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Research Inventy: International Journal Of Engineering And Science

Vol.4, Issue 4 (April 2014), PP 20-26


Issn (e): 2278-4721, Issn (p):2319-6483, www.researchinventy.com
20
The Finite Element Analysis & Improvement on a Single Cylinder
Head of Spark Ignition Engine
1
Pradeep Mani Tripathi,
2
Satya Prakash,
3
Rahul Singh,
4
Satish Kumar Dwivedi
(
1,2
Student,
3
Lecturer & Guide,
4
HOD of Mechanical Department)
(
1, 2, 3, 4
Department of Mechanical Engineering-B.I.T GIDA, GORAKHPUR, UTTAR PRADESH TECHNICAL
UNIVERSITY, India)

ABSTRACT -The finite element method is applied to find the stresses field from the parts of a single cylinder
head of a spark ignition engine. There are thus identified the most stressed component elements and respective
regions. This paper aims to study the stresses on an engine cylinder head spark ignition, which is known
constructive characteristics and the thermal parameters. The paper deals with thermal & structural stress
analysis and improvement of the cylinder head assembly of SI (Spark Ignition) engine. A detailed FE model was
created for this purpose. The FE model consists of main parts of the cylinder head assembly and it includes a
description of thermal and mechanical loads and contact interaction between its parts. The model considers a
temperature dependency of a thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient on wall temperature. The paper
presents a comparison of computed and measured temperature. The design was carried out using the
SolidWorks v12 and analysis was carried out using the FE program ANSYS v14.
Keywords -Actual process, Cylinder Head, Deformation Spark Ignition Engine, Temperature, Finite element,
Stresses, mesh.
I. INTRODUCTION
Design work of modern heat engines requires accurate determination of stresses and strains, in order to
optimize the correlations between size, shape and properties of materials used for structural parts of a machine
component, on the one hand, and the thermo-mechanical applications, on the other. Such as determining the
stresses and strains in an internal combustion engine cylinder head.
This paper aims to study the stresses& temperature distribution in single cylinder head spark ignition
engine. Cylinder head temperature has considerable influence on efficiency, emission, and performance of the
SI (Spark Ignition) engine. Purpose of this investigation is measurement of cylinder head transient temperature
at several points. On the cylinder head temperature changes with time and engine speed, from cold start to
steady condition and comparison with results of finite element analysis. From analytical analysis of cylinder
head, it is proposed to conduct stress analysis of a thick walled cylinder head near the radial hole on the surface.
The literature indicated that there will be a ductile fracture occurring in such cases. The radial holes
cannot be avoided due to various attachments. Hence the stress analysis of cylinder head and its ultimate failure
under internal pressure beyond elastic limit is an appropriate scenario. It is observed that there are several
factors which influence stress intensity factors. The Finite element analysis is conducted using commercial
solvers ANSYS & SolidWorks. Theoretical formulae based results are obtained from ANSYS programs. The
single-cylinder petrol engine has the properties of small volume, high power, high torque at low speed, good
start-up and acceleration performance, low oil wear and cheap, and it has been widely used. Adopting the
aluminum alloy engine cylinder head can effectively reduce the total weight of the engine. But the elastic
modulus of aluminum alloy is far less than that of cast iron, the deformation amount of the engine cylinder head
and related parts sharply increase with the fuel gas maximum combustion pressure. Deformation of the cylinder
head will cause gas leakage, oily smoke, power down, fuel consumption increase, increase the possibility of
piston scraping; Deformation of cylinder top surface will increase the possibility of the cylinder gasket and
decrease mechanical efficiency, moving parts cant work normally. Otherwise, because of the high thermal
conductivity of aluminum alloy, the heat of combustion chamber can transfer to crankcase easily and make the
oil temperature rise so that lubrication performance of engine get worse, engine power decrease and cant work
normally in serious case. The metals are typically alloys of aluminum, magnesium, or titanium The special
benefits exhibited by metal matrix composites, such as lower density, higher specific strength and stiffness, high
temperature performance limits, and improved wear-abrasion resistance on the properties of the matrix alloy
dependent on the properties of the matrix alloy. In the combustion chamber, there are high peaks of combustion
pressure and temperature in the order of 15 MPa and 2500K. The maximum temperature of the head material is
much lower and the regions around the combustion chamber need to be safely cooled to prevent overheating
The Finite Element Analysis & Improvement on a Single Cylinder Head of Spark Ignition Engine
21
these facts are key factors to many compromises in design, which can be sources of failures in operation. To
nullify the risk of operational failure is one of the targets of engine designers. The design of the engine head
must be tested under these operational conditions. This procedure is necessary but expensive. FE modeling of
the cylinder head assembly operation conditions is an appropriate complement to the operational testing. A
detailed FE strength analysis provides valuable information about temperature distribution and mechanical
stresses in the overall assembly of the cylinder head. This information is especially useful in regions where the
experimental data is scarcely available to gather. Temperature and mechanical stresses is analyzed using
temperature field, combustion pressure in the combustion chamber and mechanical loads, such as bolt pre-stress,
molded seats and valve guides, etc. The resulting displacement/stress fields may be utilized for the evaluation of
operational conditions, i.e. contact pressure between valves and valve parts uniformity as well as strength and
failure resistance of the assembly. Such information contributes to a detailed evaluation of the thermal and
mechanical processes in cylinder-head assembly under engine operation, which is a prerequisite for further
optimization of engine design. Cylinder head Distortion means deviation from ideal circular shape (roundness),
or cylinder head out of roundness. Initially it is understood that manufacturing tolerances can cause the cylinder
head to deviate from ideal condition.
II. SOME CONCEPT ABOUT FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
The finite element method is one of the most used methods that are available in our days for different
calculations in the field of engineering. This method and the programs based on it become fundamental
components in the computer aided design systems. They are indispensable in all engineering activities where
high performance is required. One of the major advantages in the finite element method is the simplicity of its
basic concepts. It is very important that the finite element method user learn and correctly understand these
concepts, because they include certain hypotheses, simplifications and generalizations. To perform a finite
element analysis, the user must develop a calculus model of the analyzed pieces. These models are only
approximate mathematical models of the pieces. There are no algorithms and general methods for developing a
unique model that approximate, with a known error, the real structure of the analyzed piece. The model should
efficiently synthesize all the available information about the analyzed piece, a model consists of lines, planes or
curved surface and volumes, created in a 3D CAD environment. In this stage of development, the model is
continuous, with an infinite number of points, as the real pieces that is analyzed. The main goal of the finite
element method is to obtain the finite element mesh, transforming the continuous structure into a discreet model,
with a finite number of points. This operation is done using a mesh for the model, which is correct from an
engineering point of view, the knowledge of stresses and displacements in a certain number of points inside the
piece is normally enough to characterize the mechanical and thermic behavior of the piece. The finite element
method defines these unknowns only in the nodes of the model and calculates their values in these points. Thats
why the meshing process must be performed in such a way as to have a number of nodes large enough in the
areas of great interest in order to achieve a satisfactory approximation for the geometry of the piece and for the
boundary and loading conditions. Thus, the mesh of the piece has a major importance in the finite element
method analysis. The points defined in the mesh are called nodes. The primary unknowns of finite element
method are defined in nodes, and their values are the analysis results. These unknowns identified can be
displacements, displacement model or stresses, stress model. For the displacement model, it can be admitted that
the deformed shape of the piece under a certain loading case, is defined by the displacements of all the nodes
with respect to the initial node net. Each node may have a maximum of six components of the displacement,
called nodal displacements in a coordinate system: three linear displacements and three rotations .The meshing
process divides the model into a certain number of finite elements. These elements are assembled together in
common nodes. Thus, the study of the real piece is replaced with the study of the ensemble of finite elements
obtained by meshing, in an idealization of the real piece which is analyzed. For better results, the process should
be adequate to the purpose of the analysis, implying the respect for some important rules regarding the meshing
process and the elaboration of the model, and also to use adequate finite elements. The mesh of an analyzed
piece can include elements defined for different types of analysis, as: linear elastic, nonlinear, heat transfer, fluid
mechanics, electromagnetism, etc. In the finite element method practice, the role of the materials characteristics
is very important and in this case the material attached to the finite element can be homogeneous, isotropic or
with a certain anisotropy.

III. FEM APPROACH
It is not always possible to obtain the exact analytical solution at any location in the body, especially
for those elements having complex shapes or geometries. Always matters are the boundary conditions and
material properties. In such cases, the analytical solution that satisfies the governing equation or gives extreme
values for the governing functional is difficult to obtain. Hence for most of the practical problems, the engineers
resort to numerical methods like the finite element method to obtain approximate but most probable solutions.
The Finite Element Analysis & Improvement on a Single Cylinder Head of Spark Ignition Engine
22
Finite element procedures are at present very widely used in engineering analysis. The procedures are employed
extensively in the analysis of solids and structures and of heat transfer and fluids, and indeed, finite element
methods are useful in virtually every field of engineering analysis.
III.I. Finite Element Model
The petrol engine cylinder head assembly parts are shown as Fig.1.

III.II. Boundary Conditions
Displacement constraints of the X, Y, Z three directions are imposed on the location of the four bolt
holes of the lower body. In order to investigate the effect of side pressure of cylinder head, forced with the
maximum side pressure of cylinder head.
III.III. Calculation Schemes
III.III.I. Schemes1: The indexes of the stress, the flatness of the cylinder head end surface and the rate of light
leakage of each cross section of the petrol engine cylinder head combined parts can be got by analyzing the cast-
iron engine cylinder head according to finite element method. Those indexes are as evaluating indicator of the
improved schemes.
III.III.II. Scheme2: Changing the cast-iron engine body into aluminum alloys cylinder head, and then
analyzing the evaluations indexes of scheme1 and scheme2 by finite element method contrastively.
III.III.III. Scheme3: Increasing the depth of the counter bore of cylinder head bolt from 5mm to 12mm and
thickness of the four stiffeners behind the cylinder head bolt from 6mm to 10mm, dredging the Partial metal
near the two bolts on the upper body, increasing the area of the stiffener over the Bodys head. Then analyze the
evaluating indicator of scheme3 and scheme1 by finite element method contrastive.
III.III.IV. Scheme4: Increasing the depth of the counter bore of cylinder head bolt from 5mm to 15.2mm;other
improvement measures are same as scheme3. Then analyze the evaluating indicator of scheme3 and scheme1 by
finite element method contrastively.
IV. ANALYSIS
IV.I. Thermal Analysis
A thermal analysis calculates the temperature distribution and related thermal quantities in a system or
component. Typical thermal quantities of interest are:
The temperature distributions.
The amount of heat lost or gained.
Thermal gradients.
Thermal fluxes.
Only the ANSYS Multiphysics, ANSYS Mechanical, ANSYS Professional, and ANSYS FLOTRAN
programs support thermal analyses. The basis for thermal analysis in ANSYS is a heat balance equation
obtained from the principle of conservation of energy. The finite element solution perform via ANSYS
calculates nodal temperatures, and then uses the nodal temperatures to obtain other thermal quantities. The
ANSYS program handles all three primary modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation.
The Finite Element Analysis & Improvement on a Single Cylinder Head of Spark Ignition Engine
23

Fig-Temperature Distribution
IV.I.I. Types of Thermal Analysis
ANSYS supports two types of thermal analysis
-A steady-state thermal analysis determines the temperature distribution and other thermal quantities under
steady-state loading conditions. A steady-state loading condition is a situation where heat storage effects varying
over a period of time can be ignored.
-A transient thermal analysis determines the temperature distribution and other thermal quantities under
conditions that vary over a period of time.
V. TRANSIENT THERMAL ANALYSIS
Transient thermal analysis is the thermal analysis where in boundary conditions and properties Change
with time. This is to say that the constraints such as ambient temperature, thermal coefficient and material
properties etc. are time dependent. Transient thermal analysis is important in analyzing models that are
subjected to boundary conditions and material properties that with time and temperature. Cylinder head used in
SI engines are subjected to high temperature rise. Since the cylinder head is subjected to large temperature
variation, the material properties such as specific heat, enthalpy and youngs modulus undergo variations with
time. In such conditions there is the probability of failure of the cylinder head if the cylinder head is not
designed taking into consideration the transient effects. At the beginning of the cold start, the component is at
uniform ambient temperature. When a cold metal component is exposed to a hot fluid medium, thermal
gradients set in across the thickness and along the length. During the thermal transient, this temperature gradient
changes with time till the metal reaches its steady state temperature distribution. Due to thermal energy of the
metal, it takes more time to reach its steady state value by conduction than the actual duration of fluid
temperature change during the transient.
VI. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Structural analysis is probably the most common application of the finite element method. The term
structural implies not only civil engineering structures such as bridges and buildings, but also automobile,
aeronautical and mechanical structures such as ship hulls, aircraft bodies, and machine housings, as well as
mechanical components such as pistons, machine parts, and tools.
VI.I. Types of Structural Analysis
The seven types of structural analyses available in the ANSYS family of products are explained below.
The primary unknowns (nodal degrees of freedom) calculated in a structural analysis are displacements. Other
quantities, such as strains, stresses, and reaction forces, are then derived from the nodal displacements.
Structural analyses are available in the ANSYS Multiphysics, ANSYS Mechanical, ANSYS Structural, and
ANSYS Professional programs only. You can perform the following types of structural analyses. Each of these
analysis types are discussed in detail in this manual.
VI.I.I. Static Analysis is used to determine displacements, stresses, etc. under static loading conditions. Both
linear and nonlinear static analysis. Nonlinearities can include plasticity, stress stiffening, and large deflection,
large strain, hyper elasticity, contact surfaces, and creep.
VI.I.II. Modal Analysis is used to calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. Different
mode extraction methods are available.

VI.I.III. Harmonic Analysis is used to determine the response of a structure to harmonically time varying
loads.
The Finite Element Analysis & Improvement on a Single Cylinder Head of Spark Ignition Engine
24
VI.I.IV. Transient Dynamic Analysis is used to determine the response of a structure to arbitrarily time
varying loads all nonlinearities mentioned under Static Analysis above are allowed.
In addition to the above analysis types, several special-purpose features are available for solving
structural problems in the ANSYS family of products: the h- method and the p-method. The h-method can be
used for any type of analysis, but the p-method can be used only for linear structural static analyses. Depending
on the problem to be solved, the h-method usually requires a finer mesh than the p-method. The p-method
provides an excellent way to solve a problem to a desired level of accuracy while using a coarse mesh. In
general, the discussions in this manual focus on the procedures required for the h method of solution discusses
procedures specific to the p-method.

VII. STRUCTURAL STATIC ANALYSIS
A static analysis calculates the effects of steady loading conditions on a structure, while ignoring
inertia and damping effects, such as those caused by time-varying loads. A static analysis can, however, include
steady inertia loads (such as gravity and rotational velocity), and time-varying loads that can be approximated as
static equivalent loads (such as the static equivalent wind and seismic loads commonly defined in many building
codes).Static analysis determines the displacements, stresses, strains, and forces in structures or components
caused by loads that do not induce significant inertia and damping effects. Steady loading and response
conditions are assumed; that is, the loads and the structure's response are assumed to vary slowly with respect to
time.
A static analysis can be either linear or nonlinear. All types of nonlinearities are allowed large
deformations, plasticity, creep, stress stiffening, contact (gap) elements, hyper elastic elements, and so on. This
chapter focuses on linear static analyses, with brief references to nonlinearities. The thermal gradients produce
thermal stresses, in transient and steady state conditions, in the component. Stress analysis is carried out on
Finite element model of the component at the critical time of transient, when thermal gradient is high. Stresses
due to fluid pressure are added to the thermal stresses. These total stresses vary as functions of space and time.
VIII. COUPLED THERMAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering
disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. When the input of one physics analysis
depends on the results from another analysis, the analyses are coupled. Thus, each different physics environment
must be constructed separately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. However, it is
important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. By creating the geometry in the first
physical environment, and using it with any following coupled environments, the geometry is kept constant. For
our case, we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment, where the thermal effects will be applied.
Although the geometry must remain constant, the element types can change. For instance, thermal elements are
required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to determine the stress in the rotor and
casing. It is important to note, however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled
physics analysis.

Fig-stress distribution
IX. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
IX.I. Transient Temperature Distribution and Thermal stress
At the beginning of the cold start, the component is at uniform ambient temperature. When a cold metal
component is exposed to a hot fluid medium, thermal gradients set in across the thickness and along the length.
The Finite Element Analysis & Improvement on a Single Cylinder Head of Spark Ignition Engine
25
During the thermal transient, this temperature gradient changes with time till the metal reaches its steady state
temperature distribution. Due to thermal inertia of the metal, it takes more time to reach its steady state value by
conduction than the actual duration of fluid temperature change during the transient.
IX.II. Thermal Stress Analysis
The thermal gradients produce thermal stresses, in transient and steady state conditions, in the
component. Stress analysis is carried out on Finite element model of the component at the critical time of
transient, when thermal gradient is high.
IX.III. Static Analysis
The fluid pressure produces static stresses, in steady state conditions, in the component. Stress analysis
is carried out on Finite element model of the component at different pressure loads.
IX.IV. Static Transient Thermal Analysis
Stresses due to fluid pressure are added to the thermal stresses. These total stresses vary as functions of
space and time. Pressure loads and Thermal gradients are applied at a time to find out the stresses.
Modeling was performed for the gas pressure Pg = 3 N/ and temperature Tg = 1900 K were
determined by diagrams of the engine indicated in the nominal regime. The material properties are: Young
modulus (71010 N/ ), Poisson ratio (0.346), density (2710 kg/ ), thermal expansion (2.36105 K) and the
yield strength (9.5 107 N/ ). The solid model of the cylinder head is presented in fig. The state of stresses
analysis of cylinder head will be taken into account both mechanical and thermal loads. They are valued as
follows: distributed mechanical load (internal or external pressure, own weight); mechanical loads focused on
small areas (load from the mass of an element over another) and loads due to differential thermal expansion
caused by temperature variation from one point to another on the same piece (the thickness, length or the
diameter). Mechanical loads are used in modeling are the forces and moments whose values are presented in
table 1.
Table 1. The value of forces and moment used in modeling Note that in modeling or considered maximum
values of mechanical loads and thermal loads in regard themselves as middle values. In this case the maximum
pressure is pg = 7.8 N/ and temperature is Tg = 2200 K In the stage of the meshing of the cylinder head
have been used a number of 55539 finite elements with a number of 13208 nodes. In fig. is presented cylinder
head on the top, examined from the finite element mesh Complete stress and deformation tensors, displacements
and contact pressure are available as results of structural analysis. All these results give us new knowledge about
loads on parts results of structural analysis. Their interpretation is general and very complex, mainly due to the
uncertain influence of model simplification and approximations. Table 2 shows the maximum and minimum
principal stresses obtained from modeling cylinder head, the nodes are recorded these values and the position of
those nodes to the chosen reference system modeling.
Table 2. The maximum and minimum principal stresses
Mechanical components Values Reactions[N]
Load
[N]
Fx - 4150 4150
Fy 968.91 - 968.91
Fz 2662.1 - 2662.1
Moments
[N-mm]
Mx 5.349 - 5.3496
My - 853.12 853.12
Mz 310.51 - 310.51
Principal stresses Values
[N/ ]
Nodes Nodes coordinates to the
reference system chosen
X[mm] Y[mm] z[mm]
x Min 3.24638 5619 324.63 -52.706 -21.287
Max 3.7036 11169 374.75 -12.787 -27.840
y Min 3.2904 5619 324.63 -52.706 -21.287
Max 3.427 5671 298.76 -27.575 -9.4410
z Min 4.1075 5618 325.98 -45.991 -21.329
Max 4.3755 959 281.07 -20.228 -21.783
The Finite Element Analysis & Improvement on a Single Cylinder Head of Spark Ignition Engine
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Table 2 shows that the same minimum value is in node 5619 and the node 5618 has a minimum value, located
next to the previous node. With regard to the maximum, they are obtained in the corresponding area of the
bridge nodes associated valves. All of the three components have the highest value. The analysis of stresses is
more effective if we use the theory of the specific form modifying energy (stated by von Mises) as a
determining factor for reaching the limit stages. By analyzing the stresses fields, we are able to see the main
critical area of the cylinder head. Von Misses stress state represents the values of a scalar field energy density
obtained from the volume used to measure strain and stresses created in the model. In fig. presents the results
embodied in the von Mises stress as a consequence of thermal and mechanical loads on the top of the cylinder
head examined.

X. CONCLUSION
Model calculation from the cylinder head design solution followed, this situation of exploitation to
satisfy compatibility and equilibrium conditions inside the finite elements and the entire cylinder head forming,
so simplification accepted modeling analysis does not change the results. In developing the model calculation to
take into account the condition of symmetry of the cylinder head this phenomenon expresses faithfully studied
the cylinder head of their work cycle engine; because the conditions imposed meet the actual conditions of the
outline application and also take account of finite element properties. is noted that the maximum application of
stress concentrators arise in areas of stresses in the deck of the intake valve and exhaust valve which confirms
the validity of the modeling because they are areas defined by the theoretical literature. This area is the most
requested where variable temperature fields create excitement that overlaid the mechanical generate significant
demand. Modeling carried out allows comparison of tensions with the experimentally determined and
analytically.
Conclusions are drawn from this analysis are
1. Weight of the Cylinder Head can be minimized by making Cylinder head with metal matrix composites
instead of Cast iron.
2. Stress analysis is carried out through FE model.
3. Agreement between 2D and 3D is arrived.
4. Computational time is reduced.
5. This Analysis is handy in automotive applications.

REFERENCES
[1] Saniel, M. - Macek, J. - Divi, M. - Tichnek, R. Steady State Heat Analysis of Engine Head, Abstracts of 20th Danubia- Adria
Symposium on Experimental Methods in SolidMechanics. Gyor: Szchenyi Istvn University of AppliedSciences, 2003, s. 74-
75.ISBN 963-9058-20-3.
[2] Macek, J. Vtek, O. Vvra, J.: Kogeneran jednotka splynovm motorem o vkonu vtm ne 3 MW II. VUTv Praze,
Fakulta strojn, 2000. (in Czech)
[3] Hork, F. Macek, J.: Use of Predicted Fields in Main Parts of Supercharged Diesel Engine. Proceedings ofXIX. Conference
of International Centre of Mass and Heat Transfer. Pergamon Press, New York, 1987.
[4] Kreith, F. Black, W.: Basic Heat Transfer. Harper and Row, New York, 1980.
[5] Baehr, H.D. Stephan, K.: Heat and Mass Transfer. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998.