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- SkilMaria and Elena are preparing for a party. Maria realizes she forgot to fill the ice cube trays in order to have ice for the punch. Elena says that she remembers reading somewhere that hot water freezes faster than cold water. Maria is skeptical. She learned in her physics class that the hotter the liquid, the faster the molecules are moving. Since hot water molecules have to slow down more than cold water molecules to become ice, Maria thinks that it will take hot water longer to freeze than cold water. The girls decide to conduct a scientific experiment to determine whether it is faster to make ice cubes with hot water or cold water.l and Practice
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This unit introduces some of the most basic concepts in mechanics. The pupils will, by this stage in the course, be used to dealing with the idea of force but here for the

first time its exact definition is presented. Acceleration is a quantity which pupils will struggle with, even though they might well have some intuitive conception of what it

means. A failure fully to understand it is often betrayed by an inability to deduce or even consistently to use its correct unit. Similarly terminal velocity is a term which

many pupils will believe they are acquainted with but which few will fully understand at first. Be wary.

Context

The ideas here fit in neatly with those of energy but there is not a huge amount of overlap and, as long as the term force has been taken on trust at an early stage, the

proper definition can wait until here with few disadvantages. It need hardly be said that these quantities and concepts form the basis of many types of engineering and

yet again this branch of the subject is economically and socially very important indeed.

Outline

The unit begins by distinguishing between scalar and vector quantities and it teaches pupils to combine vectors. Kinematics and the definition of acceleration are dealt

with by introducing the appropriate graphs. An understanding of the phenomenon of air resistance enables pupils to tackle terminal velocity. The importance of the idea

of resistive forces, such as friction, should not be overlooked as it explains why things behave so differently from what a simple interpretation of Newtons Laws might

lead one to expect. Newtons Second and Third Laws of Motion are covered in this unit and the Newton is properly defined. The unit concludes with the phenomenon of

motion in a circle and the need for a centripetally directed force to enable it to happen.

Learning Outcomes Suggested Teaching Activities Online Resources Other resources

1(a) Define the terms scalar and

vector.

Explain that forces cause movement (acceleration) and

that an object can only move one way even when several

forces act and so several forces must be the equivalent of

one total force.

Consider two forces cancelling and then opposite forces

producing a non-zero, resultant force.

Forces are not the only quantities which behave like this;

any quantity which has direction is a vector: displacement,

velocity, acceleration and force.

Scalars and vectors:

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/

gbssci/phys/Class/1DKin/U1L1

b.html

or:

http://www.physicsclassroom.c

om/Class/1DKin/U1L1b.html

Emphasise that any

quantity which makes

sense when followed by

a direction word is a

vector. Both a force of

3.0 N upwards and a

displacement of 0.45 m

west make sense; but

a mass of 1.8 kg

sideways does not.

Simple experiments

using forces tables or

weights hung from

strings can verify the

rule. Use Newton

meters. Use scale

drawings for velocities

and displacements.

1

Learning Outcomes Suggested Teaching Activities Online Resources Other resources

1(b) Determine the resultant of

two vectors by a graphical

method.

Consider two forces which are perpendicular and add

them graphically. Introduce the parallelogram rule and the

triangle of forces.

Vector addition:

http://www.physchem.co.za/Ve

ctors/Addition.htm

1(c) List the vectors and scalars

from distance, displacement,

length, speed, velocity, time,

acceleration, mass and force.

The distinctions between distance and displacement or

between speed and velocity are arbitrary conventions in

physics which have to be learnt.

They are conveniently illustrated by estimating them for a

racing car travelling at uniform speed at various points

around a racing track especially after a whole number of

laps.

2(e)1 Plot and interpret distance-

time graphs.

Consider the distance-time graph and take its gradient.

2(e)2 Plot and interpret speed-time

graphs.

Pupils often find rates of anything difficult. Plot graphs of

pupils height time or volume of water in bath time or

any quantity with a single unit time.

Talk about metres/year, litres/minute or

somethings/second. With a flying start, measure the time

for a pupil to run or bicycle 10 m, 20 m, 30 m etc. and plot

distance time graphs.

Consider a motorbike moving away from the traffic lights,

its velocity is increasing. The rate will be measured in

(m/s)/s. Consider numerical values. Calculate a.

Acceleration:

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/

gbssci/phys/Class/1DKin/U1L1

e.html

or

http://library.thinkquest.org/10

796/ch3/ch3.htm

Introduce the unit m/s

and consider objects

falling from cliffs; notice

that they travel further

in each subsequent

second. Use 10 m/s to

calculate the velocities

and displacements for

falling objects.

2(c) State what is meant by

uniform acceleration and

calculate the value of an

acceleration using change in

velocity/time taken.

Calculate the gradient of a speed-time graph. Consider

the distance-time graph of an accelerating body.

Run across the classroom accelerating from rest. Then

decelerate.

For a uniformly

accelerating object the

average velocity =

(u+v)/2.

2(h) State that the acceleration of

free-fall for a body near the

Earth is constant and is

approximately 10 m/s.

Freefall:

http://solomon.physics.sc.edu/

~tedeschi/demo/demo3.html

or

2

Learning Outcomes Suggested Teaching Activities Online Resources Other resources

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/

gbssci/phys/Class/newtlaws/u

2l3e.html

2(e)3 Plot and interpret distance-

time graphs.

Speed-time graphs:

http://www.physicsclassroom.c

om/Class/1DKin/U1L3a.html

or:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/

gcsebitesize/physics/forces/sp

eedvelocityaccelerationfhrev2.

shtml

2(i) Describe qualitatively the

motion of bodies with

constant weight falling with

and without air resistance

(including reference to

terminal velocity).

An object reaching terminal velocity is a good example to

consider.

Emphasise the distinction between a decreasing

acceleration and a deceleration (negative acceleration).

Consider the motion of a falling parachutist. Set up a tube

containing a viscous liquid and drop ball-bearings into it.

Or consider a rocket which accelerates at an increasing

rate as its mass decreases (F = ma is dealt with later).

Consider the speed-time graph in both cases.

Terminal velocity:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/

gcsebitesize/physics/forces/fall

ingobjectsrev2.shtml

2(d) Discuss non-uniform

acceleration.

Non-uniformacceleration:

http://homepage.mac.com/cba

kken/weblabs/nonuniform.html

2(f) Recognise from the shape of

a speed-time graph when a

body is

(1) at rest,

(2) moving with uniform

speed,

(3) moving with uniform

acceleration,

(4) moving with non-uniform

Make sure that distance-time and speed-time graphs and

their gradients are understood.

Set up a large

pendulum (l ~3 m) and

observe its motion; try

to plot an approximate

speed-time graph.

3

Learning Outcomes Suggested Teaching Activities Online Resources Other resources

acceleration.

2(g) Calculate the area under a

speed-time graph to

determine the distance

travelled for motion with

uniform speed or uniform

acceleration.

Pupils will probably be able to use the formula x = vt in

ordinary situations when travelling for 3 h at 5 km/h one

moves 15 km. Use these ideas in the case of a speed-time

graph for a body moving at constant speed.

Emphasise that area does not mean cm of graph paper

but area according to the two axes. This has unit of m/s

s: m.

Area under the graph:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/

education/bitesize/standard/ph

ysics/forces_and_motion/spee

d-time_graphs_rev3.shtml

3(a) State Newtons third law. Emphasise that forces only ever occur in pairs; single

forces never exist. The horse pulls the cart, the cart

restrains the horse.

Suspend a hook from a support or the ceiling by friction

alone. Suspend a weight from the hook. Gradually

increase the weight supported.

As the hook exerts a larger force on the weight, the weight

exerts a larger force on the hook which is eventually

pulled from its support.

Get two pupils to lean against each other back to back at

an angle. As A supports B, so B supports A. Stand a pupil

on a set of scales. As the weight pushes down on the

scales and is recorded, so the scales push upwards on

the pupil, who does fall to the floor but stays a few

centimetres (the thickness of the scales) above it.

The third law:

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/

gbssci/phys/Class/newtlaws/u

2l4a.html

or:

http://www.physchem.co.za/M

otion/Third%20Law.htm

Emphasise that two

third law forces never

act on the same body.

The forces are always

of the form: the force on

A due to B and the

force on B due to A:

B

F

A

= -

A

F

B

Two forces acting on

the same body may

well be equal in size,

opposite in direction

and of the same nature,

but they cannot be a

third law pair.

3(c) Describe the ways in which a

force may change the motion

of a body.

A body experiencing no resultant force will have zero

acceleration (constant velocity, but not necessarily zero

velocity).

Consider: ice-hockey pucks, snooker balls, maglev trains,

hovercraft and space-craft. The Voyager probes are still

travelling in straight lines at huge velocities long after their

engines stopped working.

Friction free motion:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/s

cienceclips/ages/8_9/friction.s

html

or:

http://www.fearofphysics.com/

Friction/friction.html

Examples of zero

resultant force acting

on a stationary body

are numerous.

The School resting on

its foundations, a book

resting on a table, an

exhausted athlete lying

on a trampoline (here

4

Learning Outcomes Suggested Teaching Activities Online Resources Other resources

the stretching of the

support can be noticed;

in the other two cases it

is too small to observe).

3(b) Describe the effect of

balanced and unbalanced

forces on a body.

Get the pupils to contribute as many appropriate words as

possible: speeding up, slowing down, stopping, changing

direction, reversing, swerving, lifting and so on.

3(d) Do calculations using the

equation force = mass x

acceleration.

Show that acceleration is the consequence of a resultant

force. Pull a trolley along a track using a falling weight and

a pulley.

If possible use tickertape timers, (or dataloggers) and

trolleys to show: a F and a 1/m. So F = kma but that

in SI k =1; this defines the Newton.

F =ma:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/

gcsebitesize/physics/forces/fe

qmahrev2.shtml

3(e) Explain the effects of friction

on the motion of a body.

Emphasise that the consequence of a constant, resultant

force is a constant acceleration not a constant velocity.

Stopping distances:

http://www.sdt.com.au/STOPP

INGDISTANCE.htm

3(f) Discuss the effects of friction

on the motion of a vehicle in

the context of tyre surface,

road conditions (including

skidding), braking force,

braking distance, thinking

distance and stopping

distance.

Emphasise that when cars, trains and aeroplanes are

travelling at constant velocity, the tractive force is used to

cancel frictional forces.

Consider the effect of reducing or increasing friction

between the road and vehicle: oil spills and ice on roads

or gravelled escape lanes for lorries on steep hills.

Consider the effect of reduced visibility (night, fog, rain) or

the drivers condition (intoxication, tiredness, lack of

concentration).

3(g) Describe qualitatively motion

in a circular path due to a

constant perpendicular force,

including electrostatic forces

on an electron in an atom and

gravitational forces on a

Pass a thin piece of string (~50 cm) through a narrow

length of glass tubing. Attach an object (small ball) to one

end of the string and a laboratory weight to the other end.

Hold the tube and set the object moving in a circle; a

balance is reached when the weight supplies the correct

tension in the string to keep the object moving in a circle.

Centripetal motion:

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/

gbssci/phys/mmedia/circmot/cf

.html

Relate these ideas to

the force needed to

keep a moving electron

in a circular orbit or a

moving satellite in orbit

around the Earth. The

5

Learning Outcomes Suggested Teaching Activities Online Resources Other resources

satellite (F = mv/r is not

required).

Cut the string and observe the object fly off in a tangential

direction. Make sure that the object moves in a safe

direction and that no one is injured.

A force is needed for circular motion and when it is

removed, the object reverts to straight line motion with

constant velocity. Consider a motorbike travelling around

a curve hitting a patch of spilled oil.

The removal of friction allows the motorbike to carry on in

a straight line and to hit the outside of the curve. Consider:

a spin-drier, a bucket of water rotated in a vertical circle,

holding on to a roundabout or throwing the hammer in

athletics.

word centripetal if

used at all must be

used as a direction

word (just like

downwards).

Gravitational and

electrostatic attractions

are forces of physics

which in these cases

act in a centripetal

direction.

3(h) Discuss how ideas of circular

motion are related to the

motion of the planets in the

solar system.

Electrons:

http://www.colorado.edu/physi

cs/2000/waves_particles/wavp

art2.html

6

- SkilMaria and Elena are preparing for a party. Maria realizes she forgot to fill the ice cube trays in order to have ice for the punch. Elena says that she remembers reading somewhere that hot water freezes faster than cold water. Maria is skeptical. She learned in her physics class that the hotter the liquid, the faster the molecules are moving. Since hot water molecules have to slow down more than cold water molecules to become ice, Maria thinks that it will take hot water longer to freeze than cold water. The girls decide to conduct a scientific experiment to determine whether it is faster to make ice cubes with hot water or cold water.l and PracticeHochgeladen vonBryant Ville
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