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Respiration. Outlines. Lectures 1-2.

1. Describe the composition of food.

2. Relate food to energy.
3. Present an overview of digestion.
4. Define the maor processes re!uired for digestion.
5. Describe the anatomy of the digestive system at organ" tissue and cellular level.
6. Describe the role of the mouth in digestion.
7. Describe the role of the oesophagus in digestion.
8. Describe the role of the stomach in digestion.
# $aor components for life%
- Carbs
- Fats
- Proteins
- Water
- Vitamins
- Minerals
Most are NOT pro!"e b# bo#$ t%!s in&est e. 'iet s%o!l(m!st "ontains abo)e in "omple*
'i&estion pro)ies abo)e in !sable +orm.
&utrient inta'e ( total ,!antit# o+ +oo an ,!antit# o+ ini)i!al "omponents important +or %ealt%#
-./ 0'1 1!lt Males2 25534"al5 Females2 1643 4"al5
14"al 7 ener&# to %eat 18 o+ 9ater b# 1C.
)arbs; 3.45 4"al(&ram
*ats; 6 4"al(&ram
Proteins; 4 4"al(&ram
+asal use2 restin& man< 14"al(min to sta# ali)e ; 1223 4"al(a#
+$, ; =o# Mass >ne* ; Meas!re o+ Obesity2
)lassification +$, 'g-m
Ris' of co-morbidity.
.ner9ei&%t ?18.5 8o9
@ealt%# ran&e 18.5<24.6 1)era&e
O)er9ei&%t Apre<obeseB 25.3<26.6 :li&%t in"rease
Obese Class > 33.3<34.6 :i&ni+i"ant in"rease
Obese Class >> 35.3<36.6 @i&% ris4
Obese Class >>> C43 Ver# %i&% ris4
O)er9ei&%t "a!ses2 "ario)as"!lar isease$ %#pertension$ iabetes.
Obesit# in ./ in"reases espite less "alories2 !e la"4 o+ e*er"ises.
- D> tra"4s is )er# e++i"ient at 9ater retention ; )er# little 9ater is e*"rete t%at enters
- @!&e )ol!mes se"retes as a res!lt o+ i&estion$ an t%en re"laime.
/ater ,nta'e
/ater Loss
T%ro!&% 'rin4in& 1633 .rine 1533
T%ro!&% Foo 533 :4in 533
Mae b# metabolism 533 8!n&s 533
Fae"es 133
Total 2633 2633
- Mo!t% to an!s "onstit!te digestive system.
- Oesophagus1stemple2 to an!s 7 alimentary canal 7 +rom embr#oni" ori&in.
0 $aor processes in digestion%
- =rea4o9n o+ lar&e mole"!les2 me"%ani"al or "%emi"al
- :e"retion o+ s!bstan"es<not al9a#s into l!men.
- 1bsorption
- Mo)ement o+ &!t.
&ote% not all 0 processes occurs at all parts of digestive system.
0 Layered tissue organisation from stomach to anal canal.
- M!"osaA 3 "omponents B5
- :!bm!"osa
- M!s"!laris e*terna
- :erosa.
Ea"% la#er Fone is mae o+ n!mero!s tiss!e. :tr!"t!re in i++erent D> tra"t areas epens
on t%e composition o+ t%e Fone mentione abo)e.
)omposition layer 1 ( 345 $6)O78%
9 )omponents%
aB $ucous membrane
o )olumnar or&anise epit%elial la#er.
o *unction ( prote"ts t%e &!t +rom abrasion
o 7ecretes s!bstan"es into gut e.&. en:ymes or mucus.
o 7ecrete %ormones Aenteroeno"rine "ellsB into lamina properia to "apillaries. &ever
into gut lumen.
o 8bsorbs material into "apillaries or t%in l#mp% )essel<la"teals.
bB Lamina propria
o )onnective tissue
o Contains bloo "apillaries 7 nourishes epit%elial$ "arries a9a# absorbe mole"!les.
o 8#mp% )essels
o Contains < 4ill ba"teria.
"B $uscularis mucosae
o T%in la#er o+ smooth muscle.
o )ontrols folding o+ t%e m!"osa e.&. in small intestine.
)O$PO7,3,O& O* 7ub-$ucosa" $uscularis e;terna and 7erosa%
Layer 2 7ub-$ucosa-loose connective tissue contains%
=loo )essels
8#mp% )essels
1t eep bo!nar#< neurons<or&anise to +orm intrinsic or 7ub-$ucosal Ple;us.
Layer 9 $uscularis e;terna
T%i"4 inner la#er o+ circular smooth layer
T%i"4 outer la#er o+ longitudinal smooth layer
Pro!"e 9a)es o+ contraction< peristalsis or se&mentation.
$yenteric ple;us < =et9een t%in an t%i"4 m!s"le.
MP<net9or4 o+ ne!rons. Conne"te to s!b<m!""osal ple*!s. To&et%er +orm t%e 5nteric
&ervous 7ystem.
Layer 0 7erosa
Conne"ti)e tiss!e an membrane t%at protects <, tra"t 9%en it mo)es.
Organisation of the epithelia of the <,-7mall ,ntestine as an e;ample
Enteroendocrine cell
1. )olumnar epithelium lines &!t. 0easonable stron& an small resistan"e to i++!sion.
2. :!bstan"es mo)e t%ro!&% epit%eli!m into capillaries or lymph )essels.
3. Epit%eli!m %as spe"ialise "ells for secretion. 0elease s!bstan"es into Lumen.
4. :ome secretory cells +o!n t%ro!&%o!t D> e.&. goblet cells se"rete mucus.
5. Ot%er secretory cells re&ionalise. e.&. acid producing "ells in stoma"%. /ater secreting
cells in :>.
Organisation of the epithelia for <, 4ormone Production
1. @ormones "ontrol t%e a"ti)it# o+ t%e &!t< motility" secretion and absorption.
2. @ormones pro!"e b# sin&le isperse "ells not glands< enteroendocrine cells.
3. @ormones se"rete into mucosa an not lumen.
4. 1ll are simple polypeptides.
5. 1ll promote growth o+ tiss!e 9%ere t%e# are pro!"e.
6. 1ll %a)e additional spe"ialise +!n"tions2
4ormone 7tructure 7ite of production 7timuli 8ction
<astrin 1=-90 amino acids < cells-stomach 7tomach distension"
8mino acids" p4>9
4)l production
7omatostatin 10-2? amino acids D- cells-stomach Low p4 ,nhibits 4)l production
$otilin 22 amino acid 7mall ,ntestine )ontent of stomach and 7,. )ontraction of smooth
muscle in stomach and 7,.
7ecretin 2= amino acids 7mall ,ntestine p4@0.A
8cid DuodenumB
,ncrease bicarbonate
secretion from pancreas.
cholecysto'inin 1mover of
bile from bladder2
7mall as ? amino
7mall intestine *at and protein content of
Release of digestive uices
and bile
*unction of the mouth in digestion%
A1B. 0e!"e siFe o+ +oo< teet% brea4 !p +oo$ Ton&!e &rins +oo< bet9een orsal s!r+a"e an
%ar palate.
A2B. Prepare +oo +or s9allo9in&< moistens.
A3B. 7tart chemical brea'down of carbohydrates.
4istology - reflects function
- $outh an pharyn; line b# stratified s!uamous epithelial< 9it%stans abrasion an %i&%
- 3ongue an 4ard Palate line 9it% to!&%er epit%eli!m< 'eratinised stratified s!uamous
7ecretion in the $outh-7aliva%
1. 1!lts pro!"e about 1.A litres saliva per a#G
2. Content >D=E water < %i&%l# hypotonic. p@ appro*. =
3. T%ree maHor &lans pro!"e sali)a2
Parotid-serous t#pe mainl# 9ater# sali)a "ontainin& enF#mes$ ele"trol#tes ANa
$ /
$ Cl
$ PO
B an mucin
7ubmandibular gland < serous an mucosal cells-thic'er saliva
7ublingual gland < sero!s an m!"osal "ells<t%i"4er sali)a
4. 'eli)ere t%ro!&% !"ts into t%e mo!t%.
5. 7aliva has 0 main functions%
*unction of 7aliva%
A1B )ontrols temperature< "ools %ot rin4s.
A2B Ne!tralises a"is
A3B ,g8 antibodies t%at atta"4 ba"teria an )ir!ses.
A4B Lyso:yme- brea4s o9n ba"terial "ell 9alls.
A5B )yanide based compounds< 4ill ba"teria.
A6B Definsins- 4ills ba"teria an attra"t ba"teria +i&%tin& "ells Al#mp%o"#tes an ne!torp%ilsB to
t%e mo!t%.
A1B Taste ete"te t%ro!&% a!ueous phase. Mole"!les nee to be issol)e. :ali)a bein& mainl#
9ater$ dissolves small molecules.
A1B $ucus coats food$ less abrasi)e an easier to s9allo9.
Digestion of carbohydrates in the mouth%
1. 7tarch an glycogen most ab!nant "arbo%#rates in iet.
2. 'i&estion bein&s in t%e mo!t%. :ali)a "ontain 7alivary 8mylase.
3. :ali)ar# am#lase 9or4s at p@ 7.3.
4. =rea4s "arbo%#rates into t%ree pro!"e2
Starch or glycogen
= Glucose
5. 8mylase +!n"tions !ntil a"i enat!re in stoma"%.
6. Ligual lipase< brea4s o9n lipids b!t onl# at p4 @0" so a"ts only in stomach.
8natomy of the Oesophagus 1stemple2%
1B Oesophagus "on)e#s bolus to stoma"%.
2B Oesop%a&!s< &O absorptive or digestive function.
3B Lining< No nee to be t%in Aabo)eB. 7tratified s!uamous epithelium < to!&%.
4B 7ecretes mucus< promotin& bol!s mo)ement.
5B 6pper re&ion mae o+ striated 1s'eletal muscle2.
6B $iddle re&ion o+ striated and smooth muscle.
7B Lower re&ion mae o+ smooth muscle.
8B Mo)es bol!s b# peristalsis.
8natomy of the 7tomach- Part 1
7tores food< e*pans an "ontra"ts
Digests food< "%emi"all# an me"%ani"all#. Pro!"es partiall# i&este +oo< chyme.
1bsorbs onl# alcohol an aspirinB .l"ers mae 9orse b# t%ese t9o "ompo!nsG
7ecretes en:ymes an ot%er mole"!les +or i&estion an prote"tion
Ma4es ,ntrinsic *actor < neee to absorb Fitamin +12.
7tomach made of 0 parts
Pyloric< t9o parts< antrum at anterior" pylorus at the terminal.
1. Contra"te stoma"% Aempt#B <"apa"it# AGmls.
2. :mall )ol!me !e to inner surface folding "alle rugae.
3. F!ll stoma"% %ol 4 litres < r!&ae Aesp. in +!n!s an bo#B stret"%e o!t an isappear.
8natomy of the 7tomach- Part 2
1. :toma"% %as aitional la#er o+ m!s"le in t%e muscularis e;terna :one< t%e obli!ue muscle
2. M!s"le la#er t%i"4ness )aries< t%i"4 9%ere "ontra"tions neee.
3. *undus an =o# onl# e*pan t%ere+ore m!s"le stren&t% not "riti"al< t%ere+ore t%in la#ers o+
4. P#lori" re&ion responsible +or churning food an empt#in& +oo. :tron& "ontra"tions neee<
t%i"4 m!s"le la#ers.
0etrop!lsion 7 +or"es "%#me ba"49ar.
Dastrin is a 4e# re&!lator in i&estion H!i"es 7 stim!lates release o+ %"l$ %istamine an pepsino&en.
=!t is in%ibite b# :omatostatin.
Lecture 9-0 outlines%
1. Describe structure of the small intestine.
2. Describe the secretions of the pancreas and liver.
3. Describe the digestion and absorption of proteins" carbohydrates and fats.
4. Describe the absorption of water and &a ions by the small intestine.
5. Describe the function of the large intestine.