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Islam Test Review Answer Key

Islam Overview:
1. True or False: Islam is the worlds 2nd largest religion.
2. What is the difference between the term Islam and the term Muslim?
Islam is the term pertaining to the traditions and norms of the religion. It literally means obedience or
submission to Gods will. A Muslim is a person within the community itself. Muslim means one who follows
the will of God.
3. What two countries in the world today have the largest number of Muslims?
The two countries with the largest population of Muslims are Indonesia and Pakistan.
4. True or False: The majority of the Islamic world are not Arabs although a majority of Arabs
are Muslim.
5. True or False. Not all Arabs are Muslims.
6. What is the symbol for Islam?
The symbol for Islam is the crescent moon with a star located at the cusp of the crescent.
Pre-Islamic Arabia:
1. What is Ibrahims (Abraham) role in the lineage of people of Arabic descent?
Arabs regard Ibrahim (Abraham in Judaism) as the patriarch of the Arab people. They trace this lineage through
Ismael in the same way the Jew trace their lineage through Isaac.
2. What is the stream of Zem Zem and how does Hagar and Ismael connect to it?
Zem Zem is the stream which sprung from beneath the feet of Ismael after his mother, Hagar, frantically ran
between two hills searching for water. The name Zem Zem comes from the words that Hagar spoke as she
desperately sought to capture the water for her son. She cried, Zem Zem or stop stop to the water until she
realized that the waters would ow ceaselessly as a sign of Gods compassion.
3. Why did Ibrahim build the Kaaba in Mecca after being tested with the ordeal of the binding of Ismael?
Ibrahim built th Kaaba as a testament to Gods mercy and love after the life of Ismael was spared.
4. How was poetry given a signicant place of honor in ancient Arabic society?
Poetry has long been a tradition with Arab culture. Not written poetry as much a verbalized oral tradition
poetry. Each year a champion was chosen from amongst the various tribes of the Arabian peninsula.
5. What role did tribal afliations and vendetta have in shaping the life of an individual living in pre-Islamic
Arabic culture?
Tribal afliations were at the heart of Arabic culture and society, especially before the advent of Islam. This
tradition included the idea of vendetta which simply requires a wrong done by tribe to another to exacted in
revenge at some point in the future. This is an old eye for an eye mentality.
6. In what ways were women placed in secondary status to men in pre-Islamic Arabia?
Prior to the development of Islam women were considered on par with livestock unless you came from a family
of wealth. They had no property rights, marriage rights, inheritance rights...they were treated as substandard to
the extent that infanticide was practiced at times with the birth of a daughter.
7. What impact did trade and religious pilgrimage have on Mecca by the 6th century of the common era?
Trade made Mecca a wealthy city as it sat at the cross roads of major trade routes in an increasingly globalized
world. Equally, pilgrimage had always drawn people to the city for centuries to honor the annual pilgrimage to
the Kaaba.
8. True or False: Islam traces its roots all the way back to the Garden of Eden even though it formally began on
the night of the Hijra.
9. Check the box of each statement that best describes religion in pre-Islamic Arabia?
Indigenous pre-Islamic Arabian religion was largely pagan.
Most Arabs in pre-Islamic Arabia were monotheists.
Pre-Islamic Arabs had contact with Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism.
Pre-Islamic Arabic religious traditions had little sense of cosmic moral purpose.
The Kaaba in Mecca was of no importance to pre-Islamic Arab religious practice.
The aliha and gins were lesser gods who were feared and respected
Foundation of Islam under Muhammad:
1. The Prophet Muhammad was born in the year 570 CE near the city of Mecca in the Quraysh tribe.
2. True or False: Muhammad was orphaned at a young age and was eventually raised by his uncle Abu Talib
who taught him how to be a trader.
3. The Night of Power happened to Muhammad at the Cave of Hira during which the Quran was rst revealed
to him. Afterwards he shared his experience with his wife Khadijah.
4. True or False. The Night of Ascent refers to the evening when Muhammad was own from Mecca to
Jerusalem and then to heaven where he met with Allah and the other prophets.
5. After the Night of Flight, also known as the Hijra, Muhammad escaped to the agrarian city of Yathrib. After
successfully settling some disputes between the locals, the city changed its name to Medina meaning the
City of the Prophet.
6. What was the name of the Prophets rst wife?
The name of the Prophets rst wife was Khadijah. She was 40 when she married him and he was 25. They had
6 children together. 4 of the children were daughters and they survived into adulthood.
Traditions and Beliefs of Islam
1. List and explain the Five Articles of Faith that are contained within Islam:
Shahadah - a belief in the singularity and eternal nature of God
Angels - two are assigned to each person to record their deeds, they are Gods messengers
Books - the Quran is the most holy while the Tanakh and the New Testament are considered with respect
Prophets - Islam recognizes all the Jewish prophets from Adam through Jesus and the Arab prophet Muhammad
Afterlife - belief in the soul and the consequences of heaven or hell for ones deeds in this life
2. Briey explain the Five Pillars of Islam. (Note: You will need to know the Arabic names and denitions for
the test.)
Shahadah: declaration of monotheism and testament that Muhammad is the nal prophet
Salat: prayer 5x daily towards Mecca
Zakat: 2.5% annual giving based on a persons total worth
Sawm: fasting during the month of Ramadan from sunrise to sunset
Hajj: once in a lifetime pilgrimage to Mecca if one is capable
3. How are the two rites of passage at birth and death observed in Islam?
Two rites of passage in Islam include the birth of a child and the death of a person. Children and the deceased
have the shahadah whispered into their ears. Children have their heads shaved after 8 days and an amount equal
in gold is given as charity. The dead are washed, dressed in a burial shroud, and buried facing Mecca.
4. True or False: The Quran specically states that women must wear the hijab and cover their face.
5. How is the holiday of Id-ul-Fitr at the end of Ramadan observed?
Id-ul-Fitr is celebrated with a large meal to celebrate the end of the fast and to gather with loved ones.
6. How is the holiday of Id-ul-Adha at the end of the Hajj observed?
The holiday of Id-ul-Adha usually involves the sacrice of an animal of which a portion is consumed in
celebration and a portion is given as charity to the poor.
7. Check the following boxes that accurately reect Islams belief about Jesus:
He was born to the Virgin Mary.
He was a prophet sent by God to reveal Gods will.
He was Jewish.
He is divine and equal to God.
He performed miracles.
He was crucied and died on the cross.
He was crucied, but God lifted him off the cross before he died.
He will appear on Judgement Day.
He was resurrected after he was killed by the Romans.
8. What were some of the notable achievements that emerged from Baghdads House of Wisdom that
ourished during the Abbasid dynasty?
Notable achievements that were developed in Baghdads Golden Era would include advances in mathematics
and medicine. Equally, Arab scholars set out to translate the wisdom of the ancient Greeks so that it could be
furthered by great Arab thinkers. The use of paper, which had come west from China, allowed for a mass
dissemination of information throughout the Islamic empire.
The Shia and Sunni Divide:
Write down a contribution that each of the following Caliphs left as a legacy before the end of their time.
1. Abu Bakr: Caliph from 632-634. Kept the various tribes of the Arabian peninsula unied following the
death of Muhammad.
2. Umar: 634-644 Led the expansion of Islamic rule beyond the Arabian peninsula. In other words he help
create an Islamic Empire that would rival other regional powers in the 8th century.
3. Uthman: 644-656 Uthman was responsible for organizing the Quran for 1st time. He was able to effective
govern by giving positions of authority to family members. He was later assassinated and accused of
4. Ali: 656-661. The last of the Caliphs to lead Islam. He was the nephew to Muhammad and many felt that he
should have been chosen to lead much earlier. He would die a violent death leaving his son Hussein to
avenge his death. In his absence Uthmans relative Muawiya, governor of Demascus, became the leader of
5. True or False: Prior to his death the Prophet Muhammad left very specic directions about who he wanted
to lead Islam after he died.
6. Muawiya was the governor of Syria who fought Ali during the 1st Fitna. He eventually brought the
Ummayads to power. Before his death he granted his authority to his son Yazid. The Kufans rejected this
ruler and called upon Hussein (2nd Son of Ali) to help them destroy the Ummayads.
7. True or False: Iran is the only Shia state in the world today.
8. True or False: Sunni Islam is the largest form of Islam in the world today.
9. How do the Sunnis and the Shia differ in their understanding of what is meant by the title imam or Imam?
For the Shia the term Imam denotes the belief that an heir to Muhammad will one day return and vindicate all
the suffering that has been endured by the Shia Muslims over the centuries. This Imam will usher in the
Judgement Day. In Sunni Islam the term imam denotes a person who has been selected to lead the mosque in a
community of Muslims.
10. Su Muslims are considered to be mystical Islam and began with Rumi who is one of the worlds most
known poets to this day.
The Quran:
1. How was the Quran revealed to Muhammad?
The Quran was revealed to Muhammad over the course of 23 years. With each revelation the Prophet was
given further clarication of what Gods expectations were humanity.
2. What does the word Quran or Koran mean in English?
The world Koran or Quran in English means recital. In essence this is what Muhammad was doing in behalf
of God. He was reciting Gods will as it was revealed to him.
3. True or False: The Quran can only be understood in its proper form in Arabic.
4. Which of the Four Right Guided Caliphs commissioned the Quran to be written down for the rst time and
why did he do it?
Uthman was the caliph who ordered that the Quran be organized. He did so feeling that if it werent done the
revelations would be corrupted and the truth of the revelations would be distorted.
5. How is the Quran organized?
The Quran is organized by the length of each chapter. The longest chapters, or suras, are rst followed by the
shorter suras towards the end of the Quran.
1. What is the purpose of a mihrab in a Mosque?
The mihrabhelps a person know which direction Mecca is from the mosque for prayer. It is a carved out space
in the worship chamber.
2. Minbar is the place from which an imam gives his lecture after Fridays prayers.
3. True or False. A muezzin calls the faithful to prayer from atop the tall minarets which tower above a
traditional mosque.
Sharia Law:
Match the following terms with the denition which best describes the role its plays in determining Sharia Law.
Term Denition
1. Quran B A. Community consensus
2. Sunna D B. Holiest book in Islam
3. Hadith C C. Non-prophetic sayings of
the Prophet Muhammad
4. Qiyas E D. Examples from the 1st
Islamic community in Medina
5. Ijma A E. Analogical reasoning