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RUNNING HEAD: OBSERVATIONAL PAPER 1

Observational Paper
RUNNING HEAD: OBSERVATIONAL PAPER
Identity Development
Si!"#n$ %re#$ &as a &ell 'no&n "e$i(al $o(tor &)o $evelope$ t)e T)eor* o+
Personalit*, In )is T)eor* o+ Personalit*- %re#$ e.plore$ )is belie+ t)at t)e )#"an ps*()e &as
bro'en $o&n into t)ree #ne/#al parts: t)e i$- e!o- an$ s#pere!o, T)e i$ is t)e part o+ t)e
personalit* t)at is +o(#se$ on pleas#re an$ is roote$ in t)e #n(ons(io#s 0Se!rist- 1123, Believe$
b* %re#$ to be present at birt)- t)e i$ is t)e part o+ t)e personalit* t)at is (on(erne$ &it)
pleas#re- an$ onl* see's &a*s to obtain t)at !rati+i(ation, T)e e!o is t)e part o+ t)e personalit*
(on(erne$ &it) realit*, T)e e!o e.ists in bot) t)e (ons(io#s an$ #n(ons(io#s- an$ is (onstantl*
en!a!e$ in a str#!!le bet&een t)e i"p#lses o+ t)e i$- an$ t)e in+l#en(e o+ t)e s#pere!o, %re#$
believe$ t)at t)e e!o be!ins to establis) itsel+ $#rin! earl* ()il$)oo$ in an atte"pt to re!#late t)e
i$, T)e s#pere!o is t)e +inal personalit* part $etaile$ &it)in %re#$4s T)eor* o+ Personalit*- an$
is (on(erne$ &it) "oralit*, Li'e t)e e!o- t)e s#pere!o is +i.e$ &it)in t)e (ons(io#s an$
s#b(ons(io#s, T)e s#pere!o is +o(#se$ on "oral reasonin! an$ is o+ten (onstantl* (las)in! &it)
t)e i$- leavin! t)e e!o to sort bet&een t)e t&o, T)e s#pere!o also )o#ses t)e (ons(ien(e- an$ is
o+ten t)e pro$#(er o+ t)e +eelin! o+ !#ilt one "i!)t +eel, %re#$ believe$ t)at t)e s#pere!o
e"er!e$ in late ()il$)oo$,
Eri' Eri'son $evelope$ t)e t)eor* o+ t)e Ei!)t Sta!es o+ 5an a+ter st#$*in! %re#$4s
t)eor* &it) %re#$4s $a#!)ter- Anna, 6)ereas %re#$ +o(#se$ on t)e se.#al aspe(ts o+
$evelop"ent- Eri'son +o(#se$ on t)e so(ial an$ (#lt#ral aspe(ts o+ $evelop"ent, Eri'son
believe$ t)at a person "#st s#((ess+#ll* resolve a (risis be+ore "ovin! on to t)e ne.t sta!e o+
$evelop"ent, He also believe$ t)at i+ a person positivel* resolve$ a (risis- t)e person !aine$ a
RUNNING HEAD: OBSERVATIONAL PAPER 7
virt#e- s#() as )ope- a++e(tion- &ill8po&er- et(, Ho&ever- i+ a person $i$ not positivel* resolve a
(risis- t)e person &o#l$ e.perien(e pat)olo!*, Eri'son base$ )is t)eor* o++ t)e epi!eneti( "o$el
be(a#se )e ass#"e$ t)at ea() sta!e is in)erent &it)in ever*one, Eri'son4s Ei!)t Sta!es o+ 5an
are Basi( Tr#st vs, 5istr#st- A#tono"* vs, S)a"e 9 Do#bt- Initiative vs, G#ilt- In$#str* vs,
In+eriorit*- I$entit* vs, Role :on+#sion- Inti"a(* vs, Isolation- an$ Generativit* vs, Sta!nation,
%or t)e p#rpose o+ t)is paper- t)e +irst +ive sta!es &ill be e.pan$e$ #pon,
Basi( Tr#st vs, 5istr#st is t)e +irst Sta!e o+ 5an an$ o((#rs +ro" birt) #ntil aro#n$ 1;
"ont)s, In t)is sta!e- t)e in+ant is (o"pletel* reliant #pon its (areta'er in or$er to "eet all o+ its
nee$s, 6)en t)e in+ant4s nee$s are "et- t)e* ten$ to establis) a tr#stin! relations)ip &it) t)eir
(areta'er, As a res#lt- t)e in+ant &ill $evelop a pri"itive tr#st o+ people- an$ s#((ess+#ll*
resolves t)is sta!e b* !ainin! virt#es o+ $rive an$ )ope, Ho&ever i+ an in+ant4s nee$s are not
"et- t)is bree$s a !eneral "istr#st o+ people- an$ &ill )ave t)e pat)olo!* o+ &it)$ra&al, 6)en I
&as an in+ant- I &as solel* $epen$ent on "* parents to "eet all o+ "* nee$s, 5* parents )a$ to
+ee$ "e- (lot)e "e- ()an!e "e- bat)e "e- an$ also atten$ to "* ot)er nee$s, I &as born &it) a
"e$i(al (on$ition (alle$ (le+t lip an$ (le+t palate- &)i() re/#ire$ n#"ero#s s#r!eries an$ even
"ore spe(ialt* (are +ro" "* parents, Be(a#se o+ t)is- I $evelope$ a se(#re atta()"ent an$ a
tr#stin! relations)ip to "* parents,
A#tono"* vs, S)a"e 9 Do#bt is t)e se(on$ Sta!e o+ 5an an$ o((#rs $#rin! a ()il$4s
to$$ler *ears, Pott*8trainin! is )i!)l* i"portant $#rin! t)is sta!e- as it be(o"es in(reasin!l*
i"portant +or ()il$ren to be able to )an$le t)eir o&n bo$ies, In t)is sta!e ()il$ren be!in
*earnin! +or in$epen$en(e, B* $evelopin! a sense o+ (ontrol- ()il$ren &)o are able to "aintain
RUNNING HEAD: OBSERVATIONAL PAPER <
t)eir sel+8estee" &ill (#ltivate a sense o+ a#tono"*, T)e virt#es earne$ b* s#((ess+#ll*
(o"pletin! t)is sta!e are sel+8(ontrol an$ &illpo&er- )o&ever- t)e pat)olo!* earne$ b*
#ns#((ess+#ll* (o"pletin! t)is sta!e is t)at o+ a sense o+ over8(ontrol or loss o+ sel+8(ontrol,
6)en I &as a to$$ler- I &as pott* traine$ b* "* parents, T)e* &ere not too +or(e+#l- an$
#n$erstoo$ to allo& "e to )ave a sense o+ in$epen$en(e, T)is )elpe$ allo& "e to a()ieve a
sense o+ in$epen$en(e, T)ro#!)o#t t)is sta!e "* parents also be!an instillin! in "e t)e val#es
o+ (onstraint an$ $is(ipline, T)is allo&e$ "e to positivel* a$van(e to t)e ne.t Sta!e o+ 5an,
Initiative vs, G#ilt is t)e t)ir$ Sta!e o+ 5an an$ o((#rs $#rin! earl* ()il$)oo$, In t)is
sta!e- "o$elin! is a tre"en$o#s +a(tor, :)il$ren &ill o+ten en$eavor to "o$el t)e be)avior o+
a$#lts in t)eir lives, As t)e* pro!ress t)ro#!) t)is sta!e- initiative $evelops an$ in$epen$en(e
be(o"es an even !reater i"portan(e, Initiative (o#ples &it) a#tono"* an$ +osters a sense o+
e.ploration in ()il$ren, Positive (o"pletion o+ t)is sta!e *iel$s a sense o+ p#rpose an$ t)e
virt#es o+ p#rpose an$ $ire(tion- b#t ne!ative (o"pletion res#lts in a sense o+ !#ilt an$ t)e
pat)olo!* o+ in)ibition, 6)en I &as in earl* ()il$)oo$- I &as a )#!e "o$eler o+ "* +at)er,
6)atever "* +at)er &as $oin!- &)et)er it be (#ttin! t)e *ar$ or &or'in! on t)e (ar- I &as never
+ar be)in$ &it) "* plasti( la&n"o&er or little t*'e4s (ar +ollo&in! t)e e.a"ple o+ "* +at)er,
Aro#n$ t)is a!e I also be!an e.plorin! "* s#rro#n$in!s, I parti(ipate$ in pla*in! t)e sill*
!a"es t)at ()il$ren pla*, I pla*e$ )o#se- learne$ to ri$e a bi(*(le- an$ preten$e$ t)at "* to*s
)a$ a li+e o+ t)eir o&n, I +o#n$ t)e piano at ()#r()- an$ &it) approval o+ "* parents- be!an
pla*in! aro#n$ on it, T)ese e.perien(es allo&e$ "e to positivel* resolve t)is sta!e- an$ )elpe$
"e !ain t)e virt#es o+ p#rpose an$ $ire(tion,
RUNNING HEAD: OBSERVATIONAL PAPER =
In$#str* vs, In+eriorit* is t)e +o#rt) Sta!e o+ 5an an$ o((#rs in late ()il$)oo$, In t)is
sta!e- ()il$ren are learnin! to &or' to!et)er &it) t)eir peers- an$ !enerall* is (on(erne$ &it)
()il$ren be(o"in! (o"petent, :)il$ren a((o"plis) t)is b* $oin! &ell in t)eir s()ool li+e $#e to
t)e +or"ation or a()ieve"ent o+ 'no&le$!e, Positive (o"pletion o+ t)is sta!e *iel$s virt#es o+
"et)o$ an$ (o"peten(e- &)ereas ne!ative (o"pletion o+ t)is sta!e *iel$s in+eriorit* an$ t)e
pat)olo!* o+ ina(tivit*, 6)en I &as in late ()il$)oo$- I &as +#ll* i""erse$ in s()ool, I &as
e.(ellin! t)ro#!)o#t s()ool a(a$e"i(all*, I &as pla(e$ in t)e a((elerate$ learners pro!ra" at
"* ele"entar* > "i$$le s()ools, I learne$ to "a'e +rien$s an$ intera(t &it) ot)ers, I also be!an
bein! involve$ &it) t)e "#si(al pro!ra"s at "* s()ools- as &ell as bein! pla(e$ in private piano
lessons, Be(a#se o+ t)ese involve"ents- I &as able to s#((ess+#ll* (o"plete t)is sta!e,
I$entit* vs, Role :on+#sion is t)e +i+t) Sta!e o+ 5an an$ o((#rs $#rin! a$oles(en(e,
T)is is an e.tre"el* t#rb#lent ti"e in an a$oles(ent4s li+e as t)e* #n$er!o p#bert* an$ be!in to
+o(#s "ore on t)eir so(ial relations)ips, D#rin! t)is sta!e it is nat#ral +or an a$oles(ent to be!in
/#estionin! a((epte$ nor"s- an$ also be!in assi"ilatin! into !ro#ps o+ li'e8"in$e$ in$ivi$#als,
T)e in$ivi$#al i$entit* is (onstantl* bein! t)reatene$- as a$oles(ents are (onstantl* over8
i$enti+*in! &it) t)eir peers an$ !ro#p "e"bers, Ho&ever- s#((ess+#l (o"pletion o+ t)is sta!e
*iel$s t)e a$oles(ent (o""ittin! to an i$entit* an$ e"bra(in! t)e virt#es o+ $evotion an$
+i$elit*? ne!ative (o"pletion *iel$s a &ea' sense o+ sel+ an$ t)e pat)olo!* o+ aban$on"ent as
&ell as t)e +ail#re to ass#"e a (areer i$entit*, 6)en I &as in a$oles(en(e- I #n$er&ent p#bert*,
I starte$ to be(o"e "ore sel+ a&are o+ "*sel+ as &ell as "* (lass"ates, I also be!an a++iliatin!
"*sel+ &it) "* +ello& ban$ "ates- &)i() )a$ be(o"e anot)er (#lt#re #nto itsel+, T)ro#!)o#t
RUNNING HEAD: OBSERVATIONAL PAPER @
late "i$$le s()ool an$ +or t)e (o#rse o+ )i!) s()ool- I alrea$* )a$ in "in$ &)at I &ante$ to $o
&it) "* li+e, I 'ne& t)at I &ante$ to $o so"et)in! &it) "#si(, 5#si( is "* li+e- a+ter all, I )a$
$e(i$e$ ver* earl* on t)at I &o#l$ be(o"e a ban$ $ire(tor, D#e to t)is sta!e bein! (o"plete$
positivel*- I &as able to (o""it to an i$entit* an$ alrea$* )a$ a (areer !oal o#tline$,
Behaviorism
B, %, S'inner $evelope$ t)e t)eor* o+ operant (on$itionin! in 12<;, His e.peri"ents
revolve$ aro#n$ s)apin! an$ alterin! be)avior t)ro#!) t)e #tiliAation o+ rein+or(e"ent, T)#s
operant (on$itionin! itsel+ re+ers to t)e (ontrol o+ an in$ivi$#al4s vol#ntar* responses- an$ pla(es
parti(#lar e"p)asis on an in$ivi$#al4s a(tions, It (o"pensates t)e a(tions t)at lea$ to +avorable
(on(l#sions an$ p#nis)es t)ose a(tions t)at lea$ to #n+avorable (on(l#sions, T)is lea$s to t)e
repetition o+ +avorable be)aviors &)ile abstainin! +ro" t)e #n+avorable be)aviors, T)is is $one
t)ro#!) t)e #tiliAation o+ rein+or(e"ents- +or +avorable be)aviors- an$ p#nis)"ents- +or
#n+avorable be)aviors, Rein+or(e"ent is an*t)in! t)at in(reases t)e li'eli)oo$ t)at a parti(#lar
be)avior &ill (ontin#e- &)ereas p#nis)"ents are an*t)in! t)at "i!)t lessen t)e probabilit* t)at a
parti(#lar be)avior &ill (ontin#e, T)ere are t&o t*pes o+ rein+or(e"ent: positive an$ ne!ative
rein+or(e"ent, Positive rein+or(e"ent is t)e a$$ition o+ so"et)in! +avorable a+ter a parti(#lar
be)avior is (o""itte$- s#() as praise or treats- &)ile ne!ative rein+or(e"ent is t)e re"oval o+
so"et)in! #n+avorable a+ter a parti(#lar be)avior is (o""itte$- bot) )opin! to ens#re t)at a
parti(#lar be)avior is (ontin#e$, 6)en I &as !ro&in! #p- I &as positivel* rein+or(e$ +or
brin!in! )o"e !oo$ !ra$es b* earnin! a vi$eo !a"e rental- an$ I &as ne!ativel* rein+or(e$ &it)
t)e re"oval o+ ()ores on (ertain $a*s +or $oin! s#() a !oo$ Bob "aintainin! ()ores s()e$#les-
RUNNING HEAD: OBSERVATIONAL PAPER C
s#() as (leanin! t)e $is)es or va(##"in! t)e )o#se, Li'e&ise- t)ere are t&o t*pes o+
p#nis)"ent: p#nis)"ent I an$ p#nis)"ent II, P#nis)"ent I is t)e a$$ition o+ so"et)in!
#n+avorable a+ter a parti(#lar be)avior is e.e(#te$- s#() as (orporal p#nis)"ent- an$ p#nis)"ent
II is t)e re"oval o+ a +avorable event- s#() as !ro#n$in!- a+ter a parti(#lar be)avior )as
o((#rre$- &it) t)e pri"ar* obBe(t o+ bot) to $iss#a$e t)e parti(#lar be)avior +ro" bein! $one in
t)e +#t#re, In "* parti(#lar (ase- I e.perien(e$ p#nis)"ent I &)enever I !rievo#sl* "isbe)ave$-
an$ &o#l$ be (orporall* p#nis)e$ b* "* parents as a &a* to stop "e +ro" "isbe)avin!, I
e.perien(e$ p#nis)"ent II &)enever I &o#l$ brin! )o"e ba$ !ra$es &it) t)e re"oval o+ "*
vi$eo !a"es +or an entire se"ester #ntil t)e ne.t report (ar$ (a"e o#t, Alon! &it) t)e t&o t*pes
o+ rein+or(e"ent- t)ere e.ists t&o t*pes o+ s()e$#les #se$ to rein+or(e be)avior: (ontin#o#s an$
inter"ittent s()e$#les, :ontin#o#s rein+or(e"ent "eans t)at a parti(#lar be)avior is rein+or(e$
ever* ti"e it ta'es pla(e- &)ereas- &it) inter"ittent rein+or(e"ent- t)at sa"e parti(#lar be)avior
is onl* rein+or(e$ o((asionall*, Vi$eo !a"e rentals +or !oo$ !ra$es &ere a +or" o+ (ontin#o#s
rein+or(e"ent- as ever* ti"e I bro#!)t )o"e a !oo$ report (ar$ I &as re&ar$e$, Ot)er +or"s o+
rein+or(e"ent- li'e bein! ta'en o#t to eat +or !oo$ be)avior- &ere inter"ittent rein+or(e"ent-
an$ $i$ not o((#r ever* ti"e I &as on "* best be)avior,
Cognitive Development
Davi$ El'in$ st#$ie$ #n$er Pia!et an$ too' an interest in t)e $evelop"ent o+ e!o(entris"
&it)in Pia!et4s +or"al operational sta!e, He (a"e #p &it) t)e i$ea o+ a$oles(ent e!o(entris"-
an$ attrib#te$ to it t)ree patterns o+ t)o#!)t: t)e i"a!inar* a#$ien(e- t)e personal +able- an$ t)e
invin(ible +able, T)e i"a!inar* a#$ien(e is t)e Dbelie+ t)at ot)ers are preo((#pie$ &it) )is
RUNNING HEAD: OBSERVATIONAL PAPER ;
appearan(e an$ be)avior t)at (onstit#tes t)e e!o(entris" o+ t)e a$oles(entE 0El'in$- 12@C3, In
t)is pattern o+ t)o#!)t- an a$oles(ent is preo((#pie$ abo#t &)at t)eir peers D"i!)tE t)in' abo#t
t)e", Unless t)e* )ave t)e per+e(t )air- t)e per+e(t s)oes- t)e per+e(t o#t+it- t)e* +eel t)at t)e*
&ill be ()astise$ an$ "a$e +#n o+ b* ever*one- even t)o#!) t)e realit* o+ t)e sit#ation is t)at
"ost peers &on4t even noti(e so"et)in! #ntil it is pointe$ o#t to t)e", 6)en I &ent t)ro#!)
a$oles(en(e- I &as o+ no e.(eption to t)is pattern o+ t)o#!)t, I 0"ost li'el* in(orre(tl*3 ass#"e$
t)at ever*bo$*4s e*es &o#l$ be on "e +ro" t)e "o"ent I steppe$ on to t)e s()ool b#s at t)e
be!innin! o+ t)e $a* #ntil t)e "o"ent I steppe$ o++ t)e s()ool b#s at t)e en$ o+ t)e $a*,
Ho&ever as I !re& ol$er an$ "at#re$- I be!an to #n$erstan$ t)at "ost o+ "* peers $i$ not (are a
bit abo#t &)at I &ore,
T)e personal +able is t)e belie+ t)at an a$oles(ent4s +eelin!s are isolate$- an$ t)e* be!in to
+eel "ore an$ "ore #ni/#e, A$oles(ents #n$er!oin! t)is sta!e believe t)at nobo$* #n$erstan$s
t)e" or &)at t)e* are !oin! t)ro#!)- &)en t)e realit* is t)at t)eir e.perien(es are "ore li'e t)eir
peers4 t)an t)e* are &illin! to a$"it, As an a$oles(ent I too +ell #n$er t)is t)o#!)t pattern, I
t)o#!)t o+ "*sel+ as a spe(ial an$ #ni/#e in$ivi$#al- an$ t)at no one (o#l$ or &o#l$ #n$erstan$
t)e proble"s I &as !oin! t)ro#!), Nobo$* (o#l$ #n$erstan$ t)at it &as a&'&ar$ to tal' to !irls,
Nobo$* (o#l$ #n$erstan$ t)at I )a$ been $evelopin! into an introvert- an$ t)at I &as nat#rall*
a&'&ar$ in so(ial sit#ations, Ho&ever as ti"e &ent b* an$ I !re& an$ "at#re$- I (a"e to
realiAe t)at- as &it) t)e i"a!inar* a#$ien(e- I &as not t)e onl* spe(ial or #ni/#e person, I &as
not t)e onl* person &)o )a$ a terrible an$ irrational +ear o+ tal'in! to !irls, I &as not t)e onl*
person &)o )a$ $evelope$ into an introvert, T)is 'no&le$!e see"s +ar+et()e$ to an a$oles(ent
RUNNING HEAD: OBSERVATIONAL PAPER 2
&)ile t)e* are #n$er!oin! t)is pattern o+ t)o#!)t- b#t li'e "ost sta!es o+ t)o#!)t- on(e it is
positivel* a$van(e$ t)ro#!)- an in$ivi$#al is able to loo' ba(' an$ see it as a learnin!
e.perien(e- an$ are (apable o+ e"p)asiAin! &it) ot)ers &)o )ave not *et s#((ess+#ll* (o"plete$
t)is sta!e,
T)e invin(ible +able is an e.tre"el* (o""on pattern o+ t)o#!)t b* a$oles(ents- an$ "ore
espe(iall* "ale a$oles(ents, T)e* believe t)at t)e* are prote(te$- an$ ass#"e t)e attit#$e t)at
not)in! ba$ (o#l$ )appen to t)e", T)is o+ten res#lts in an in(rease o+ ris'* a(tivities t)at one
"a* not ot)er&ise parti(ipate in, InB#ries- inB#r*8relate$ $eat)s- an$ #nplanne$ pre!nan(ies
$#rin! t)e teen *ears are o+ten attrib#te$ to t)e invin(ible +able- an$ +or !oo$ reason, It isn4t t)at
teena!ers B#st si"pl* $on4t #n$erstan$ t)e (onse/#en(es o+ t)eir a(tions, T)e* "erel* believe
t)at t)e* &ill be t)e e.(eption, D#rin! "* a$oles(ent *ears I $e+initel* t)o#!)t o+ "*sel+ as
invin(ible- as I i"a!ine "ost teena!e "ales $o, T)e t)o#!)t o+ bein! serio#sl* inB#re$ never
(rosse$ "* "in$, It &asn4t #ntil I "at#re$ a bit "ore an$ realiAe$ B#st )o& bone8)ea$e$ so"e
o+ t)e $e(isions I "a$e $#rin! a$oles(en(e &ere- t)o#!) l#('il* I "ana!e$ to es(ape #ns(at)e$,
Moral Development
5oral $evelop"ent (on(entrates on t)e t)o#!)ts- be)aviors- an$ +eelin!s- (on(ernin!
intera(tions &it) ot)er people an$ &it) so(iet*, In or$er to e.plain t)is- Pia!et $evelope$ a
T)eor* o+ 5oral Develop"ent "a$e #p o+ t&o sta!es: )eterono"o#s an$ a#tono"o#s "oral
reasonin!, Heterono"o#s "oral $evelop"ent o((#rs bet&een t)e a!es o+ +ive an$ ten *ears ol$-
an$ +o(#ses on one perspe(tive onl*, R#les are #n()an!eable, 5otivation +or intent is not
(onsi$ere$- an$ t)e +o(#s is on be)avior o#t(o"es, T)e* believe t)at p#nis)"ent onl* )appens
RUNNING HEAD: OBSERVATIONAL PAPER 11
+or t)e sa'e o+ p#nis)"ent, A#tono"o#s "oral reasonin! o((#rs +ro" t)e a!e o+ ten on&ar$,
R#les are rational- an$ no lon!er (entere$ on one perspe(tive, Instea$ t)e ()il$ren are able to
(onsi$er "#ltiple perspe(tives, 5otivation +or intents are (onsi$ere$- an$ no lon!er $o t)e*
+o(#s on t)e be)avior o#t(o"es, T)e* believe t)at t)e p#nis)"ent s)o#l$ +it t)e (ri"e, It is
believe$ t)at intera(tion &it) peers )elp ()il$ren a$van(e +ro" )eterono"o#s t)in'in! to
a#tono"o#s t)in'in!, So(ial intera(tions +or(e ()il$ren to (onsi$er "#ltiple perspe(tives, As a
()il$- I (ertainl* re"e"ber ass#"in! t)at &)atever r#les &ere )an$e$ $o&n- eit)er +ro" "*
parents or +ro" tea()ers at s()ool- &ere #n()an!eable, 6)enever I &as in tro#ble- I va!#el*
re"e"ber t)in'in! t)at I &as bein! p#nis)e$ B#st +or t)e sa'e o+ bein! p#nis)e$, Ho&ever
so"e&)ere alon! t)e line- I be!an rationaliAin! an$ #n$erstan$in! t)at r#les &eren4t as ri!i$ as I
on(e believe$, I be!an a((eptin! t)at r#les (o#l$ be bent- an$ t)at &)enever I &as p#nis)e$-
t)ere &as a lo!i(al reason be)in$ it,
Conclusion
T)e t)eories (overe$ in t)is paper- an$ even t)e t)eories not (overe$ in t)is paper- are
instr#"ental to tea()ers an$ pro+essionals &)o $esire to "a'e an e++e(tive i"pa(t on st#$ents
an$ ()il$ren in !eneral, Un$erstan$in! &)at a ()il$ is !oin! t)ro#!) $#rin! t)e $i++erent parts
o+ t)eir li+e is (r#(ial to bein! able to rea() an$ e++e(tive tea() t)at ()il$, Havin! t)e 'no&le$!e
to #n$erstan$ )o& a ()il$ $evelops )elps tea()ers to $evise an e++e(tive lesson plan- be(a#se- +or
e.a"ple- *o# $on4t &ant to #tiliAe abstra(t lo!i(al state"ents i+ *o#r st#$ents )ave not entere$
t)e +or"al operational sta!e, Li'e&ise- *o# $on4t &ant to tea() *o#r +or"al operational sta!e
st#$ent t)e sa"e as *o# &o#l$ a (on(rete operational or pre8operational st#$ent, Un$erstan$in!
RUNNING HEAD: OBSERVATIONAL PAPER 11
an$ #tiliAin! t)e 'no&le$!e !aine$ +ro" t)ese t)eories (an also )elp e$#(ators plan +or an$
i$enti+* proble" areas in t)eir st#$ents4 be)avior- an$ )ave t)e s'ills an$ 'no&le$!e ne(essar* to
re$ire(t t)e st#$ent into "ore positive be)avior, T)e 'no&le$!e o+ t)e vario#s t*pes o+
rein+or(e"ents an$ p#nis)"ents (an also )elp an e$#(ator in $evisin! e++e(tive s()e"es in
&)i() to )elp "otivate t)eir st#$ents, T)is &ill res#lt in a "#() "ore e++i(ientl* r#n (lassroo"-
an$ *iel$ st#$ents &)o are "ore li'el* to be intereste$ an$ en!a!e$ in t)e (lass, Learnin! t)ese
vario#s t)eories an$ #tiliAin! t)ese t)eories are inval#able tools +or t)e (#rrent an$ +#t#re
e$#(ator ali'e,
RUNNING HEAD: OBSERVATIONAL PAPER 1
Re+eren(es
Se!rist- D, F, 01123, 6)atGs !oin! on in *o#r pro+essorGs )ea$H De"onstratin! t)e i$e-
e!o-
an$ s#pere!o, Teaching of Psychology, 36, =18=<.
El'in$- D, 012@C3, E!o(entris" in a$oles(en(e, Child Development, 380<3- 11=8117<,