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Jamaica

Done by: Abdulrahman Al Talay


Grade 9 - B


Introduction
JAMAICA is an island in the middle of the Caribbean Sea. The country generally sticks
strictly to its African heritage. Many of the citizens of the nation are direct descendants of slaves
who were freed in the first half of the 1800s. Jamaica is a real popular travel destination and it is
known as a safe country to visit. However, unemployment, poverty, and violent crime are never-
ceasing problems.
In addition, Jamaica is the largest English-speaking island in the Caribbean. It is known
all over the world for its lively culture, sporting facilities and physical beauty. The favorable
climate, its geographic location and rich natural resources strengthen its political stability. The
island is home to a kind and sympathetic, generous, talented and diverse people.

http://www.infoplease.com/atlas/country/jamaica.html
Overview
Jamaica is the third largest island of the Caribben. It is also the birthplace of Bob Marley
and James Bond. It is a place that is both unique and familiar with its stretching clear blue
beaches and endless hours of warm Caribbean sunshine . Jamaica means Land of Springs or Land
of Wood and Water.
The majority of the population in Jamaica is from African origin. However, there are
people from European, Arabic, Chinese and East Indian origin as well. The Jamaica people are a
blend of many origins.
It was once a Spanish colony, but it came under rule of the British in 1655 until 1962
when the county became and independent nation.


The Geography of Jamaica

Jamaica is located in the Caribbean Sea to south of Cuba. It has an excellent strategic
location. It is located between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel which are the main sea
lanes for the Panama Canal. It has an area of approximately 10,991 sq km. The land area covers
10,831 sq km whereas the water territories cover 160 sq km. It has no boundaries with any other
country. However, the Jamaican coastline stretches for 1,022 km.



Jamaica's climate is tropical which means it is mainly hot, humid and temperate in the
interior. Jamaica's land is mostly mountains, but it has a narrow and discontinuous coastal plain.
The lowest land in Jamaica is the Caribbean Sea with 0 m above sea level while the highest point
is the Blue Mountain Peak which is 2,256 m.
Jamaica enjoys diverse natural resources which include bauxite, gypsum, limestone.
However, it is an industrial country with many types of manufactures. These manufactures
include textiles, clothing, light manufacturing, cement, paper, chemical products and
telecommunications. Besides being an industrial centre, Jamaica is also an agricultural country.
The main agricultural products are bananas, coffee and citrus.

https://www.google.ae/search?safe=off&q=jamaica%27s%20natural%20resources%20map

Jamaica is not completely safe from natural hazards and environmental problems. It is
threatened continuously by hurricanes especially during the period from July to November every
year. In addition, pollution is one of the serious problems that disturbs the peace of Jamaica. The
heavy rates of deforestation and the pollution of its coastal waters that is caused by industrial
waste, sewage, and oil spills damage the beautiful coral reefs of Jamaica. Air pollution is
another form of pollution in Jamaica. Kingston is greatly affected from vehicles and factories
emissions.
The People of Jamaica
The population of Jamaica is estimated at 2,731,832 people according to the July 2011
estimation. The official language of most of the Jamaican people is English. The majority of the
population age group falls between 15 to 64 years. This makes the population structure strong
and healthy especially that the male and the female number is nearly equal: 897,953 males and
893,509 females. This represents 65.6% of the total population of the country. On the other hand,
only 6.9 % of the total population falls in the age group of 65 years and over. Moreover, the
percentage of the age group 0-14 years represents 27.5% of the total population which adds
weight to the soundness of the population structure. The good health care provided by the
Jamaican government resulted in high life expectancy. The life expectancy of the total
population is 73.33 years. males is 71.63 years whereas the life expectancy for females is 75.12
years.
Jamaica has diverse ethnic groups which include 90.9% black, 1.3% East Indian, 0.2%
white, 0.2% Chinese and 7.4% are other mixed groups. Around 63.3% of the total population are
Christians of different sects whilst the other different religions make up 34.7% of the total
population of Jamaica.

Jamaican Government
The official name of the country is Jamaica and the government type is constitutional
parliamentary democracy. Kingston is the capital city of Jamaica. Jamaica consists of 14
parishes. They are Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint
Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny,
Westmoreland. For local government purposes, Kingston and Saint Andrew were amalgamated
in 1923 into the present single corporate body known as the Kingston and Saint Andrew
Corporation.
Jamaica got its independence from UK on August 6
th
, 1962. This day is considered a
national holiday and it is celebrated every year. On the same day, the constitution of the country
was revealed and the legal system was established based on English common law. The chief of
state is Queen ELIZABETH II since 6 February 6
th
, 1952. She is represented by Governor
General Sir Howard Felix Cooke. The head of the government is Prime Minister Percival James
Patterson. The governor general is the one who appoints the Cabinet on the advice of the prime
minister.

The system is not based on elections. The monarch is hereditary and the governor general
is appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister. The leader of the
majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed
prime minister by the governor general after legislative elections. The deputy prime minister is
recommended by the prime minister.
The Jamaican flag has a diagonal yellow cross that divides the flag into four triangles -
green at the top and bottom; and black at the outer sides.

https://www.google.ae/search?safe=off&q=jamaican



Economy
The Jamaican economy depends mostly on services. This represents 60% of GDP (Gross
Domestic Product). Tourism, money transfers from citizens that work in other countries, and
bauxite/alumina are the main sources of Jamaicas foreign exchange. The global economic
slowdown, particularly after the terrorist attacks in the US on 11 September 2001, hindered the
economic growth of Jamaica. However, the economy recovered moderately with sharp tourist
seasons in 2003-04. But the economy faces serious long-term problems which include high
interest rates; increased foreign competition; merchandise trade shortage; large-scale
unemployment.

https://www.google.ae/search?q=history%20of%20jamaica%20free%20ebook%2Bpdf&safe
The uncertain economic conditions have led to increased civil unrest, including gang
violence driven by the drug trade. In 2004, the Jamaican government faced the difficult situation
of trying to achieve economic discipline in order to keep debt payments while attacking a serious
and growing crime problem which hinders the economic growth. The government attempts to
control shortage were spoiled by Hurricane Ivan in September 2004. It required large
government spending to repair the damage. In spite of the hurricane and the damage it caused,
tourism looks solid growth in the near future.
Agriculture - products:
sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, yams, vegetables, poultry, goats, milk, crustaceans, and
mollusks
Industries:
tourism, bauxite/alumina, textiles, agro processing, wearing apparel, light manufactures, rum,
cement, metal, paper, chemical products, telecommunications
Industrial production growth rate:
-2% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
6.289 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 96.8%
hydro: 1.8%
nuclear: 0%
other: 1.4% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
5.849 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2002)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
66,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA
Oil - imports:
NA
Current account balance:
$-830.7 million (2004 est.)
Exports:
$1.679 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
alumina, bauxite, sugar, bananas, rum, coffee, yams, beverages, chemicals, wearing apparel,
mineral fuels
Exports - partners:
US 17.4%, Canada 14.8%, France 13%, China 10.5%, UK 8.7%, Netherlands 7.5%, Norway 6%,
Germany 5.9% (2004)
Imports:
$3.624 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
food and other consumer goods, industrial supplies, fuel, parts and accessories of capital goods,
machinery and transport equipment, construction materials
Imports - partners:
US 38.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 13.2%, France 5.6%, Japan 4.7% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.4 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
$5.964 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$16 million (2003)
Currency (code):
Jamaican dollar (JMD)
Currency code:
JMD
Exchange rates:
Jamaican dollars per US dollar - 61.197 (2004), 57.741 (2003), 48.416 (2002), 45.996 (2001),
42.986 (2000)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March






books.google.ae/books?id=SGB1jLdP8-4C&printsec=frontcover&hl=ar#v=onepage&q&f=false
https://ggim.un.org/docs/meetings/Forum2011/CRP24-Jamaica.pdf
http://www.infoplease.com/atlas/country/jamaica.html
http://www.jamaicans.com/tourist/overview/geography.shtml
http://countryeconomy.com/demography/population/kingston
http://books.google.ae/books?id=_yIoAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&hl=ar&source=gbs_ge
_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false (E-book)