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Mythological Accounts of Buddhism in Nepal

Milan Shakya
Chakupat, Lalitpur

The Kingdom of Nepal endowed with enchanted snowy peaks, lakes and caves has been
aptly described as the land of Buddhas. The discovery of three Asokan pillars has
revealed the native towns of three Buddhas viz. Krakucchanda, Kanakamuni and
Sakyamuni Buddha at Gotihawa, Niglihawa and Lumbini in the south-west Terai regions
of Nepal.

Lumbini, the birth-place of Lord Sakyamuni Buddha is the sacred place for Buddhists
from all over the world. A veteran Asian traveller and author of several books, writes:

As millions of Muslim turn to Mecca, so do the three hundred million Buddhists


see in the sacred kingdom of Nepal a hollowed thicket marked by a pillar left by
the great Asoka where the Sakyamuni was born. Buddhists knew that the site was
in Nepal.

Dr. Fuhrer, an archaologist from Germany, while wandering about the foothills of the
Churia range had discovered this massive stone pillar erected by the Emperor Asoka who
visited there in 250 BCE. to pay homage to the birth place of Buddha.

Hence it has further strenghtened the sanctity of the land. The date of introduction of
Buddhism in Nepal cannot be stated accurately because of the lack of the authentic
historical materials. Textual sources provide affirmation that Buddhism was introduced in
Nepal during the Buddha’s period. The Mula-sarvastivada vinaya samgraha, compiled
by Jinamitra and translated by I-tsing in 700 CE. mentions in an episode relating to the
transport of wool, a group of Bhiksus en route toward Nepal (Ni-po-lo) at the time the
Buddha was residing at Sravasti. In the same text it is stated that Ananda, Buddha’s
cousin, went to Kathmandu valley to meet his neighbours. Ananda came back to Sravasti
with his toes bitten by frost. Seeing his condition the Bhiksus enquired of climatic
condition in Nepal and cause of his frost bitten toes. Ananda replied that Nepal is the
place surrounded by tall big mountains covered with snow, many waterfalls and a lot of
cold rivers. It was through these rivers and snowy mountains that he had to walk
barefooted, thus his foot was frost bitten. The people of Nepal used to wear shoes to
protect themselves from cold and frost. Buddha later mady vinaya to use shoes for the
monks.

Nepalese Chroniclers asserts that Sakyamuni Buddha visited Svayambhu Stupa from
Kapilavastu after meeting his father Suddhodana. Sakyamuni Buddha was given a grand

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reception in Lumbini along with a host of deities including Brahma, Visnu, Mahesvara,
Kuvera and others. A song describing the visit of Lord Buddha in Lumbini is even today
very popular in the Kathmandu valley.

In the period of Jitedasti, Sakyamuni Buddha came to the Kathmandu valley to preach
the doctrine and worship at the holy shrine of Svayambhu. Sakyamuni Buddha
remembering the glory of previous Buddhas, saluted thrice to Svayambhu Stupa and
offered a hymn. Sakyamuni Buddha declared that he had came to pay homage to Lord
Svayambhu seven times in seven different births. Then he move to western part of
Svayambhu hill called Gosringa Hill and there he gave the discourses on the origin of
Svayambhu Stupa at the request of Maitreya Bodhisattva. Thus the history of Buddhism
in the Kathmandu valley begins from the origin of Svayambhu itself. It would be no
exaggeration to say that the origin of the Kathmandu Valley, heart and capital of Nepal,
coincides with the origin of the Glorious Svayambhu Mahacaitya itself. This great caitya
is the oldest and most distinctive among all the caityas of the entire Asian continent, and
has been regarded as a center of living Buddhist heritage even to the present day.

According to Svayambhu Purana, a discourse on the origin of Svayambhu Stupa by


Lord Buddha, ninety one aeons ago, or in the Age of Dharma (the Satya yuga or Golden
Age), the Kathmandu valley was a big lake full of water, Nagarhada, the abode of
serpents. Once Lord Vipasvi Buddha appeared in this world and came to the lake from
the city of Bandhumati. He threw a lotus seed from Jatamatrocca Hill now called
Jamacho or Nagarjuna Hill. At that time Satyadharma Bodhisattva, who was to become
Sakyamuni Buddha was following Vipasvi Buddha. Lord Vipasvi Buddha, then threw a
lotus seed into the lake. When his disciples asked why he did so, Lord Vipasvi explained
that there would appear a self-orginated divine light, a manifestation of Adi-Buddha from
Akanistha Bhuvana. People would call it Svayambhu Mahacaitya. He also predicted that
in the future Bodhisattva Manjusri would drain the water off from the valley and make it
habitable land. Thus it will be a sacred land full of deities and will be protected by Lord
Svayambhu a symbol of voidness. Thus the Jatamatrocca hill was blessed by Lord
Vipasvi Buddha. A big white Caitya was constructed there to commemorate the visit of
Lord Vipasvi Buddha. On the memory of planting of lotus seed by Vipasvi Buddha a
festival is held even today in the month of Caitra Purnima (March). In Nepal it is called
Lhutipuhni.

In due course of time, Lord Sikhi Buddha knowing that a self-originated divine light
has appeared on the beautiful blooming thousand petalled lotus, came from the city of
Arun to pay homage to it with his disciples along with Ksemaraj Grahapati who was to
become Sakyamuni Buddha. Later Sikhi Buddha composed a hymn in praise of Lord
Svayambhu. and he merged one with Lord Svayambhu. He predicted that from the root of
the lotus an image of Nairatma the goddess of non-self, will appear. This he preaced in
the southern mountain called dhyanocca (Height of Meditation). To commemorate the

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day of arrival of Lord Sikhi Buddha a festival is still held in the new year day of Nepalese
Calender. It is called Mesa Samkranti (Khai Sanlu) in Nepal.

Then Glorious Visvabhu Tathagata came from the city of Anupama and paid homage
to Sri Svayambhu Jyotirupa from the top of Mount Phulachho.

After many more years had lapsed, the Bodhisattva Manjusri went from Great China
to Mahamandap Giri (Nagarkot), where he conceived the idea of draining the vast and
immense Nagadaha Lake, so that the place could be made habitable for humans, who
could then properly worship this Self-Born One. He firmly resolved to drain the lake for
the benefit of both gods and human beings by demolishing the mountains of Gokarna,
Aryaghat, Chobhar and Kwoduva. In fact, he succeeded in doing exactly what he
intended.

Manjusri then excavated a lake called Taudaha for the remaining serpent kings to
dwell in. Later he caused the Taudaha lake to be known by the name of Dhanadaha and
Dvadasatirtha (Twelve Sacred Sites). One place then became famous as the Dharmodaya
or Glorious Guhyesvari (Secret Goddess). This was the very spot where the seeds were
planted, resulting in the arisal of the Self-Born One.

Owing to the awesome power of this Jyotirupa, Manjusri Bodhisattva founded a small
town suitable for people and named it Manjupattan. Realizing that the country and the
people cannot be administered properly without a king, he declared his own disciple
Dharmakara to be the first king of Nepal. At the same time, he educated the inhabitants in
the various arts and sciences. Thus he succeeded in making the country civilized and
well-cultured. This is the reason that the people call him Vagishvara, Lord of speech even
to the present day. And that is why Shantikara built the Manjusri chaitya behind the
Svayambhu hill to commemorate the contribution of Manjusri Bodhisattva. It exists even
today. A festival is still held in the month of January to commemorate the date of arrival
of Manjusri Bodhisattva from Great China. Millions of visitors came here to pay homage
to this Bodhisattva of Learning. According to Lunar Calender, this date corresponds to
Magh Sukla Pancami (February).

Following Manjusri’s visit, the Glorious Krakuchhanda Tathagata arrived here from
the city of Ksemavati. Having paid homage to the Jyotirupa, he made his way to the
Vakdvara forest on the northern hills of the Kathmandu Valley. Finding no water there to
ordain his disciples, who were led by the Brahmin Gunadhvaja and the Ksatriya
Abhayandada, he then meditated and propitiated the power of his speech, which finally
produced the water. That is why the river which was created through his speech (vac) was
known as Bagmati Tirtha and this place is called Vakdvara

In the same way Kanakamuni Buddha, remembering the deeds of former Buddhas
also came to pay homage to Lord Svayambhu and preached the doctrines extensively.

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After his parinirvana a stupa was erected near Kapilavastu at Niglihawa in the western
Terai region of Nepal.

In course of time, Buddha Kasyapa from Varanasi came to Kathmandu to pay


homage to Lord Svayambhu as had been done by previous Buddhas. At that time Jyoti
Raj Bodhisattva, who was to later become Sakyamuni Buddha was following with this
Buddha along with such chief disciples as Tisya, Uttama and Sothita. After performing
worship he returned to his country, Varanasi. He then went to Gaud (probably modern
Orissa in India). In that city there lived a pious king, Pracanda Deva, who used to subdue
his enemies and appreciated the deeds of the sages. After taking blessings and
instructions from Tathagata Kasyapa he went to Kathmandu renouncing all his kingdom.
Later king Pracanda deva paid his homage to Lord Svayambhu and became a disciple of
Bhiksu gunakara. Bhiksu Gunakara ordained and initiated him in the Sutras and Tantras.
He was then called Santasri.

Bhiksu Santasri, thinking that in later period people with evil mind might destroy this
self-originated divine light decided to cover it by erecting a stupa over it. Bhiksu,
Gunakara, a disciple of Bodhisattva Manjusri gave him permission to consecrate the
construction of the Stupa and conferred on him the title of Vajracarya. Since then he was
called Santikara Acarya. After completing the stupa he went to retreat in Santipur.

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g]kfndf a'4wd{sf] kf}/fl0fs ljj/0f
g]kfnL cg'jfb

lxdfR5flbt kj{t ;[+vnf, tfntn}of, u'kmfx¿n] el/Psf] Ps dgf]/d / nf]enfUbf] b]z


g]kfnnfO{ a'4x¿sf] b]z eg]/ 7Ls} elgPsf] /x]5 . tLg a'4x¿ h:t} qms'R5Gb, sgsd'lg
/ zfSod'lg o; kljq g]kfnsf] t/fO{+ If]qdf cjl:yt qmdz uf]l6xjf, lglUnxjf /
n'lDagLdf hlGdg'ePsf] xf] eg]/ 7f]s]/ k|dfl0ft u/]/ /flvPsf czf]s :tDex¿ ;f]xL
:yfgg]/ e]l6Psf 5g\ .

;+;f/e/sf af}4dfuL{ / a'4k|lt cf:yf /fVg]x¿sf nflu g]kfnsf] n'lDagL eujfg\


zfSod'lg a'4sf] hGdynf]sf ¿kdf Pp6f kljq :yn aGgk'u]sf] 5 . o; 7fpFsf af/]df
Ps w'/Gw/ PlzofnL ofqL / w]/} g} lstfjx¿sf n]vs dxf]bon] o:tf] n]Vg'ePsf] 5 M

s/f]8f}F d';ndfgx¿n] dSsfnfO{ Ps Psbd} kljq :ynsf ¿kdf lnPh:t} tLg


s/f]8 af}4dfuL{x¿n] o; e"efunfO{ zfSod'lg a'4 hlGdg'ePsf] / ;f]sf]
k|df0fsf ¿kdf dxf;d|f6 czf]sn] :tDe uf8]/ uPsf] Ps cToGt} kljq
:ynsf ¿kdf lnG5g\ . ;a} af}4dfuL{x¿nfO{ Tof] 7fpF g]kfndf k5{ eGg] s'/f
yfxf 5 .

8f= k'm//n] r'l/of kj{t >]0fLsf km]bL x'Fb} ofqf ul//x]sf a]nf O{zf k"j{ @%) lt/ a'4sf]
hGdynf] bz{g ug{ To; 7fpFdf cfPsf ;d|f6 czf]sn] lgdf{0f u/]sf] Psbd 7"nf] kTy/sf]
:tDe km]nf kf/]sf lyP .

To;sf/0f o;n] o; If]qsf] kljqtfnfO{ yk dha't kfg{ ;3fp k'¥ofPsf] 5 .


k|fdfl0fs Pltxfl;s ;fdu|Lx¿sf] cefjsf sf/0f g]kfndf slxn] jf s'g ltlydf
a'4wd{sf] k|fb'ef{j eof] eGg] s'/f osLgsf ;fy ;xL ;xL eGg uf¥xf] 5 . a'4wd{ g]kfndf
a'4sfnd} lelqPsf] xf] eGg] u|Gy k|df0fx¿ kfOG5 . O{=;+= &)) df OlT;Ëåf/f cg'jflbt /
hLgldqåf/f ;+slnt d"n;j{fl:tjfb ljgo ;+u|xdf Tolta]nf a'4 >fjl:tdf lj/fhdfg
x'g'ePsf] a]nf s]xL leIf'x¿ g]kfnlt/ klg cfPsf lyP / To;a]nf g]kfndf pgLsf] Jofkf/
x'GYof] eGg] s'/f pNn]lvt ul/Psf] 5 . To;}df c¿ s] klg elgPsf] 5 eg] eujfg\ a'4sf]
lglh cg'r/ cfgGb cfˆgf cfkmGtx¿nfO{ e]6\g sf7df08f} pkTosf cfpg'ePsf] lyof] .
>fjl:tlt/ kms{bf cfgGbsf] v'§fsf] cf}+nf lxpFn] vfPsf] lyof] . cfgGbsf] To:tf] cj:yf
b]v]kl5 leIf'x¿n] g]kfnsf] df};dsf] af/]df cfgGbnfO{ ;f]w] / ;fy} s;/L pgsf] v'§f
o;/L lxpFn] vfof] eg]/ klg ;f]w] . cfgGbsf] hjfkm o:tf] lyof] M g]kfn lxpFn] 9flsPsf
7"N7"nf lxdfn, kxf8, em/gf / w]/} lr;f gbLx¿n] el/Psf] b]z xf] . tL lr;f gbL /
lxdfR5flbt kj{tx¿df d}n] gfËf] v'§f lx8\g' k¥of] . To;} sf/0fn] ubf{ d]/f] v'§f lxpFn]
5
vfof] . g]kfnsf dfG5]x¿ cfkm"nfO{ lr;f] / lxpFaf6 arfpg h'Qf nufpg] ub{5g\ .
cfgGbsf] j[tfGt ;'lg;s]kl5 kl5 a'4n] klg leIf'x¿nfO{ h'Qfsf] k|of]u ug]{ ljgo
agfOlbg'eof] .

zfSod'lg a'4 cfˆgf] a'jf ;'4f]bgnfO{ e]6]kl5 slknj:t'af6 :joDe" :t"k bz{g ug{
cfpg'ePsf] lyof] eGg] s'/f g]kfnL k'/f0fx¿df pNn]lvt ul/Psf] kfOG5 . Tolta]nf
zfSod'lg a'4nfO{ a|Xdf, lji0f', dx]Zj/, s'j]/ nufotsf b]jL b]jtfx¿n] n'lDagLdf eJo
:jfut u/]sf lyP . zfSod'lg a'4 n'lDagLdf cfpg'ePsf] j[tfGtnfO{ JofVof u/]sf] uLt
cBflk sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf lgs} nf]slk|o /x]sf] 5 .

;ftf}F ls/f+tL /fhf lht]b:tLsf] /fHosfndf zfSod'lg a'4 sf7df8f}df cfP/ :joDe"
dxfr}Tosf] k"hf cr{gf u/]/ ;f]xL 7fpFdf ;4d{ b]zgf ug'{ePsf] lyof] . ctLtsf a'4x¿sf]
dlxdf :d/0f ub}{ zfSod'lg a'4n] :joDe" dxfr}TonfO{ tLg kN6 gdg u/]/ :tf]q jfrg
ug'{ePsf] lyof] . cfkm" Tof] 7fpFdf :joDe" dxfr}Tosf] bz{g ug{ ;ft k"j{hGd;Dd ljleGg
tyfutx¿sf] lzio eP/ cfPsf] s'/f klg zfSod'lg a'4n] atfpg'eof] . To;kl5
zfSod'lg a'4 uf]>[Ë gfd u/]sf] :joDe"sf] klZrdL 8f8fdf hfg'eof] / ToxL d}q]o
af]lw;™jsf] ljgd| cg'/f]wdf :joDe" pTklQ -:joDe" k'/f0f_ syfsf] b]zgf ug'{eof] . ctM
sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf] a'4wd{sf] Oltxf; :joDe"sf] pTklQ ;+u} ;'? ePsf] dflgG5 . csf]{
zAbdf eGg'kbf{ g]kfnsf] /fhwfgL sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf] pTklt >L :joDe" dxfr}Tosf]
pTklt ;+u} hf]l8Psf] 5 eGbf s'g} cTo'lQm gxf]nf . ;Dk"0f{ Plzof dxfåLks} ;a}
r}Tox¿dWo] of] ;a}eGbf k'/fgf] / ;a} eGbf cnu dxfr}To xf] / cfh klg o;
dxfr}TonfO{ hLljt af}4 ;Dkbfsf] s]Gb|sf ¿kdf dflgG5 .

zfSod'lg a'4n] atfpg'ePsf] :joDe" k'/f0fsf cg';f/ PSsfgAa] sNk cl3 jf ;To
o'udf xfnsf] of] sf7df08f} pkTosf kfgL g} kfgLn] el/Psf] Pp6f 7"nf] bx lyof] h;nfO{
gfux¿sf] lgjf;:yfg gfu¥xb jf sfnL¥xb elgGYof] . PskN6 ljkZjL tyfut aGw'dlt
eGg] gu/af6 o; pkTosfdf cfpg'eof] . ljkZjL tyfutn] hftdfqRrf] kj{t -hfdfrf]
jf gfufh'{g 8fF8f_ af6 To; bxdf sdn km"nsf] aLp 5g'{eof] . zfSod'lg a'4 Tof] a]nf
;Towd{ af]lw;™jsf ¿kdf hlGdg'ePsf] lyof] . ;Towd{ af]lw;™j ljkZjL a'4sf] lzio
lyP . ljkZjL a'4n] o;/L sdnsf] jLp bxdf kmfn]kl5 pxfFsf lziox¿n] …lsg To;f]
ug'{ePsf]<Ú egL sf/0f ;f]w] . hjfkmdf ljkZjL tyfutn] JofVof ug'{eof], …Tof] 7fpFdf
kl5 :joDe" lbJo Hof]lt¿k, cslgi7 e'jgaf6 kbfk{g ePsf cflba'4sf] ¿k k|s6 x'g]5
. dflg;x¿n] o;nfO{ :joDe" dxfr}To eg]/ ;Daf]wg ug]{5g\ .Ú pxfFn] o:tf] eljiojf0fL
klg ug'{eof], …eljiodf oxfF d~h'>L af]lw;™jsf] cfudg x'g]5 / pgn] o; pkTosfsf
kfgL ;a} ;'sfP/ o; 7fpFnfO{ a:tLof]Uo agfpg]5g\ . ctM b]jL b]jtfx¿af6 el/k"0f{ o;
gu/LnfO{ :joDe" wd{wft'sf] k|tLsn] ;'/Iff ug]{5 . oL ;a} eljiojf0fL u/]/ ljkZjL
6
tyfutn] hftdfqRrf] kj{tnfO{ clwli7t kfg'{eof] . eujfg\ ljkZjL tyfutsf]
cfud0fnfO{ ;+:d/0f ug{sf nflu To; kj{tsf] lzv/df Pp6f 7"nf] Zj]t r}Tosf] :yfkgf
ul/Psf] 5 . ljkZjL a'4n] sdnsf] aLp 5/]sf] ;+:d/0fdf cfhklg r}q k"l0f{dfsf lbg
ljz]if kj{sf] cfof]hgf ul/G5 To;nfO{ g]kfndf Nx'ltk'lGx elgG5 .

sfnfGt/df ;x;|kqbn;lxtsf] sdnk'ikdfly :joDe" Hof]lt¿k k|s6 ePsf] 5 eGg]


s'/f hfg]/ c?0f gu/af6 o; Hof]lt¿ksf] bz{g ug{ cfˆgf If]d/fh u[xklt -zfSod'lg
a'4sf] k"j{hGd_ nufotsf lziox¿sf] ;fydf lzlv tyfut pkTosf cfpg'eof] . kl5
lzlv tyfut WofgfRrf] eGg] blIf0fL kj{tsf] lzv/df cfˆgf lziox¿nfO{ wd{]fkb]z
ug'{eof] . lzlv tyfutsf] cfud0fsf] ;+:d/0fdf clxn]klg g]kfnL kfqf] cg';f/ gofF
jif{sf] lbg ljz]if kj{ dgfOG5 . To; kj{nfO{ d]if ;+qmflGt jf vfO;FNx' elgG5 .

To;kl5 cg'kd gu/af6 ljZje" tyfut cfpg'eof] / km"nRrf] kj{tsf] lzv/df a;L
>L :joDe" Hof]lt¿ksf] bz{g ug'{eof] .

w]/} ;do lalt;s]kl5, d~h'>L af]lw;™j dxfrLgsf] k~rzLif{kj{taf6 g]kfnd08ndf


cfpg'eof] / dxfd08k lul/ -gu/sf]6_ hfg'eof] . ToxfF a;]/ pxfFn] To; cToGt} ljzfn
/ j[xt gfu¥xb bxsf kfgLnfO{ aflx/ k7fP/ pkTosfnfO{ j:tL of]Uo agfpg] / :joDe"
Hof]lt¿ksf] klg dflg;x¿nfO{ ;j{;'ne lsl;dn] bz{g u/fpg] ljrf/ ug'{eof] . b]j
dg'io ;a}sf] lxtnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL bxsf] kfgLnfO{ aflx/ k7fpg] pxfFn] c6n lg0f{o
ug'{eof] . To;}n] pxfF uf]s0f{, cfo{3f6, rf]ef/ / Sjf]b'jfn kj{tx¿nfO{ km'6fP/ bxsf] kfgL
aflx/ kmfNg ;kmn x'g'eof] .

d~h'>Ln] To;kl5 tf}bx eGg] :yfgdf pTvgg\ u/]/ bx agfpg'eof] / afFsL


gfux¿nfO{ ToxfF /fVg'eof] . To;kl5 tf}bx wgfbx jf åfbztLy{sf] ¿kdf klg kl/lrt
x'guof] . Pp6f 7fpF wdf]{bo jf >L u'Xo]Zj/Lsf] ¿kdf klg lrlgg yfNof] . u'x]Zj/L ToxL
7fpF lyof] hxfF sdnsf] aLp ˆoflnPsf] lyof] h;af6 sfnfGt/df :joDe" Hof]lt¿ksf]
pbo eof] .

:joDe" Hof]lt¿ksf] dxfg zlQmn] d~h'>L af]lw;™jn] dflg;x¿ a:g of]Uo Pp6f
;fgf] ;x/sf] lgdf{0f ug'{eof] h;nfO{ d~h'k§g eg]/ gfdfs/0f ul/of] . /fhflagf b]z /
dflg;x¿nfO{ zf;g ug{ ;lsFb}g eG7fgL d~h'>Ln] cfˆg} Pshgf lzio wdf{s/nfO{ To;
gu/sf k|yd /fhf agfOlbg'eof] . ToxLa]nf pxfFn] gu/jf;Lx¿nfO{ ljleGg snf / ljBf
l;sfOlbg'eof] . t;y{ d~h'k§g emg\ emg\ ;Do / ;';+:s[t x'Fb} uof] . ToxLsf/0fn]
dflg;x¿ d~h'>LnfO{ clxn];Dd klg jfuLZj/ klg eGb5g\ . To;}n] zflGts/frfo{n]
d~h'>L af]lw;™jsf] dxfg of]ubfgsf] ;+:d/0f ug{sf nflu :joDe" 8fF8fsf] k5fl8
7
d~h'>L r}Tosf] lgdf{0f ug'{ePsf] lyof] . d~h'>L r}To cBflk ljBdfg 5Fb}5 .
dxfrLgaf6 d~h'>L af]lw;™jsf] cfud0fnfO{ ;+:d/0f ug{sf nflu df3 dlxgfdf df3
z'Sn k~rdL jf j;Gt k~rdL jf >L k~rdL eg]/ dgfOG5 .

d~h'>Lsf] cfud0fkl5 If]dfjtL gu/af6 >L qms'R5Gb tyfut cfpg'eof] . Hof]lt¿ksf]


bz{g ul/;s]kl5 pxfF sf7df08f} pkTosfsf] pQ/L kxf8df cjl:yt jfs\åf/ h+unlt/
k|:yfg ug'{eof] . ToxfF cfˆgf j|fXd0f u'0fWjh / If]qLo ceofgGb nufotsf lziox¿nfO{
k|j|lht ug{ kfgL ge]l6Pkl5 pxfF ;dflwi7 eO{ cfˆgf] jfs\ zlQmnfO{ cledlGqt ug'{eof]
/ cGttM hn pTkGg ug'{eof] . t;y{ jfs\sf] zlQmaf6 ;[hgf ul/Psf] gbL ePsf] sf/0fn]
jfudlt tLy{ eGg yflnof] / Tof] 7fpFnfO{ jfs\åf/ elgof] . To;kl5 s]zfjtL, k|efjtL /
lji0f'dlt h:tf gbLx¿ klg aGg yfn] . kl5 ljleGg cf7 kljq :ynx¿ h:t}
dl0flnË]Zj/ -dl0fr"8 bx_, uf]s0f]{Zj/ -uf]s0f{_, sLn]Zj/ -;SjrË'_, s'De]Zj/ -SjlGt_,
ut]{Zj/, kml0fs]Zj/ -kmlk{Ë_, uGw]Zj/ -rf]ef/_ / ljqmd]Zj/ -xnRjf] OrË'_ ag] . oL cf7
:ynx¿nfO{ ci6 j}t/fu klg elgG5 / cf7hgf af]lw;™jx¿;+u ;DalGwt 5g\ .
To;kl5 tLy{x¿ h:t} uf]s0f{, zfGt tL0f{ u'Xo]Zj/L, z+s/ tLy{ z+vd"n, /fh tLy{
w+ltn, dgf]/y tLy{ v'l;FVo, lgd{n tLy{ erfv';L, lgwfg tLy{, nv tLy{, 1fg tLy{,
lrGtfdl0f tLy{ t]s' bf]efg, k|df]b tLy{, ;'nIf0f tLy{ / ho tLy{ Go]v' sf] lgdf{0f eof] .

o:t} k|sf/n] ctLtsf a'4x¿sf] rof{ :d/0f ub}{ sgsd'lg tyfut klg :joDe"sf]
bz{g ug{ cfpg'eof] / cToGt} Jofks lsl;dn] wd{b]zgf u/]/ hfg'eof] . pxfFsf]
kl/lgjf{0f kl5 g]kfnsf] klZrdL t/fO{sf] slknj:t' lhNnfl:yt lglUnxjfdf Pp6f
:t"ksf] lgjf{0f ul/Psf] lyof] .

To;/L g} sfnfGt/df ljutsf a'4x¿ h:t} jf/f0f;Laf6 sfZok tyfut eujfg\


:joDe"sf] bz{g ug{ sf7df8f}+ pkTosf cfpg'eof] . To; a]nf zfSod'lg a'4 Tof] hGddf
Hof]lt/fh af]lw;™j x'g'x'GYof] . Hof]lt/fh af]lw;™j sfZok tyfutsf] lzio lyP .
Hof]lt/fh af]lw;™j nufot ltZo, pQd / ;f]lyt h:tf cGo lziox¿sf ;fy sfZok
tyfut :joDe" cfpg'ePsf] lyof] . oxfF ljlwjt\ :joDe"sf] k"hf cr{gf ul/;s]kl5,
sfZok a'4 cfˆgf] b]z jf/f0f;L kms]{/ hfg'eof] . ToxfFaf6 pxfF uf}8 b]z -zfob ef/tsf]
xfnsf] cf]l/;f k|b]z_ tkm{ k|:yfg ug'{eof] . To; gu/df Ps wdf{Tdf /fhf k|r08 b]j
b'i6x¿nfO{ cfˆgf] jz\df kf/L d'lgx¿sf s[Tox¿nfO{ ;Ddfg ub}{ cToGt} Gofok"j{s /fHo
ul//fv]sf lyP . sfZok tyfutaf6 clwi7fg / pkb]z u|x0f ul/;s]kl5 /fhf k|r08b]j
cfˆgf ;a} /fhsfh, b]z Tofu]/ sf7df8f} pkTosf cfP . kl5 /fhf k|r08 b]jn] eujfg\
:joDe"sf] klg bz{g k"hf cr{gf ug'{eof] / leIf' u'0ffs/sf] lzio ag] . leIf' u'0ffs/n]
pgnfO{ k|j|Hof lbP/ ;"q / tGqx¿df lblIft kf/] . To;kl5 pgsf] gfd zfGt>L /xguof] .

8
leIf' zfGt>L slno'udf b'i6 lrQ ePsf JolQmx¿n] o; :joDe" lbJo Hof]lt¿knfO{
gf; ug]{5 eGg] s'/fsf] ljrf/ u/]/ To; Hof]lt¿knfO{ :t"ksf] cfsf/ lbO{ ;bfsf] nflu
5f]Kg] lg0f{o u/] . af]lw;™j d~h'>Lsf] lzio leIf' u'0ffs/n] :t"ksf] lgdf{0fsfo{nfO{
k|f0fk|lti7f ug]{ cg'dlt lbO{ zfGt>LnfO{ jh|frfo{sf] kbjL klg k|bfg u/] . To;a]nf b]lv
pgsf] gfd zflGts/ cfrfo{ /xg uof] . :t"k jf r}Tosf] lgdf{0f kl5 zflGts/ cfrfo{
zflGtk'/ u'kmfd} ;bf k'gZr/0fsf nflu k|j]z u/] .