Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3


Create data on perceptions, attitudes, behaviors that cannot be seen
Collect data fast from large number of people in many different locations saves time and cost!
Standardi"es responses
Easy to analy"e
Sub'ect to respondent bias intrusion into personal life, protect a program, recent e(perience
may color perceptions, selective memory!
%ay not probe the depth or breadth of possible responses limits topics of responses!
%ay not be able to generali"e if sample not selected properly or if too many non)responses
No chance to clarify* if not as+ed properly, could get invalid,unusable responses
Simple e(ample of a fla-ed open)ended .uestion* /0o- did you get to -or+ today12
The respondent could describe the mode of transportation /$ came by car2!, the route
ta+en /$ came up %ain St3 and over on 4acific Ave32!, or -ho -as involved /$ rode -ith
David and %ary2!3
To counter these limitations*
Ensure confidentiality or have a 5
party administer survey
Ta+e time to learn range of possible responses
Carefully thin+ through constructs
6rite clear and unambiguous items
7se clear language
Avoid 'argon, abbreviations, and double)barreled .uestions
Don8t ma+e it too long
4retest the survey first to see if the survey /-or+s2 as e(pected
Administer at the right time
S$9 $DEAS T& %A9$%$:E S7;VE< ;ES4&NSES
Send advance notice
Say ho- results -ill be used
Get endorsement from others
4rovide incentives
Not having the survey be too much of a burden length, cognitive load, logical flo-!
=ollo-)up by letter, phone, or email as a reminder
>eep in mind ho- you are going to use the results and remember the trade)off bet-een length and
response rate
Try to get a ?@A response rate, determine if non)responders are similar to responders
B3 7sed e(tensively in case studies and -hen developing pre)tests
C3 Can range from very structured to fle(ible,e(ploratory
53 7se to supplement other data collection methods observation, surveys, document revie-!
D3 ;ecord if possible and permission is granted
$f not recording*
- 0ave more than one person there and share notes
- 6rite up notes soon after-ard -ithin DE hours!
- $f applicable, send person your -rite)up to verify its accuracy
F3 Types of Guestions
$nvestigative H straight)for-ard in.uiry to obtain information
opinions, beliefs, facts, attitudes, behaviors, perceptions!
0ypothetical H -hat if
Devil8s Advocate H challenge -ith opposing vie-
$deal 4osition H describe the ideal situation
$nterpretive H active listening -hat $ hear you say is I!
J3 $ntervie-ing 0ints
6or+ around their schedule and location
#et them +no- the topics that -ill be covered so they can be prepared
#et them +no- about ho- long it -ill ta+e courtesy!
Can let them +no- the specific .uestions if they are real busy they may provide -ritten
Establish rapport, be neutral
&rder of .uestions
- Grouped in logical se.uence
- Transition from one topic to another
- Go from the general to the specific and from easy to hard
- 0ave prompts to get them to focus on the type of thing you are loo+ing for
Ta+e notes, use a guide -ith spaces to fill in ans-ers as you go even if recording!
Analy"e as you go thin+ about completeness and need to pursue further, be ready to follo-)up
if something ne- and note-orthy is mentioned, stay on tas+, don8t -rite do-n everything!
7se probes and reinforcers e3g3, silence, as+ing for more details or clarification, uh-huh,
Don8t press too hard or too fastH it8s not an interrogation
As+ to contact them in the future if needed to clarify ans-ers and get more info if time has run
out! H you may encounter conflicting vie-s or data that need to be reconciled
- #eading,biased .uestions
- #ong .uestions
- ;hetorical .uestions and statements about your beliefs
- As+ing multiple .uestions -ithout giving the person a chance to respond to each one
- <es,No .uestions
- 7sing 'argon or difficult terms if they might be unfamiliar to those being intervie-ed
Focus Groups
Small group of people J)B@! discussing a particular topic -ith aid of non)threatening moderator
Cost)effective intervie- techni.ue to dra- out vie-s and attitudes and determine strength of vie-s
7seful to develop list of ideas for further investigation in planning stage
7sed e(tensively in mar+et research H uses group dynamics to reduce inhibitions and help clarify
vie-s H can observe non)verbals
Not meant to achieve consensus or develop a plan,course of action but does generate ideas!
;e.uires a good cross)section of participants
7ses primarily open)ended .uestions
A successful moderator I
4rovides introduction,purpose and e(plains ground rules,guiding principals
e3g3, no right ans-ers, agreement is not the goal, timeframe, roles, confidentiality of
responses, recording comments, etc3!
4uts individuals at ease
Ensures all have the opportunity to be heard and nobody dominates
>eeps the group on tas+
An assistant moderator ta+es care of logistics e3g3, tapes for recorder, name tags, dealing -ith
late)comers!, ta+es notes including non)verbals! in case recorder has problems, helps analy"e data