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2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.

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Brands & Branding
Syma Ahmed
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
A Brand at Its Most Basic Level
A name or some symbol or mark that is
associated with a product or service and to
which buyers attach psychological meanings
(Tybout & Carpenter)
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
"A brand is a storehouse of trust that matters
more and more as choices multiply. People want
to simplify their lives."
- Niall Fitzgerald
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
What is a brand?
A distinctive name, logo, design, or symbol that
identifies the goods, services, institution, or idea
sold by a marketer and differentiates it from other
products (AMA)
Product vs. Brand
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Important Concepts
Branding
Product Brand
Brand Equity
Differential effect that brand knowledge has on
consumer response to the marketing of the brand
Brand Management
Build, measure, manage brand equity
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Top Global Brands of 2009
Ranking Brand Value (billions)
1 $68.7
2 $60.2
3 $56.6
4 $47.7
5 $34.8
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Why are brands important?
Consumer
Risk reducer
Search cost reducer
Promise with maker/producer
Symbolic device
Firm
Source of competitive advantage
Source of higher financial returns
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Strategic Origins of Brand Expressions
Essence
Vision
Persona
Value Proposition
Proof Points
Positioning
Brand Essence: The brands
core reason-for-being; its DNA; its
heart and soul
Brand Vision: What the brand hopes
to become
Brand Persona: (Character) The
brands human-like traits
Brand Value Proposition: The value
delivered that justifies its price
Brand Positioning: What the brand
promises (benefits), in the mind of
the customer, relative to
competition
Proof Points: Reasons to believe
promise
Less
likely to
evolve
More
likely to
evolve
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Creating Brand Meaning

Positioning
The act of designing the companys offer and image so that it
occupies a distinct and valued place in the target consumers mind

Prerequisites for Positioning:


1. Target Market
2. Competitors
3. Points of Parity (POP)
4. Points of Differentiation (POD)
Competitive Frame
of Reference
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Determining the Positioning Strategy
Identify the competitors
Determine how the competitors are perceived
/ evaluated
List of product associations
Determine the competitors positions
Multi - dimensional scaling & Perceptual map
Analyze the consumer
Motivations, habits, Behavior patterns
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Perceptual map of retail banks
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Perceptual Map of Car Market
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Positioning Strategies
Aakers six approaches to positioning strategy
include positioning by:
1. Attribute
2. Price-quality
3. Use or applications
4. Product-user
5. The product class
6. The competitor
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Determining the Positioning Strategy
Making the positioning decision
Commit to a segment
Dont try to be something youre not
Dont change for the sake of it
Economic analysis
Monitor
Objective measures
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
CREATING DIFFERENTIATION IN THE
PERSONAL CARE INDUSTRY
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Dove Real Beauty Campaign
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
BRAND PERSONALITY
The big five
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Sincerity Excitement Competence Sophistication Ruggedness
Down-to-earth Daring Reliable Upper-class Outdoorsy
Honest Spirited Intelligent Charming Tough
Wholesome Imaginative Successful Glamorous Masculine
Cheerful Up-to-date Secure Good looking
Corporate Smooth
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Keeping a Brand Relevant
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Using an Icon to Update a Brand
Portraits
of Betty
Crocker
Source: General Mills
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Year Slogan
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Managing Brand Equity
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Branding
Means to distinguish the goods of one
producer from those of another since long
Not only a sign added to products to
differentiate them from competing products
A product is a physical entity made in the
factory, whereas, a brand is a physiological
entity made in our minds the function of
which is to constantly produce meaning and
values
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
BRAND EQUITY MEASURES
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Aaker Keller Y&R Equitrend Interbrand
Associations
x x
Awareness
X x
Differentiation
X x
Distribution coverage
X
Leadership
X xx
Market share
X
Market trend
x
Marketing support
x
Perceived quality
X x Xx
Perceived value
X
Personality
X x
Price premium
Xx
Relevance
x
User satisfaction/loyalty
X x xx
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Some Important Concepts
Term What is this?
Brand awareness
The ability for a buyer to recognize or recall that a brand
is a member of a certain product category
Brand associations
Anything linked in memory to a brand
Brand equity
The added value a brand name brings to a product or
service besides the functional benefits
Brand loyalty
Tendency to be loyal to a brand, which is demonstrated
by the intention to buy the brand as a primary choice
Perceived quality
The consumers (subjective) judgment about a products
overall excellence and superiority
WoM communication
Oral, person-to-person communication between a
perceived non-commercial communicator and a receiver
regarding a brand, a product, or a service
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
CASE STUDY
Search Engines vs Portable Digital Media Players
Purpose Brands: Apple iPod & Google
Generic Brands: MSN Search, Excite, Creative Zen, Samsung Yepp
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Samsung
Yepp
Creative
Zen
Apple iPod Excite MSN
Search
Google
BID
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
M
e
a
n

P
Q
Portable Digital Media
Player
Search Engine
BT
Perceived Quality across Product Categories
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Brand Loyalty across Product Categories
Samsung
Yepp
Creative
Zen
Apple iPod Excite MSN
Search
Google
BID
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
M
e
a
n

B
L
Portable Digital Media
Player
Search Engine
BT
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Brand Awareness/Associations across Product
Categories
Samsung
Yepp
Creative
Zen
Apple iPod Excite MSN
Search
Google
BID
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
M
e
a
n

B
A
A
Portable Digital Media
Player
Search Engine
BT
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Purchase Intention
Samsung
Yepp
Creative
Zen
Apple iPod Excite MSN
Search
Google
BID
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
M
e
a
n

P
I
Portable Digital Media
Player
Search Engine
BT
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Product Category Involvement
Samsung
Yepp
Creative
Zen
Apple iPod Excite MSN
Search
Google
BID
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
M
e
a
n

P
C
I
Portable Digital Media
Player
Search Engine
BT
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Attitude towards Brand
Samsung
Yepp
Creative
Zen
Apple iPod Excite MSN
Search
Google
BID
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
M
e
a
n

A
T
T
Portable Digital Media
Player
Search Engine
BT
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Brand Experience
Experience happens when consumers
Search for products
Shop for products and receive service
Consume the products
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
This brand makes a strong impression on my senses Sensory
This brand is interesting in a sensory way
This brand does NOT appeal to my senses
This brand induces feelings and sentiments Affective
I do NOT have strong emotions for this brand
This brand is an emotional brand
I engage in physical actions when I use this brand Behavioral
This brand results in bodily experiences
This brand is NOT action oriented
I engage in a lot of thinking when i encounter this brand Intellectual
This brand does NOT make me think
This brand stimulates my curiosity & problem solving
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Sensory
Affective
Intellectual
Behavioral
Sophistication Competence Excitement Sincerity Ruggedness
Brand
Experience
Brand
Personality
Satisfaction Loyalty
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Brand Personality Dimensions
Sincerity
down-to-earth, honest, wholesome, cheerful
e.g. Hallmark cards
Excitement
daring, spirited, imaginative, up-to-date
e.g. Apple, MTV channel
Competence
reliable, intelligent, successful
e.g. IBM, The Wall Street Journal
Sophistication
upper-class, charming
e.g. Lexus, Guess Jeans
Ruggedness
outdoorsy, tough
e.g. Marlboro, Levis
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Ten Attributes shared by the Worlds
Strongest Brands
1. The brand excels at delivering the benefits that
customers truly desire
2. The brand stays relevant
3. The pricing strategy is based on consumers
perceptions of value
4. The brand is properly positioned
5. The brand is consistent
6. The brand portfolio and hierarchy makes sense
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Ten Attributes shared by the Worlds
Strongest Brands
7. The brand makes use of and coordinates a
full repertoire of marketing activities to build
equity
8. The brands managers understand what the
brand means to consumers
9. The brand is given proper support, and that
support is sustained over the long run
10.The company monitors sources of brand
equity
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
Consumers on Strong Brands
Most Frequently Mentioned Strong
Brands (In Order)
Consumer Verbatim: What Strong Brands
Mean?
Apple
Coca-Cola
Microsoft
GE
AT&T
Sony
Target
Verizon
Nike
Toyota
Google
Johnson & Johnson
Starbucks
American Express
Disney
Taint-free reputation
Instantly recognizable
Cares about its reputation and consumers
Products to back up the image
Goes beyond the product
Delivers what it promises
Innovative, creative, user-friendly, stylish
Clear identity & focus focused on doing
one or two things very well Excellent
design
Consistency at every interaction, either
in-store, online, or advertising
Satisfactory experience reinforced by
advertising
Unified business model expressed through
advertising, product placement, and
product design
2013 Syma Ahmed syma@obscureux.com
DISCUSSION