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FILAMENT EXTRUDER

CHE 454
APRIL 25, 2014
Members: Khaled Abdel-Rahim, Mitchell Flynn, RJ Munn, and Kirk Riedner
Advisors: Dr. David Drown, Charles Cornwall
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................................... 2
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................... 3
FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................................... 6
INPUT/OUTPUT DIAGRAM ............................................................................................................................... 7
DESIGN DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................................ 8
RECOMMENDED DESIGN ............................................................................................................................... 14
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................................... 21
CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 23
REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................. 24
APPENDIX ...................................................................................................................................................... 26
SAFETY AND HAZARDS ANALYSIS .............................................................................................................................. 27
OPERATING PROCEDURES ....................................................................................................................................... 28
Extruder........................................................................................................................................................28
Shredder.......................................................................................................................................................29
BUDGET AND PARTS LIST ........................................................................................................................................ 30
ExtruderPartsListwithoutuseof3DPrinter.............................................................................................30
EquipmentListforPrototypeDesign..........................................................................................................32
Scenarios1&2forGeneralDesign(WithoutDepartmentResources).....................................................33
Scenarios3&4forPrototypeDesign(WithDepartmentResources).......................................................34
EXTRUDER DESIGN ................................................................................................................................................ 35
MountingBlockAssembly...........................................................................................................................35
HopperBarrel...............................................................................................................................................36
HeatedBarrel...............................................................................................................................................37
Flanges.........................................................................................................................................................38
TopHopper...................................................................................................................................................39
BottomHopper.............................................................................................................................................40
SHREDDER DESIGN ................................................................................................................................................ 41
Top................................................................................................................................................................41
Bottom..........................................................................................................................................................42
EntranceFlange...........................................................................................................................................43
ExitFlange....................................................................................................................................................44
MountingBlock............................................................................................................................................45
EndMillHolder.............................................................................................................................................46
TENSION ROLLERS ................................................................................................................................................. 47
0.375inShaft...............................................................................................................................................47
0.25inNon-GearShaft................................................................................................................................48
0.25inShaft.................................................................................................................................................48
HubforPulley...............................................................................................................................................49
BlockSideA..................................................................................................................................................50
BlockSideB..................................................................................................................................................51
BasePlate.....................................................................................................................................................52




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Summary
A polymer extruder and shredding process was designed and fabricated as product of the
work done for ChE 454 Senior Design. The purpose of this process was to help the University of
Idahos Chemical and Materials Engineering Department save costs operating costs for the
MakerBot 3D printer. ABS filament, the filament used to print, costing about $43 per kilogram.
There are multiple opportunities to use the 3D printer within the department. Students can use it
for parts for senior design projects and ChE Car competition; professors can use it for parts with
respect to their research; and the machine shop can use it to make parts that would otherwise be
made of metal. To make the use of the printer more available and affordable, this process to
extrude filament and recycle old and faulty prints was implemented. Previous prints can be
shredded into fine pieces and then ran through the extruder, producing filament, which can be
made by pellets purchased at $19 for 1 kg including shipping.
Pellets or shredded print bits are fed into the extruder hopper and moved through an
insulated stainless steel barrel by way of an 18 end mill bit. The barrel is heated by way of a
band heater and the polymer in the barrel melts. The auger pushes the polymer pieces through
this barrel and is pushed out of a nozzle of pre-set diameter 1.75mm. Leaving the nozzle, the
molten liquid is cooled by way of a fan and placed onto a roller system to maintain tension and
keep a constant diameter. These rollers keep tension while the filament is wound onto a spool.
After the extrusion process, the filament on the spool is ready for use.
The design for each component involved the 3D CAD drawing software SolidWorks.
Each component of the process, the extruder, shredder, tension rollers, and spools were drawn to
give dimensions and design the overall process. Drawings are taken either to the machine shop
where parts are fabricated, or used for 3D prints of parts. Any part that would not be exposed to
heat or large forces was printed. Alternative design ideas for each component were thought of
and are detailed discussion of those can be found in this report.
This semester, about 2.5 kg of filament was used to print material for various projects. Of
those 2.5 kg, 1 kg worth of filament in prints were deemed inadequate for their designed use.
Instead of discarding, those prints can be recycled back into filament to be used again for a print
that will function. This extrusion process, without implementing a recycling process, will save
the department $352 a year. Assuming recycled prints making up 35% of filament, those savings
become $478 a year. The extruder capacity is about 800 grams and extrudes at a rate of 17.5
ft/hr.
The final product of this design project is a prototype extruder that can produce filament
for the department to use in the MakerBot 3D printer. Hopefully, with these savings, more
students and professors will use the printer for their projects, saving money on parts. Valuable
metals can also be saved by reducing the amount of machining needed for different projects.
With the fabrication of this extruder and shredder, faulty and old prints will not go to waste as
they can be recycled back into filament to be used by the printer again.


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Introduction
Recently, the Chemical & Materials Engineering Department of the University of Idaho
purchased a MakerBot Replicator 2X Desktop 3D Printer. The department purchased the printer
so that parts that would normally be fabricated by the machine shop could be printed. For
example, the University of Idahos ChemE Car team printed a battery cell for their entry to the
regional American Institute of Chemical Engineers conference hosted by Washington State
University in Pullman, Washington. Another instance of the printer being used by members of
the department is for the senior design, WERC contest winning project Sunshine Island.
The printer uses 1 kg spools of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or poly lactic acid
(PLA) filament with a diameter of 1.75 mm. Currently, the cost for a filament spool ranges from
$16 to $48 depending on the vendor
1,2
. The cost of purchasing filament for the 3D printer can be
economically unfavorable over time. In search of a more economical method of procuring
filament for the 3D printer, a shredding and extrusion process has been implemented as the most
viable option. The raw materials for the filament are cheaper in bulk and previously printed
models can be shredded for reprocessing. By shredding and extruding, printed products that are
no longer or unable to be used into filament, the cost of 3D printing can be significantly reduced.
Extrusion is the act of forming a material (metal, plastic, etc.) with a desired cross section
by forcing it through a nozzle. This process takes bulk quantities of polymer pellets/bits and
processes them into a strand appropriate for the 3D printer. The extruder melts the pellets, feeds
them through a heated barrel, and forms filament of a pre-set diameter. The filament is cooled
and wound onto a spool to be used by the 3D printer. This method is ideal for the department
because more raw material can be purchased at a lower cost. Purchasing 10 lbs. worth of pellets
costs approximately the same as a 1 kg spool of filament. Essentially, 4.5 kg (10lb) of polymer
filament can be produced for the same cost as a single 1 kg filament spool from Fila Bot
2,9
.
Another benefit of this extruder process is that filament can also be formed from failed
attempts or unwanted products of the 3D printer. A method to effectively shred printed projects
has been implemented. The shredder uses a motor and pulleys to rotate a roughing end mill
housed in a long, slim metal box to minimize exposure of the end mill
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. The shredder saves the
department money by recycling and reusing filament material. If a minor error was made in
while printing an object, instead of throwing it way it can be shredded into small pieces and
extruded into filament.
The Lyman Extruder V3 (Figure 1), an extruder whose design was used via a reference
during the course of this design process, produces 1.75 mm filament at an average rate of 200
ft/hr
3
. A kilogram of filament is approximately 1080 ft., taking approximately 5.4 hours to
produce
6
.



4

Figure 1: Diagram of Lyman Extruder V3
3
.
Today, additive layer manufacturing (referred as 3D printing) is a booming industry due
to the practical uses in a variety of fields, such as fashion, weapons and parts manufacturing, and
medical practice
4
. Fashion designers can make new articles of clothing and accessories that
previously couldnt be made, such as the 3D printed dress designed by Bitonti and Schmidt
8
.
Meanwhile, spare or custom-designed parts can be printed by anyone that possesses the
equipment and materials. This concept allows custom parts to be made anywhere, even in outer
space, where spare parts are not readily available.
Although 3D printing is still a relatively new practice, methods to reduce its cost have
already begun to surface. In May of 2012, Maker Education Initiative opened a contest called the
Desktop Factory Competition for contestants to create filament extruders for 3D printers with a
$250 limit. The winning entry was the Lyman Filament Extruder II (an earlier version of the
Lyman Extruder V3) created by Hugh Lyman. His design can process pellets into filament
strands, and rolls the filament directly onto a spool. According to TIME, one spool can create
392 printed chess pieces for $50
12
. The same amount of filament made from pellets that cost
$10.
As mentioned previously, the Lyman Extruder V3 requires about 5.4 hours to process 1
kg of filament
6
. This is a reasonable size for the Chemical & Materials Science Engineering
Departments needs. Using an extruder for producing filament for the 3D printer will cut the cost
of purchasing the filament by the spool. A single 1 kg spool from Fila Bot is $16 plus tax and
shipping, while one could buy 4.536 kg (10 lb.) of filament pellets on eBay for the same price
2,9
.
The amount of filament produced from this process is made at 10% of purchase.


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Functional Analysis
Primary Function: To extrude polymer to be compatible with the departments 3D
printer.
Functions shown in Figure 2 I/O Diagram to be done:
1. Break up the whole polymer (i.e. old product of printer) into chips, pellets, or shavings to
be extruded.
2. Store pellets in a hopper where pellets can enter into feed throat.
3. Set temperature gradient. The temperature profile of the barrel increases over the length
of the pipe, i.e. temperature should be lowest at feed throat and highest at end of barrel.
a. Insulation will be wrapped around the heated portion of the barrel.
4. Control the temperature to make sure that it does not increase above the set point (270C)
This is to account for heat generated from pressure difference in the barrel and friction.
Too high of a temperature can destroy the process.
5. Use a die (nozzle) to form polymer into filament of a specific diameter. The polymer
going through the die needs to flow in a continuous manner in order to minimize physical
anomalies.
6. Cool newly acquired filament using cooling fan to keep the desired form and dimensions.
a. Start up, Shut down, and Cleaning procedures can be found in the Appendix
(Proceedures).
7. Use a mechanism to maintain tension on the filament and to wind the finished product
onto a 1 kg spool. Furthermore, a controller would most likely be implemented to control
the rate of rotation so that the filament isnt stretched, which would cause the diameter to
be smaller than desired, broken or cause the filament to be wound loosely on the spool.







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Input/Output Diagram

Figure 2: I/O Diagram





Filament Pellets
(ABS/PLA)
Hopper
Failed or Unwanted
3D Printer Products

Shredder
Heated
Barrel

Cooling
Fan
Winding
Spool
1 lb. or 1 kg Spool of
1.75 mm filament

Cooling
Fan
Tension
Rollers &
Take-Up
Spool


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Design Discussion
Extruder
Polymer pellets are introduced into the extruder via a hopper. The hopper deposits the
polymer directly into a pipe barrel with a motorized auger bit. The auger pushes the polymer
from the bottom of the hopper towards the end of the barrel where a nozzle with a predetermined
diameter hole forms the 1.75 mm filament. As the polymer is headed through the barrel, friction
high pressure, and heat from the band heater at the nozzle end of the barrel cause the polymer to
melt. Due to high pressure and continuous feed, the polymer is extruded through the nozzle into
a filament. After the filament is extruded, it is cooled while tension rollers pull on the strand to
create a constant tension on the filament to maintain the desired diameter due to expansion to
prevent any deformities in the strand before being wound onto a spool. A basic set up of an
extruder can be observed in Figure 3, below.


Figure 3: Basic Extruder Diagram

Motors
The motor being used in an extruder must be variable speed and able to handle a
large amount of torque since the auger bit will have high resistance from the pressure and
slow extrusion of the polymer. Motors that are able to meet these requirements for a
small extruder are either gear motors or variable frequency motors. Gear motors come in
a variety of shapes and sizes based on the specifications they are designed to handle (i.e.
high torque, revolutions per minute, etc.). Because of this flexibility, they are preferred in
smaller extruders or for other uses such as the tension rollers or take-up spool. Variable
frequency motors are rather large; however, they can be precisely controlled and can
handle a high torque. At lower speeds the variable frequency motor is inefficient, and it
isnt good for the motor to run at that low of a speed for long periods. This requires
methods of gear reduction to be used.


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Barrel
There are several ways to configure an extruder. The most common way is for the
extruder to be horizontal. This makes attaching the motors to the auger inside the barrel
much easier, especially with variable frequency motors. If the barrel is horizontal,
fabricating a hopper to feed polymer in the barrel is easier, along with attaching any
mounting blocks to hold the auger in place while it rotates. However, a benefit of having
a vertical extruder would be that gravity is working with the extruder. Gravity pulls the
polymer in the barrel towards the nozzle, assisting in keeping the load evenly distributed.
Furthermore, as the filament leaves the nozzle, it is being pulled straight down, which
prevents any deforming and can even eliminate the use of tension rollers.

Another consideration is the size of the barrel based on the dimensions of the
auger bit. The total length of the barrel for both the hopper and heated sections is limited
by the length of the auger. Meanwhile, the inside diameter should be slightly larger than
the largest diameter of the auger. Custom bored pipes are a great alternative to standard
piping. This gives the fabricator more control over the dimensions and specifications of
the extruder, but requires the fabricator to have access to the proper equipment. The auger
needs to be tightly fit to the barrel, but requires enough room for the auger to rotate and
for small amounts of polymer to get between the barrel and auger to prevent wear and
tear inside.

Originally, the prototype barrel was fabricated from brass. Unfortunately, the
material was too abrasive and flakes of brass contaminated the filament. Also, the nozzle
was made of a hex plug that was inserted into the pipe, making cleaning difficult when
the polymer solidified in the threads. Due to these issues with the barrel, the material was
made of stainless steel and the thread for the nozzle was placed on the outside. This way
the inside of the barrel was smooth and simplified the cleaning procedure. In addition, the
brass plug was replaced with a brass cap as the nozzle.



Auger
The auger bit is the most critical piece of the extruder. The dimensions of the
auger bit determine the dimensions and the specifications of barrels diameter and length.
The mounting blocks to keep the auger in place while it rotates are designed based on the
height of the motor shaft, if applicable. Existing extruders use 6 inch to 18 inch long
auger bits with varying diameters.





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Ball and Thrust Bearings
The designed mounting block system, shown in the Appendix (Mounting Block
Assembly), uses two steel ball bearings and one steel thrust needle-roller bearings. The
thrust bearing is required to handle the thrust caused by the auger during extrusion. As
the auger feeds polymer into the barrel, pressure builds up and forces the auger bit
backwards. This presses the auger bit sleeve, shown in the Appendix (Auger Sleeve),
back into the mounting block and causes grinding to occur and which may stop the
rotation of the auger. The thrust bearing is inserted between the sleeve and the mounting
block so that grinding is eliminated.

The ball bearings are pressed into the mounting block before the sleeve is inserted
through the center of the bearings. Since the auger is positioned inside the sleeve, the
bearings allow the sleeve to rotate freely within the barrel.

Nozzle
The nozzle of the extruder must be an interchangeable threaded cap to prevent the
high pressure from moving the nozzle off of the barrel. A hole is drilled into the center of
the nozzle so that the diameter is slightly smaller than the desired filament diameter.
Furthermore, a conical shape is bored out of the back of the nozzle to assist in directing
the polymer flow through the nozzle and not against it. An optional feature of the nozzle
is to attach a removable screen to the nozzle to filter out any particulates and impurities
from the filament strand.

Heaters
The simplest way to heat the extruder is to use a band heater. These heaters come
in different diameters to fit tightly over pipes. Setting them up with a solid state relay and
temperature controller is found to be simple also. Depending on specifications, band
heaters can heat up to 900 F, way above the necessary temperatures required for ABS
and PLA extrusion.

Tension Rollers
One problem that comes into consideration when winding filament onto a spool is that
without maintaining tension, the diameter will deviate from the desired 1.75mm that is preset in
the nozzle. To maintain tension, the filament is compressed through two roller. From the
extruder, the filament will be placed, as it is cools, onto the roller grooves. The filament will pass
through before being wound onto the spool. The considerations that must be considered are how
the rollers are arranged, how they are driven, and what material they are made with.





10
Setup
One method to set up the roller apparatus in this project was to have the two
rollers set up on top of one another, with a space in between them being less than the
filament diameter. Another method considered was to have the rollers set apart at a 90
degree angle, as shown in Figure 4. Each roller will have a groove placed at its center
along its circumference.

Figure 4. Rollers in a 90 degree arrangement

Material
Several ideas were thought of as to the material of the rollers themselves. The
two options contemplated were metal rollers and rubber rollers. Due to the nature of the
filament, a metal roller would slip, causing the filament to move around, making it very
difficult to maintain constant tension when winding the filament onto the spool. The
necessity of the rollers to grip the filament led to the decision of using rubber material.
The material was up for debate; considered were: old printer rollers, cuts from a yoga
mat, rubber tubing, or coating the rollers with Flex-Seal spray.


11
Drive
The method of driving of the rollers to keep tension was a design question that
needed to be addressed. A motor would need to be installed to rotate the rollers, but the
critical design parameter was that the necessary RPM range to rotate the rollers was
approximately 1-3 RPM. There would need a gear reduction mechanism to reach this
speed. A pulley or a gear reduction, similar to the extruders would be used.
Take-up spool
The take-up spool system is relatively simple. An empty spool for a 3D printer is
suspended on an axis and rotated using a gear motor. The spool is fed from the tension rollers,
which prevent the filament being wound onto the spool from uncoiling. In addition, there is
ideally a reeling mechanism between them to prevent the filament from winding on only one side
of the spool.

The tension rollers and the spool each have their own motors while the reeling
mechanism is dependent on the take-up spools speed via a pulley. Usually, the motors are
independent from one another; however, to prevent the filament from deforming their speeds are
dependent on the extruders speed. The motors are controlled through electrical variable output
switches that control the voltage being fed to the motors. However, there are systems where both
motors controlled by a microprocessor are dependent on the tension of the filament between the
extruder and the tension rollers.

Shredder
To fully benefit from the cost savings use of an extruder, it is necessary to consider the
ability to recycle faulty or otherwise unused prints as well as currently available sources of
compatible plastics. In order for these new sources of plastic to be extruded into filament, they
must first be shredded. To perform the actual shredding, a inch roughing end mill was chosen
after testing a sample of ABS on a machine mounted end mill. The roughing end mill was able to
produce consistently sized plastic shavings that could be used in the extruder. It was also simple
to implement and relatively inexpensive.
It was also important to design the shredder so that the entire cutting edge was concealed
and positioned such that it could not be reached during operation. A two piece shredder housing
was designed to allow for easier fabrication and maintenance. The top piece includes an
extended block which provides the necessary clearance to remove the shredder bit in case of
damage or obstruction. The two part shredder housing is connected to a horizontal steel inlet tube
and deposits shredded plastic out the bottom through a vertical steel tube.
The shredder bit is situated inside the housing so that plastic entering the chamber is
level with the middle of the bit. This allows the shredder to pull plastic and drop it down the exit.
This arrangement is effective for shredding, but limits the available height for shredding to 0.375
inches. This smaller height is necessary to create a shoulder that stops the plunger before it hits


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the end mill and to prevent larger pieces from going over the shredder and dropping out the
bottom. This means that plastic will have to be cut to size or compacted to fit the feed opening.
This shredder is oriented to insert whole plastic horizontally and then deposit the
shredded pieces out the bottom. Initially a wholly vertical design was considered. In this design,
plastic would be fed from the top and fall onto the end mill and then out the bottom. This was
considered because gravity could be used to drive the plastic through the shredder rather than a
plunger, this would require the implementation of a lid. The use of a plunger means that the
shredder is covered and no lid is necessary. It was undesirable because the contact point of the
plastic with the end mill would not necessarily be the shredding side of the rotation. This could
cause pieces to be pushed or launched back up the shredder.
In order to drive and adequately stabilize the end mill, an extending collar was made so
that both bearings and the pulley could be mounted. The shredder bit will be driven by the same
horsepower motor that drives the extruder, but instead of a direct couple through a gear
reduction, a pulley system is used. Two steel ball bearings are also used to stabilize the rotation
of the shredder. This setup introduces new safety considerations since these are exposed rotating
parts that must be kept clear. Pulleys were used over a direct couple because it allows gear
reduction and were available without purchase.




13
Recommended Design
Extruder
The recommended design for the extruder (observed in Figure 5) uses the following
components:
Variable speed motor
Gear reduction box
17 inch long 5/8 inch diameter auger bit
1 inch band heater
K-type Thermocouple
Cooling fan
Custom designed parts including:
o Stainless steel barrel with an outer diameter of 1 inch by 6 inches with flange
o Brass hopper barrel with an outer diameter of 1 inch by 6 inches with two flanges
o Brass nozzle that screws onto the outside of the stainless steel barrel
o 3D printed hopper assembly
o Aluminum mounting blocks
o Aluminum shaft couplers
o Aluminum auger sleeve


Figure 5: Extruder Assembly in Solidworks


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A variable frequency motor and gear reduction box were chosen for the high torque and
adjustable speed. A shaft coupler for the reduction box was purchased, and a coupler with a hex
bore for the auger bit was fabricated out of aluminum. The mounting block has two ball bearings
with inner diameters of inch for the auger sleeve to set in. The auger sleeve is fabricated out of
aluminum and holds the auger bit in place but allows for it to rotate freely within the barrel and
the mounting block. The hopper portion of the barrel has two flanges welded on the ends to
attach to the mounting block and the heated portion of barrel with a piece of insulation pressed
between them. The heated barrel extends approximately inch past the end of the auger so that
the auger maintains a high pressure at the nozzle for extrusion. The threads for the nozzle were
placed on the outside of the barrel to provide a smooth surface inside the barrel where the
polymer wont obstruct the grooves. The hopper assembly is designed in two pieces for easy
access and attachment, and the bottom half acts as a support for both the barrel and the top of the
hopper.




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Table 1: Equipment List of Extruder
Description QTY Price Supplier Notes
AGPtek PID Temp. Controller
& Thermocouple
1 $ 28.99
Amazon - Mambate
USA

Irwin 5/8" by 17"-Auger bit
1 $ 19.97 Amazon
Heating Band
2 $ 21.46 Zoro Tools
Variable Frequency Motor &
Controller
1 $ - Dr. MacPherson Donated from department surplus
Gear Reduction Box
1 $ 90.00 eBay
Steel Ball Bearing (3/4" ID, 1-
5/8" OD, 3/8" W)
4 $ 7.20 McMaster Carr
Thrust Bearing (3/4" ID, 1-
9/16" OD, 3/32" W)
1 $ 1.82 McMaster Carr
Brass Hex Plug (Pipe Size:
1/2")
2 $ 3.69 McMaster Carr
Aluminum Shaft Coupler (Bore
7/8")
1 $ 24.77 Grainger
Spider Coupling Insert,
Urethane
1 $ 13.42 Grainger
Hopper
2 $ - Machine Shop 3D printed
Aluminum Mounting Block
1 $ - Machine Shop Made from available materials
Stainless Steel Pipe
1 $ - Machine Shop Made from available materials
Stainless Flange
1 $ - Machine Shop Made from available materials
Brass pipe (1" OD)
1 $ - Machine Shop Made from available materials
Brass Flanges
2 $ - Machine Shop Made from available materials
Teflon Insulation Insert 1/8"
1 $ - Machine Shop Made from available materials
Metal Mounting Plate (22" x
27" x 1/2")
1 $ - Machine Shop Made from available materials
Solid State Relay
1 $ - Dr. MacPherson Donated from department surplus
AC to DC power converter
1 $ - Dr. MacPherson Donated from department surplus
Toggle Switch
1 $ - Dr. MacPherson Donated from department surplus
Circuit Box
1 $ - Dr. MacPherson Donated from department surplus
80 mm Cooling Fan
1 $ - Dr. MacPherson Donated from department surplus
Insulation
1 $ - Dr. MacPherson Donated from department surplus

Tension Rollers
The way to set up the roller apparatus as decided in this experiment is to have two rollers
set up on top of one another, with a space in between them being less than the filament diameter.
While both this and the alternate 90 degree option (see Figure 4) would maintain the necessary
tension, the primary concern for using the 90 degree arrangement is the likelihood of breakage of
the filament as it is quite brittle. The necessity for additional rollers to wind the filament in a
straight line makes this option much less efficient. Extra parameters to consider such as tension
at each different roller, complicates matters. Grooves will be machined along the circumference
of the rollers at a width of approximately 1.75mm. These will allow the filament to be


16
compressed into the correct diameter size, as well as to keep the filament in a straight line. The
recommended design minimizes complications and is the most cost effective methods.

Figure 6: Tension Rollers in Solidworks
The rollers to be used are machined and then coated with Flex-Seal rubber coating. This
is a very simple and effective method to fabricate rubber rollers. The coating can also ensure the
grooves are rubber. Dr. Macphersons rubber tubing was thought about carefully, but cutting the
tubing to the correct and inserting it on a shaft would be a difficult, aggravating task. The other
alternate ideas also eliminate the possibility of grooves on the rollers, which was decided as the
most important part of the roller design. Due to feasibility, time, the fact Flex-Seal is easily
obtainable, having grooves on the rollers, and the ability to have a shaft that could be rotated by a
gear motor, the rubber coating was decided as the best option.
Driving the rollers will be done by way of a pulley system, whose parts will be printed. A
timing-belt pulley will be placed on the shaft coming out of the roller assembly walls (see the
SolidWorks drawing Roller Assembly in the Appendix). This will be driven by a 24V DC
motor, the capacity of which is approximately 19 RPM. The reason for choosing this motor as
the drive was the simple fact that due to the very small diameter of the filament, the
recommended range of RPM to run the motor was approximately 1-3 RPM. After finding the
lowest RPM motor available, it is recommended to reduce the motor speed by way of a pulley,
whose ratio will be 10:1 (120:12).



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Table 2: Equipment List of Tension Rollers
Description QTY Price Supplier Notes
Gear Motor 1 $ 12.95 All Electronics
10 k Potentiometer
1 $ 3.49 RadioShack
Ball Bearings (5/8 OD,
ID)
4 $ 36.91 VXB Bearings
Pulley Inserts
2 $ - Machine Shop
3D printed
Motor Gear Insert
1 $ - Machine Shop
3D printed
Metal Blocks
3 $ - Machine Shop
Made from available materials
Metal Axle
2 $ - Machine Shop
Made from available materials
1 F Capacitors
2 $ - Dr. MacPherson
Donated from department surplus
560 Resistor
1 $ -
Dr. MacPherson Donated from department surplus


Take-up spool
The take-up spool system, observed in Figure 7, is designed for to accommodate either a
1 lb. or a 1 kg spool. Two inserts printed from the 3D printer are placed into the spool and are
fastened to a metal rod acting as an axis. The support bracket holds the spool up by the rod and a
DC voltage motor is mounted just below the printed inserts. The inserts act as a gear reduction
and mesh with the gear on the motor to rotate the spool.


Figure 7:Take-Up Spool Assembly in Solidworks


18

Table 3: Equipment List for Take-Up Spool
Description QTY Price Supplier Notes
Gear Motor 1 $ 12.95 All Electronics
10 k Potentiometer 1 $ 3.49 RadioShack

Spool Inserts 2
$ -
Machine Shop 3D printed
Motor Gear Insert 1
$ -
Machine Shop 3D printed
Metal Support Arms 1
$ -
Machine Shop Made from available materials
Metal Axle
1 $ -
Machine Shop Made from available materials
1 F Capacitors 2 $ - Dr. MacPherson Donated from department surplus
560 Resistor 1 $ - Dr. MacPherson Donated from department surplus

Shredder
The final design can be seen in Figure 8. This design features a roughing end mill
enclosed in a two part housing. Plastic is fed horizontally through a square tube where it meets
the center of the shredding bit and is pulled down and deposited into a container below. The end
mill is mounted by a shank extending collar. The collar is held in position by two ball bearings
and is driven by a pulley system attached to the same horsepower motor used by the extruder,
when not in use. For part specifications, see the Appendix (Shredder Design).


Figure 8: Diagram of Shredder in Solidworks


19

Table 4: Equipment List for Shredder
Description QTY Price Supplier Notes
Steel Tube 12 $5.38 Speedy Metals 3 are used for the exit, 9 for the
entrance
Roughing End Mill 1 $63.00 MSC Direct
ID Steel Ball Bearings 2 $7.20 McMaster Carr
Aluminum Blocks 2 - Machine Shop Made from available material,
used to hold bearings
Extending Collar 1 - Machine Shop Made from available material,
used to mount end mill
2 X 3 X 3 Steel Blocks 2 - Machine Shop Made from available material,
used to make shredder housing
2 X 3 X Aluminum
plates
2 - Machine Shop Made from available material,
used to attached tube to housing




20
Economic Analysis
In a literature search on existing extruders, it was estimated that an extruder for purchase
can range from $300-$900, depending on the motor that is used. To build one, costs for materials
and supplies combined could cost well over $1000. In determining if the option of an extruder is
feasible, an analysis of this design costs versus purchasing cost of new filament for the 3D
printer is performed.
A new spool of manufactured natural colored ABS filament costs $43. After these
products are printed, they have no more use and are discarded. Having the availability of this
extruding design allows these failed products to be shredded and reformed into new filament,
reducing the need for purchasing new filament spools.
In total, costs for supplies and labor to design, build, and test this shredder and extruder
came to $460. This cost is only a percentage of what building an extruder and shredder setup
would be if many of the supplies left over from other projects had not been available. Without
this resource, the total cost for building an extruder for this design came to $2,007.
In determining the feasibility of this design, the savings per spool of ABS filament being
produced is compared to the cost of purchasing filament. With this design having the capability
to reform 1kg of ABS pellets and chips into ABS filament, purchasing 1kg of pellets at $19,
saves $22 versus buying a manufactured spool at $43. Operating costs for reforming the pellets
comes from the energy to operate the motor for moving pellets and the energy for operating the
heating unit to melt the pellets. Including this, savings get reduced to $19.99. Assuming these
savings remain constant for every 1 kg spool of filament that this extruder can produce, a savings
of $20 can be accumulated constantly.
Once the department gains better knowledge and experience in operating the 3D printer,
it is a safe assumption that 8 spools of ABS filament will be used each semester during the
academic year, totaling to 16 spools each year. Uses can include 3D printed objects for classes,
design labs, senior project labs, visualization purposes, machine shop use, research and
development, and student organizational groups. The assumption of the use of 16 spools each
year is used in an analysis below.
Four different scenarios were drafted in determining the different savings and payout
time for this design. The first two being the savings and payout times for this design without the
salvageable supplies (i.e. having to purchase each item), and the other two being the savings and
payout times for this prototype design. Each of these sets of scenarios are then compared to non-
recycling and recycling designs. Nomenclature in the following corresponds to the chart given
below for visualization aid.



21

Figure 9: Percentage Savings

Figure 10: Payout Time in Years

As mentioned, without the resources of the Chemical and Material Science Engineering
department, the capital investment for the design was $2,060. Scenario 1 assumes no recycling is
taking place. The savings over one year comes to $352, making the payout period 5 years and 10
months.
Scenario 2 factors in recycling for the design, it is assumed that 35% of printed products
each year will be failed prints or disposable products (i.e. printed projects for students with no
value and can be recycled). Using this assumption, 6 spools worth of filament can be recycled,
saving $258, while saving $220 in purchasing the other 10 kg of ABS pellets. Total savings
comes to $478, making the payout period a little over 4 years and 2 months.
Scenario 3 compares this prototype design with reduced Capital Investment due to
resources of the Chemical and Material Science Engineering department. With the total cost of
the design coming to $460, and assuming no recycling savings come to $352 per year. Payout
period comes to almost one year and 4 months.
As in Scenario 2, Scenario 4 factors in recycling to this prototype design. Making the
same assumption of number of recyclable products as in Scenario 2, savings come to be $478.
The payout period is slightly less than one year.


22
As seen in Figures 9 & 10, Scenario 4 is the most appropriate scenario for this design.
With the capital investment including the design of the shredder, the recycling can be
accomplished using this scenario.
Also included in the capital investment is a $40 cost for future maintenance on this
design. It being a prototype, there will inevitably be failing parts that will either need fixing or
replacing. With this maintenance cost being factored into the capital investment, it will also
disappear with the savings with the capital investment once enough savings have accumulated.
However, looking farther past the payout period, the accumulating savings per year will allow
for enough funding for this maintenance as well as other funding that can relate to this design.



23
Conclusion
This semester, a process to recycle old 3D prints into filament to be used into the
MakerBot 3D printer belonging to the University of Idaho Chemical and Materials Engineering
Department, was designed and fabricated. This printer can be used to design and fabricate parts
that would either have to be machined or purchased. The purchasing of this printer is an
investment, but the operating costs significantly diminish the return on this investment. A 1 kg
spool costs $43, and to put that in perspective, the department used 2.5 kg of filament this
semester alone, equivalent $108. With the printer gaining notoriety within the department, it can
be assumed that it will be used more and more in the upcoming years.
With this increase in demand, a way to recycle prints and produce filament was
developed in order to reduce printer operating costs and allow greater use of this machine. There
are 2 different ways to save these costs. The first is to produce filament from bulk ABS pellets,
which can be purchased for $18. These pellets are fed in the extruder, melted in a barrel, and
pushed out by way of an auger through a nozzle of a pre-set surface area. If just the extruder
were designed with no intent of a recycling process, assuming 16 spools of filament are used a
year, it saves $352/yr, resulting in a payout of 1 year and 4 months. The second component of
the project designed is a shredding process. This was implemented and designed in order to have
the ability to recycle old prints that will no longer be used, or failed prints that have a flaw in
their design, a waste of filament, and a waste of money if these prints are just going to be thrown
away. With the shredding process, these otherwise discarded prints are fed into a shredder and
cut into small bits that can be fed into the extruder. This is necessary because in this semester, of
the 2.5 kg of filament used, 1 kg was used towards prints with some sort of flaw that rendered
them ineffective and unusable. Assuming 37.5% of filament comes from recycled materials, the
total savings of this process is $478/yr, with a payout of just under a year.
The future outlook of this prototype design looks very optimistic. The production
capacity of the extruder is about 800g. The extruder can produce filament at a rate of 17.5ft/hr
and subsequently produce 1 kg in 62 hours, or 2.5 days. To compare this to the Lyman Extruder
V3, an extruder whose design influenced this prototype extruder, which produces 1 kg in 5.4
hours. Things to pay attention to in the near future when using this prototype are whether the
production capacity of the extruder increases or decreases, and to eventually decide whether to
scale up the shredder to handle larger pieces than what it currently can. Another thing to do in
the future is to develop a more efficient way to clean the drill bit of residual polymer. This is
especially necessary if someone would want to extrude a different polymer other than ABS.
Potentially, the MakerBot printer could use filament that was composed of a polymer other than
ABS, such as milk jugs, polypropylene etc., provide it has an equal or lesser melting point than
ABS, as the printer uses an extrusion process of its own to print and layer filament.
It is our hope that future students, as well as professors, will be able to use the 3D printer
more frequently to save money on parts and components for research and senior design projects.
There is much excitement with regard to the world of 3D printing. This project has made it more
economical for the department to use the printer. The printer is a valuable resource that has many
benefits, and reducing the operating costs by producing filament and recycling prints, the printer
can be used increasingly by more students in the upcoming years


24
References
1. Undefined, U. (n.d.). MakerBot ABS Filament. [online] Retrieved from:
http://store.makerbot.com/abs-filament [Accessed: 21 Nov 2013].

2. Undefined, U. (2013). 1lb 1.75mm ABS Filament. [online] Retrieved from:
http://www.filabot.com/collections/frontpage/products/1lb-1-75mm-natural-abs-
filament [Accessed: 21 Nov 2013].
3. DIY project: Step One:Plastic shredder. (2012). [online] Retrieved from: http://zeed-
diyproject.blogspot.com/2012/05/step-oneplastic-shredder.html [Accessed: 21 Dec
2013].
4. 3ders.org. (2011). 3ders.org - time to save up your plastic junk for recyling: mini shredder
and filamaker | 3d printer news & 3d printing news. [online] Retrieved from:
http://www.3ders.org/articles/20130131-time-to-save-up-your-plastic-junk-for-
recyling-mini-shredder-and-filamaker.html [Accessed: 21 Nov 2013].
5. Lyman, H. (2012). Lyman filament extruder ii by hlyman - thingiverse. [online] Retrieved
from: http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:34653 [Accessed: 21 Nov 2013].
6. Lyman, H. (2013). LYMAN FILAMENT EXTRUDER V3 by hlyman - Thingiverse. [online]
Retrieved from: http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:145500/#files [Accessed: 21 Nov
2013].
7. Excell, J . and Nathan, S. (2010). The rise of additive manufacturing | In-depth | The
Engineer. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.theengineer.co.uk/in-depth/the-big-
story/the-rise-of-additive-manufacturing/1002560.article [Accessed: 21 Nov 2013].
8. Hennessey, R. (2013). 3D Printing Hits The Fashion World. [online] Retrieved from:
http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2013/08/07/3-d-printed-clothes-could-
be-the-next-big-thing-to-hit-fashion/ [Accessed: 21 Nov 2013].
9.
eBay. (2014). 10 lbs white abs resin plastic pellets perfect for making 3d printer fillaments.
[online] Retrieved from: http://www.ebay.com/itm/10-lbs-White-ABS-Resin-plastic-
pellets-perfect-for-making-3D-Printer-Fillaments-
/301103469617?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item461b2a5431 [Accessed: 11
Mar 2014].

10. Bredenberg, A. (2013). Marcus Thymark's Open-Source FilaMaker Shreds and Recycles
Plastic for 3D Printing. [online] Retrieved from: http://inhabitat.com/marcus-
thymarks-open-source-filamaker-shreds-and-recycles-plastic-for-3d-printing/
[Accessed: 21 Nov 2013].
11. Filabot.com (2013). Filabot. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.filabot.com/ [Accessed:
21 Nov 2013].


25
12. Mccracken, H. (2013). How an 83-Year-Old Inventor Beat the High Cost of 3D Printing |
TIME.com. [online] Retrieved from: http://techland.time.com/2013/03/04/how-an-83-
year-old-inventor-beat-the-high-cost-of-3d-printing/ [Accessed: 21 Nov 2013].






26
APPENDIX


SAFETY AND HAZARDS ANALYSIS .............................................................................................................................. 27
OPERATING PROCEDURES ....................................................................................................................................... 28
Extruder........................................................................................................................................................28
Shredder.......................................................................................................................................................29
BUDGET AND PARTS LIST ........................................................................................................................................ 30
ExtruderPartsListwithoutuseof3DPrinter.............................................................................................30
EquipmentListforPrototypeDesign..........................................................................................................32
Scenarios1&2forGeneralDesign(WithoutDepartmentResources).....................................................33
Scenarios3&4forPrototypeDesign(WithDepartmentResources).......................................................34
EXTRUDER DESIGN ................................................................................................................................................ 35
MountingBlockAssembly...........................................................................................................................35
HopperBarrel...............................................................................................................................................36
HeatedBarrel...............................................................................................................................................37
Flanges.........................................................................................................................................................38
TopHopper...................................................................................................................................................39
BottomHopper.............................................................................................................................................40
SHREDDER DESIGN ................................................................................................................................................ 41
Top................................................................................................................................................................41
Bottom..........................................................................................................................................................42
EntranceFlange...........................................................................................................................................43
ExitFlange....................................................................................................................................................44
MountingBlock............................................................................................................................................45
EndMillHolder.............................................................................................................................................46
TENSION ROLLERS ................................................................................................................................................. 47
0.375inShaft...............................................................................................................................................47
0.25inNon-GearShaft................................................................................................................................48
0.25inShaft.................................................................................................................................................48
HubforPulley...............................................................................................................................................49
BlockSideA..................................................................................................................................................50
BlockSideB..................................................................................................................................................51
BasePlate.....................................................................................................................................................52




27
Safety and Hazards Analysis
Temperatures are expected to exceed 200 F for certain polymers and contact with any
un-insulated portion of the barrel or with recently extruded polymer will results in burns. During
startup for the extruding process, use needle-nose pliers or heat resistant gloves to lead the
filament to the take up mechanism.
The current design for the extruder includes exposed moving parts where the auger bit
couplings to the motor. The shredder bit is also driven by a belt and pulley system attached to the
motor. All moving parts should be kept clear of obstructions during operation to prevent injury
and damage to the equipment. The implementation of a cover or guard for these moving parts is
desirable for routine operation. These moving parts include the auger bit, shredder bit, pulleys,
and motor couplings.
It is important to check the shredder path for non-shred-able objects prior to operation
and remove any if found. Items other than plastic could damage the bit and the shredder
assembly. It is also imperative that any limbs remain clear of the bit during operation; contact
with the shredder bit during operation will result in bodily injury.



28
Procedures
EXTRUDER
Extruder Operating Procedure:
Turn on heater, controller, and cooling fan
Set desired temperature (270 C)
o Press Set (Yellow)
o Press Auto-Tune (Blue) until desired digit blinks
o Use Arrows (Green) to adjust temperature
Allow 30 minutes for barrel to heat up and match the temperature set point
Turn on motor
o Keep extruder clear of non-plastic objects
o Keep speed low initially, then adjust to H 37.5 frequency
Add polymer pellets to extruder hopper after heat has stabilized
As filament is extruded, grasp with pliers and connect to tension rollers
Measure filament diameter with calipers at 30 second intervals
o Adjust roller speed depending on the filament diameter
o Acceptable filament diameter: 1.75mm 0.1mm
Attach filament to spool and secure in opening
o Adjust speeds of tension rollers and take-up spool with extrusion rate (these must
be synchronized)
Extruder Shutdown Procedure
Run remaining polymer pellets through the extruder
Turn off the auger
Turn off the heater and cooling fan
Pull power cord and store it securely
Extruder Maintenance Procedure
Store power cord securely
Ensure that the extruder has cooled completely
Remove insulation
Unscrew nozzle
Remove thermocouple band
Remove band heater
Remove heated barrel
Use non-abrasive brush to scrub plastic off
o Avoid materials which would scratch and gouge the barrel
Once the barrel has been cleaned, replace the nozzle
Reattach the heated barrel to the extruder
Reattach the band heater then the thermocouple band
Reattach the insulation


29
Procedures
SHREDDER
Shredder Operating Procedure:
Check shredder path for obstructions
o The shredding path should be clear before starting or stopping the bit
Check output bucket
o Empty of any foreign objects
o Fill with only one type of polymer at a time
Start the shredder bit
Feed plastic pieces into the shredder using plunger
Collect shredded pieces into the output bucket
Shredder Shutdown Procedure
Shred any remaining polymer in the shredder
Turn off the shredder
Blow out shredder with compressed air




30
Budget and Parts List
Table 5: Extruder Parts List without use of 3D Printer
Item Description Supplier
Price Quantity Shipping Price Total Price
AGPtek PID Temp. Controller Amazon - Mambate USA
$ 28.99 1 $ - $ 28.99
Irwin 5/8 by 17-Auger bit Amazon
$ 19.97 1 $ - $ 19.97
Roughing End Mill MSC Industrial Supply Co.
$ 61.92 1 $ 10.98 $ 72.90
Heating Band Zoro Tools
$ 21.46 2 $ 5.00 $ 47.92
80 mmCooling Fan TigerDirect.com
$ 6.99 1 $ - $ 6.99
Motor Marathon Electric
$ 200.00 2 $ 15.00 $ 415.00
GS1 AC Micro drive Controller Google.com
$ 134.00 2 $ - $ 268.00
Toggle Switch Amazon
$ 4.87 1 $ - $ 4.87
DC Gear Motor with Encoder Amazon
$ 21.11 1 $ - $ 21.11
Gear Reduction Box eBay
$ 90.00 1 $ - $ 90.00
Steel Ball Bearing (3/4" ID, 1-5/8" OD, 3/8" W) McMaster Carr
$ 7.20 4 $ - $ 28.80
Thrust Bearing (3/4" ID, 1-9/16" OD, 3/32" W) McMaster Carr
$ 1.82 1 $ - $ 1.82
Brass Hex Plug (Pipe Size: 1/2") McMaster Carr
$ 3.69 2 $ 6.18 $ 13.56
AluminumShaft Coupler (Bore 7/8") Grainger
$ 24.77 1 $ - $ 24.77
Spider Coupling Insert, Urethane Grainger
$ 13.42 1 $ - $ 13.42
White ABS Pellets (2 lbs, 1 quantity) Filabot
$ 9.00 1 $ 9.96 $ 18.96
Pully and Belt system Amazon
$ 30.00 1 $ - $ 30.00
Hopper Machinist labor + materials
$ 50.00 1 $ - $ 50.00
Thrust Bearing Cage (3/4" ID, 1-9/16" OD) McMaster Carr
$ 3.09 1 $ - $ 3.09
Thrust Bearing Washers (3/4" ID, 1-9/16" OD) McMaster Carr
$ 2.63 2 $ - $ 5.26
Stainless Steel Barrel (5/8" ID, 1"OD, 6" length) McMaster Carr
$ 15.97 1 $ - $ 15.97
Brass Barrel (5/8"ID, 1"OD, 6"length) McMaster Carr
$ 12.00 1 $ - $ 12.00
AluminumBearing Blocks McMaster Carr
$ 8.17 5 $ - $ 40.85
AluminumMounting Plate (2'x3') McMaster Carr
$ 279.88 1 $ - $ 279.88
AluminumMounting Plate (2'x2') McMaster Carr
$ 212.71 1 $ - $ 212.71
CustomShaft Coupler McMaster Carr
$ 4.39 1 $ - $ 4.39
Stainless Steel Flange McMaster Carr
$ 2.20 1 $ - $ 2.20
24VDC 19RPM Gear Motor AllElectronics.com
$ 12.45 2 $ 7.00 $ 31.90
Screws/nuts McMaster Carr
$ 0.10 40 $ - $ 4.00
1 kg spool natural ABS filament (printed parts) Makerbot.com
$ 43.00 1 $ - $ 43.00
AluminumShredder Bottom Mundy's
$ 9.00 1 $ - $ 9.00
AluminumShredder Top McMaster Carr
$ 92.33 1 $ - $ 92.33
Shredder Steel Flange McMaster Carr
$ 4.50 1 $ - $ 4.50
Ball Bearings St. J ohn Hardware
$ 9.58 2 $ - $ 19.16
Spool Support McMaster Carr
$ 19.50 1 $ - $ 19.50
Shredder intake shaft McMaster Carr
$ 5.89 1 $ - $ 5.89
Maintenance Costs General
$ 40.00 1 $ - $ 40.00


31
Item Description Supplier
Price Quantity Shipping Price Total Price
Pipe insulation Zoro Tools
$ 9.22 1 $ - $ 9.22
Aluminumroller rods 1/4" Diameter McMaster Carr
$ 11.50 1 $ - $ 11.50
Aluminumroller rods 1/2" Diameter McMaster Carr
$ 12.50 1 $ - $ 12.50

TOTAL $ 2,035.93




32
Budget and Parts List
Table 6: Equipment List for Prototype Design
Item Description Supplier Price Quantity
Shipping
Price Total Price
AGPtek PID Temp. Controller Amazon - Mambate USA $ 28.99 1 $ - $ 28.99
Irwin 5/8 by 17-Auger bit Amazon $ 19.97 1 $ - $ 19.97
Roughing End Mill MSC Industrial Supply Co. $ 61.92 1 $ 10.98 $ 72.90
Heating Band Zoro Tools $ 21.46 2 $ 5.00 $ 47.92
Gear Reduction Box eBay $ 90.00 1 $ - $ 90.00
Steel Ball Bearing (3/4" ID, 1-5/8" OD, 3/8" W) McMaster Carr $ 7.20 4 $ - $ 28.80
Thrust Bearing (3/4" ID, 1-9/16" OD, 3/32" W) McMaster Carr $ 1.82 1 $ - $ 1.82
Brass Hex Plug (Pipe Size: 1/2") McMaster Carr $ 3.69 2 $ 6.18 $ 13.56
AluminumShaft Coupler (Bore 7/8") Grainger $ 24.77 1 $ - $ 24.77
Spider Coupling Insert, Urethane Grainger $ 13.42 1 $ - $ 13.42
White ABS Pellets (2 lbs, 1 quantity) Filabot $ 9.00 1 $ 9.96 $ 18.96
Thrust Bearing Cage (3/4" ID, 1-9/16" OD) McMaster Carr $ 3.09 1 $ 3.09
Thrust Bearing Washers (3/4" ID, 1-9/16" OD) McMaster Carr $ 2.63 2 $ 5.26
24VDC 19RPM Gear Motor AllElectronics.com $ 12.45 2 $ 7.00 $ 31.90
Ball Bearings St. J ohn Hardware $ 9.58 2 $ - $ 19.16
Maintenance Cost General $ 40.00 1 $ - $ 40.00
TOTAL $ 460.52




33
Budget and Parts List
Table 7: Scenarios 1 & 2 for General Design (Without Department Resources)
Product: Extruder SCENARIO 1

Total Product Cost $ 20.99

Total Savings $ 22.01 Per kg of filament produced.


Total Capital Investment $ 2,056.91

Average Annual Return on Capital Investment $ 352.16 Assuming 16 kg of filament used each year

Payout Time 5.84 Years


Product: Extruder SCENARIO 2

Total Product Cost
$
20.99

Total Savings
$
22.01 Per kg of filament produced.


Total Capital Investment
$
2,056.91

Average Annual Return on Capital
Investment $ 352.16
Assuming 16 kg of filament used each
year

$ 258.00 Savings for recycling 37.5% of filament.
$ 220.10
New Average Annual Return on CI $ 478.10
Payout Time 4.30 Years




34
Budget and Parts List
Table 8: Scenarios 3 & 4 for Prototype Design (With Department Resources)
Product: Extruder SCENARIO 1

Total Product Cost
$
20.99

Total Savings
$
22.01 Per kg of filament produced.


Total Capital Investment
$
460.52

Average Annual Return on Capital Investment $ 352.16 Assuming 16 kg of filament used each year

Payout Time 1.31 Years

Product: Extruder SCENARIO 4

Total Product Cost
$
20.99

Total Savings
$
22.01 Per kg of filament produced.


Total Capital Investment
$
460.52

Average Annual Return on Capital Investment $ 352.16 Assuming 16 kg of filament used each year
$ 258.00 Savings for recycling 37.5% of spent filament.
$ 220.10
New Average Annual Return on CI $ 478.10
Payout Time 0.96 Years




SCALE 1 : 3
Ball
Bearing
Ball Bearing
SCALE 1 : 2
SCALE 1 : 2
Thrust Bearing
SCALE 1 : 2
SCALE 1 : 2
SCALE 1 : 2 SCALE 1 : 2
Bushing
WEIGHT:
Block Assembly 2
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:4
1.0000

6
.
0
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0


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7
5
0
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4
.
2
5
0
0


1
.
0
0
0
0

0.50

0
.6
4
5
0

WEIGHT:
ExtruderBarrel
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
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6
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6
2
5
0

1.0000

0
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6
2
5
0

WEIGHT:
HeatedBarrel
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
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9
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5


1
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2.7500

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6
4
5
0

0.2500
WEIGHT:
ExtruderFlange
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
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0.87

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2
5

0.60

0
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6
0
0.13

0
.
2
3

WEIGHT:
HopperTopV2
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:2

2
.
0
7

3.30
0.60

0
.
6
0


0
.
2
3

1.00

0
.
2
5

3.00
WEIGHT:
HopperBottom
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:2

1
.
8
0
0
0


0
.
8
0
0
0


1
.
0
0
0
0


2
.
5
0
0
0

3.0000

R
0
.
3
7
5
0


1
.
2
5
0
0


0
.
8
0
0
0


0
.
5
0
0
0


0
.
7
0
0
0


1
.
0
0
0
0


0
.
2
5
0
0


0
.
8
4
5
5


0
.
5
5
9
0


0
.
2
5
0
0


0
.
2
5
0
0

0.5000
1.7560
0.7440
WEIGHT:
Shredder Top
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:2

1
.
0
0
0
0

3.0000

0
.
2
5
0
0

0.2500

2
.
5
0
0
0


0
.
8
0
0
0

0.5000
1.7560
0.7440
0.1800

0
.
4
0
0
0


1
.
0
0
0
0


0
.
5
5
9
0


1
.
0
9
5
5

0.8000

0
.
8
0
0
0

1.0000
0.7000

R
0
.
3
7
5
0

WEIGHT:
Shredder bottom
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:2
3.0000

0
.
1
2
5
0


2
.
2
5
0
0

3.0000

0
.
2
5
0
0

0.5000
1.7560
0.7440

1
.
0
3
0
2


0
.
4
6
9
8


0
.
7
5
0
0


0
.
7
5
0
0


0
.
2
5
0
0

2.2500
WEIGHT:
Shredder Flange
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:2
3.0000

0
.
1
2
5
0

2.0000

0
.
2
5
0
0

0.5000
1.7560
0.7440

0
.
5
0
0
0


1
.
0
0
0
0


0
.
5
0
0
0


2
.
0
0
0
0


0
.
9
0
0
0


0
.
2
5
0
0

0.1860

0
.
3
0
0
0


0
.
2
5
0
0

0.1800
WEIGHT:
Shredder Exit Funnel Flange
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:1

3
.
5
0
0
0

1.0000

1
.
6
2
5
0


0
.
7
5
0
0

4.0000

1
.
6
2
2
0

WEIGHT:
Block
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:2

2
.
0
0
0
0


0
.
7
5
0
0


0
.
7
5
0
0

4.2552 2.0000
5.0000 0.5000
WEIGHT:
End Mill Holder
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:2

0
.
5
0
0
0

2.0000
1.0130
0.0390
0.9480
WEIGHT:
.375inshaft
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:1

0
.
2
5
0
0

0.7500
WEIGHT:
0.25in nongearshaft
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:2:1

0
.
2
5
0
0

1.2500
WEIGHT:
0.25inshaft
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:2:1
0.7500

0
.
3
7
5
0


0
.
2
5
0
0

WEIGHT:
Hub for PUlley
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:2:1
0.5014

3
.
0
0
0
0


0
.
3
5
0
0


1
.
3
0
0
0


0
.
3
5
0
0

0.2500

2
.
0
0
0
0


0
.
6
2
5
0


0
.
2
5
0
0

2.0000
1.0000

1
.
0
5
0
0


0
.
5
5
0
0


1
.
4
0
0
0

WEIGHT:
One block side
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:1
0.5000
2.0000

3
.
0
0
0
0

1.0000

1
.
0
5
0
0


0
.
5
5
0
0


1
.
4
0
0
0


0
.
6
2
5
0


0
.
2
5
0
0


0
.
3
5
0
0


1
.
3
0
0
0


0
.
3
5
0
0

0.2500
WEIGHT:
Other block
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:1
5.0000
.3750
3.5000
.3750
3.5000
3.3500 1.3000
.3500
.2500
.2500
1.0000
2.2500
.3750
3.0000
Screws are #8 screws
WEIGHT:
Base
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS
DRAWING IS THE SOLE PROPERTY OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE>. ANY
REPRODUCTION IN PART OR AS A WHOLE
WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF
<INSERT COMPANY NAME HERE> IS
PROHIBITED.
COMMENTS:
SHEET 1 OF 1
Q.A.
MFG APPR.
ENG APPR.
CHECKED
DRAWN
DATE NAME
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
TOLERANCES:
FRACTIONAL
ANGULAR: MACH BEND
TWO PLACE DECIMAL
THREE PLACE DECIMAL
NEXT ASSY USED ON
APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING
FINISH
MATERIAL
REV.
A
DWG. NO. SIZE
SCALE:1:2