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org 19/08/2013
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Introduction to enthalpy
N Goalby
Chemrevise.org
Enthalpy
Enthalpy (symbol H) is the name used for chemical energy.
In most reactions an enthalpy change occurs (symbol H)
If an enthalpy change occurs then energy is transferred
between system system system systemand surroundings . surroundings . surroundings . surroundings . The system is the
chemicals and the surroundings is everything outside
the chemicals.
Definition Definition Definition Definition
Enthalpy change is the amount of heat energy taken in or
given out during any change in a system provided the
pressure is constant
Energy is the ability of a system to do work
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Energy Level Diagrams
Exothermic reactions
energy
course of reaction
reactants
products
energy given out
H is negative
Energy Levels
Exothermic reactions
In an exothermic change energy is transferred
from the system (chemicals) to the
surroundings.

The products have less energy than the


reactants
Combustion and neutralisation are exothermic
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Energy Level Diagrams
Endothermic reactions
energy
course of reaction
energy taken in
H is positive reactants
products
Energy Level Diagrams
Endothermic reactions
Energy is taken in
The products have
more energy than the
reactants
The energy is taken in from the surroundings
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Summary Table
Exothermic
reactions
Endothermic
reactions
Energy is given out to
the surroundings
Energy is taken in from the
surroundings
H is negative H is positive
Products have less
energy than reactants
Products have more
energy than reactants
Definitions of enthalpy change
Enthalpy changes are normally quoted at standard
conditions.
Standard conditions are :
100kPa pressure
298 K (room temperature or 25
o
C)
Solutions at 1mol dm
-3
all substances should have their normal state at 298K
When an enthalpy change is measured at
standard conditions the symbol is used
Eg H
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Standard enthalpy change of formation
The standard enthalpy change of formation of a compound is
the energy transferred when 1 mole of the compound is
formed from its elements under standard conditions (298K
and 100kPa ), all reactants and products being in their
standard states
Symbol H
f
Equations representing enthalpy change of
formation
Mg (s) + Cl
2
(g) MgCl
2
(s)
2Fe (s) + 1.5 O
2
(g) Fe
2
O
3
(s)
Standard enthalpy change of Combustion
The standard enthalpy of combustion of a substance is
defined as the enthalpy change that occurs when one mole
of a substance is combusted completely under standard
conditions. (298K and 100kPa), all reactants and products
being in their standard states
Symbol H
c
CH
4
(g) + 2O
2
(g)CO
2
(g) + 2 H
2
O (l)
Incomplete combustion will lead to soot (carbon), carbon
monoxide and water. It will be less exothermic than
complete combustion.
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Is this reaction a H
c
or H
f
?
C+ O
2
CO
2
It is the Hc of C and the Hf of CO
2
H
2
+ O
2
H
2
O
It is the Hc of H
2
and the Hf of H
2
O
You need to be aware these are the same as there are
times when they are used to confuse