Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

VITAMINS

INTRODUCTION
Vitamins are the one of the most important micro nutrient, which were discovered by Dr.Casimir Funk, a polish
biochemist. He found that food contain, some other important component else then the 3 macronutrient and
those component are very essential for normal functioning of body.
DEFINITION
Vitamins are a group of comple organic compounds other than carbohydrates, fts ! protein that are re"uired in
very little amount. #ut are very essential for normal function of growth ! reproduction in humans.
CLASSIFICATION
Vitamins are classified into two groups$
%. Fat soluble vitamins
&. 'ater soluble vitamins
F()
*+,-#-. V/)(0/1*
)his group include those vitamins which are soluble in fats. *o, they are absorbed in presence of fats only.
#eing fat soluble they are stored in the body for a long time. #ut if they are taken in ecess for long time then it
results in hypervitaminosis
Fat soluble vitamins are vitamin (, D, ., 2
'().3 *+-,#-. V/)(0/1*
)hey are water soluble ! are not stored in body as they are absorbed fast. )hey are ecreted out if taken in
ecess. (s they are not stored in body4 so their deficiency symptoms appear "uite early. Hence regular
consumption of water soluble vitamins in diet is must.
'ater soluble vitamins are$
%. Vitamin C or (scorbic acid
&. Vitamin #5comple$
a. #
%
)hiamine
b. #
&
3iboflavin
c. #
6
7antothenic acid
d. #
8
7yridoine or 7yridoal
e. #
3
1iacin or 1icotinic acid
f. Folacin or Folic acid
g. #iotin
h. #
%&
or Cyanocobalamin
FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS
VITAMIN A CAROTENE OR RETINOL
Vitamin ( is a fat soluble vitamin. )he yellow colour in plants i.e. carotene has vitamin ( like activity ! it is
converted to vitamin ( in the body.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA!
(bout &mg of vitamin ( is re"uired.
9roup 7articular mg Vitamin (
3etinol mg :5cardine mg
0an *edentary
0oderate
Heavy
8;;
8;;
8;;
&<;;
&<;;
&<;;
'oman *edentary
0oderate
Heavy
7regnant women lactation
;58 months
85%& months
8;;
8;;
8;;
8;;
=6;
=6;
&<;;
&<;;
&<;;
&<;;
3>;;
3>;;
/nfants ;58 months
85%& months
36;
36;
%&;;
%&;;
Children %53 years
<58 years
?5= years
<;;
<;;
8;;
%8;;
&<;;
#oys %;5%& years
%35%6 years
%85%> years
8;;
8;;
8;;
&<;;
&<;;
&<;;
9irls %;5%& years
%35%6 years
%85%> years
8;;
8;;
8;;
&<;;
&<;;
&<;;
Dietary o"rce
(nimal food@retinolA$ .gg, fish liver oil, white milk
7lant food carotenoid$ green leafy vegetables ! yellow coloured fruits ! vegetables like papaya, mango, carrot
F"nction o# Vitamin A
$% Maintenance o# &iion
Helps in formation of pigment called rhodopsin. 3hodopsin is vitamin ( containing pigment which is
formed in dim light.this pigment helps in visibility in night
'% (rowt) * re+rod"ction
Vitamin ( is essential for normal ! healthy growth. Deficiency of vitamin ( has shown impaired !
improper growth.
Vitamin ( plays role in maintaining healthy pregnancy.
,% De&elo+ imm"nity
(s vitamin ( is involved in maintaining normal epithelia of skin, which provides first line of defence
against micro5organism. *o, vitamin ( plays role in boosting immunity also.
-% Bone * toot) de&elo+ment
Vitamin ( is essential for normal bone formation. /ts deficiency may result in improper cell division of
cells of bone. *o, it results in defective bone growth. .ven teeth shows enamel thinning ! chalky
deposition on its surface in case of vitamin ( deficiency
.% Red"ced ri/ o# e&eral dieae
Carotene a pigment of vitamin ( possess anti cancer fighting capacity. Carotene has shown positive
result in fighting cardiovascular diseases.
A0or+tion * Meta0olim
#ody gets vitamin ( in form of retinol ! retinyl esters from animal food. 'hile plant food gives in form of B5
carotene. 3etinol is directly absorbed by intestinal cell. 'hile retinyl esters on hydrolysis to retinol ! organic
acid get absorbed. B5carotene is usually converted to retinol and then absorbed. (ll forms of vitamin ( is
absorbed in body in the presence of fat ! follows same pathway of absorption, as that of fat.
Stora1e
Vitamin ( is fat soluble so, can be stored in body for longer period of time. Vitamin ( is stored in liver in the
form of retinyl palmitate within special fat storing cell i.e. stellatte cell.
De#iciency
)he deficiency disorder due to lack of vitamin ( are as follows$
%. 1ight blindness
)he ability of individual to see in dimlight gets impaired because of deficiency of vitamin ( deficiency.
&. Ceropthalmia
/t is manifested by dryness ! thickening of conDunctival epithelium. )his condition, if not treated may
cause irreversible damage to eye. /t is also called ConDunctival Cerosis.
3. 2eratomalacia
/f Ceropthalmia is not treated it further progresses causing ulceration ! perforation of cornea
<. #itotEs *pots
)hese are muddy, dry triangular patches present because of vitamin ( deficiency.
6. Vitamin ( deficiency leads to growth retardation. /t involves improper bone ! teeth development
8. Vitamin ( deficiency makes skin dry ! also affects immunity.
VITAMIN D
/t is also known as calciferol ! it is a fat soluble vitamin. /t is a vitamin with antirachitic property.
S2NT3ESIS
/n human it is present in the form of ?5dehydrocholesterol which is converted to vitamin D in presence of
ultraviolet rays of sun
RECOMMENDED DIETAR2 ALLO4ANCES
Vitamin D is considered as prohormone ! can be synthesiFed in body in ade"uate amount by eposure to
sunlight. ,sually vitamin D is available from sunlight. #ut if eposure is lesser than /C03 has recommended
daily supplement of <;;Gg.
DIETAR2 SOURCES
*unlight, fish liver oil, egg yolk, butter ! milk
FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN D
/t helps in absorption of calcium ! phosphorus from small intestine
/t helps in normal growth ! bone development by helping in calcification ! mineraliFation of bone.
ABSOR5TION * METABOLISM
Dietary vitamin is absorbed from DeDunum along with bile salts i.e. fats from food ! enters the blood stream via
same passage of fat absorption. /t is converted into metabolically active form by ultraviolet rays of sun.
STORA(E
Vitamin D is stored in body in an active form ?5dehydrocholestrol.
DEFICIENCIES
)he deficiency of vitamin D adversely affect calcium ! phosphrous absorption ! leads to various disorders$
5 3ickets in children
5 +steomalacia in adults
5 0alformation of teeth
5 Delayed teeth eruption
5 )etany
VITAMIN E OR TOCO53EROL
Vitamin . is also known as antisterlity vitamin. #ecause evans ! bishop found that this fat soluble vitamin ia
necessary for reproduction in rats. *o, name tocopherol was suggested by keeping this as basic. H)okosE greek
word means HbirthE ! HpheroE, Hto carryE ! HolE ending depicts alcohol nature of vitamin ..
RDA
3D( for vitamin . is linked to polyunsaturated fatty acid. )he re"uirement of vitamin . suggested by /C03 is
;.>mgIg of essential fatty acid.
DIETAR2 SOURCES
Vegetable oil, nuts ! whole grains
FUNCTIONS
$% Act a anti o6idant
Vitamin . itself undergoes oidation by reacting with free radicals or oidiFing agent. *o prevent
oidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid, vitamin ( ! C
'% Role in re+rod"ction
.perimentally it has been shoen in animals like rat that vitamin . is essential for healthy pregnancy !
averting miscarriage
,% Anti a1in1
(s vitamin . scavenges free radicals. *o, it keeps the skin younger ! protects cell membrane
ABSOR5TION * METABOLISM
7athway for absorption of vitamin . is similar to that fats ! other fat soluble vitamins.
STORA(E
Vitamin . is stored in adipose tissue
DEFICIENC2
%. 1ervous system disorders
*ensory weakness ! disturbances uncoordinated movements called ataia
&. *terility$ not proved in humans
3. Destruction of 3#Cs
<. 0alfunctioning of immune system
VITAMIN 7 OR 532LLO8UINONE
)his vitamin is also known as antihemorrhagic factor or coagulation vitamin. /t is necessary for preventing
hemorrhage ! essential for normal blood clotting as vitamin 2 is essential for synthesis of prothrombin ! other
blood clotting factor.
RDA
/nfants %;5&;Gg
(dults ?;5%<;Gg
DIETAR2 SOURCES
green leafy vegetables5spinach, coriander, raddish leaves, cauliflower, cabbage, soyabean, meat ! dairy
products.
FUNCTIONS
5 #lood coagulation, promotes synthesis of prothrombin for normal clotting
5 .ssential in formation of other clotting factors
ABSOR5TION * METABOLISM
Vitamin 2 is a fat soluble . so, it is absorbed in presence of bile. *o, it is usually absorbed in upper portion of
the small intestine.
DEFICIENC2
%. 1eonatal haemorrhage
&. +ther causes of hemorrhage$ prolonged usage of antibiotics, malabsorption of fat also leads to
malabsorption of vitamin 2.
4ATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
VITAMIN C OR ASCORBIC ACID
(s vitamin C is well known for curing scurvy. *o it is also called antiscorbutic. Vitamin C is also known
antioidant.
RDA
.9m1:day
RDA OF VITAMIN C (ICMR!
(ro"+ Vitamin C m1:day
0an <;
'oman <;
7regnant woman <;
-actation >;
/nfants @;5%& monthsA &6
Children <;
#oys ! girls %;5%> yrs <;
DIETAR2 SOURCES
7lant origin$ fresh fruits ! vegetables.
(mla richest source
9uava, citrus fruits
FUNCTIONS
%. Collagen formation
Collagen, the structural material which acts as cementing material between the cells, is formed with the
help of vitamin C. in the synthesis of collaen, ascorbic acid is necessary for hydroylation
&. 'ound healing
)he process of collagen formation eplains the role of vitamin C in wound healing
3. *ynthesis of neurotransmitter
)he reaction of conversion of tryptophan to serotonin a neurotransmitter ! formation of norepinephrine
from tyrosine involve hydroylation reaction. Hydroylation reaction may use vitamin C
<. 7revention of gall stone formation
Vitamin C possess antioidant acting property. *o, it helps in conversion of cholesterol to bile acid. *o,
cholesterol do not precipitate as gall stones
6. /ron absorption
Vitamin C enhances absorption of iron by acting as reducing agent ! reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron.
8. Drug detoification
Vitamin C has shown drug detoifying properties. *o, its essential to be present in optimal level.
ABSOR5TION * METABOLISM
Vitamin C is absorbed in JeDunum by sodium dependent active transport mechanism
DEFICIENC2
%. Defect in collagen formation$ Collagen the cementing material between cells re"uire vitamin C for the
formation
&. Delayed wound healing$ as vitamin C is re"uired for collagen formation. *o, in the case of deficiency of
vitamin C wound healing is delayed
3. *curvy
<. Cessation of bone growth
VITAMIN B COM5LE;
VITAMIN B
$
OR T3IAMINE
)his vitamin was isolated from rice bran. )he identification of its structure ! synthesis was done by
Dr.3.3.'illiams. vitamin #
%
is widely known for preventing deficiency disease #eri5#eri.
RDA
;.6mgI%;;; kcal for adults ! ;.3mgI%;;;kcal for infants
9roup )hiamine mgIday
0an
*edentary %.&
0oderate %.<
Heavy work %.8
'oman
*edentary ;.=
0oderate %.%
Heavy worm %.&
7regnany woman K;.&
-actation ;.&5;.3
So"rce
Least richest source
+uter layers of cereals like rice, wheat ! millets
,nmilled cereals, pulses, nuts like groundnuts
F"nction
%. Carbohydrate metabolism
&. 1ormal growth
3. 7roper heart functioning
A0or+tion * meta0olim
)he maimum absorption of thiamine occurs in the parts of small intestine i.e.DeDunum ! ileum. (ctive
absorption takes place by sodium dependent active mechanism.
De#iciency
%. 'et beri beri
&. #eri beri
3. /nfantile beri beri
<. (noreia
6. 0ental depression
8. Fatigue ! emotional instability
?. /rritability, depression ! anger
>. 'eight ! strength loss