus voltage to be 1.1 p. u. (workout
control margin available accordingly). Take a printout showing how the objective is
fulfilled.

FEERRANTY EFFECT:

By making negative (-1 to 0) in a load flow run, we can set up a light load
condition case. You can observe from output file load bus voltages can be higher than P-
V bus and slack bus voltages. Another indication of Ferranti effect is the reactive power
absorption by the synchronous machines. Take a final printout of output file.