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534.44
A.A. AFANASJEV
A.G. BABAK
A.V. NIKOLAEV




THE ANALYTICAL APPROACHES
TO CALCULATION OF ELECTRIC MACHINES
ON THE BASIS OF THE ANNULAR DOMAINS
BOUNDARY PROBLEMS SOLUTION
BY THE METHOD OF FOURIER VARIABLES
SEPARATION



ABSTRACT The air gap, with double-sided stairstep jaggies
being two-downlink area, can be conformally imaged as circular ring.
Traditionally this procedure executes approximately with the help of
Carter factors. Cross sections of the stator and rotor cores also have
the form of rings.
The rotating magnetic field in the locations of conductors (in slots,
windows between poles) can be presented by the sum of potential
and some adding (easily calculated) fields. The localisation of an adding


Prof. A.A. AFANASJEV, D. Sc.
ph. (+8352) 451880, the fax (+8352) 209488
e-mail: afan@chuvsu.ru
A.G. BABAK
ph. (+095) 775-0748, the fax (095) 775-0749,
e-mail: babak-alexandr@mail.ru
Chuvash state university
Faculty of control and computer science in technical systems,
Moscow circular 15, 428015. Cheboksary, Russia,
A.V. NIKOLAEV
ph. (+ 8352) 620114, e-mail: komzem@cbx.ru
Chuvash state university

PRACE INSTYTUTU ELEKTROTECHNIKI, zeszyt 220, 2004
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 42
field in the location of conductors requires arrangement on a part
of boundary of each slot (at the bottom or in the wedge part) infinitely
thin current layers, the joint currents of them are equal to full currents
of slots.
Usage of scalar magnetic potentials (SMP) of current layers allows
to receive the analytical solution of Dirichlet problem for circular rings
of three mentioned environments (air gap, magnetic stator core and
rotor) assuming its magnetic permeabilities are constant.
For the sake of greater generality of the problem we assume that
the core of the rotor is performed from massive steel. The selection of
this material does the mathematical model more universal, as at transition
to high enough values of magnetic permeability and resistivity the
massive environment gains properties of laminated steel.
SMP of current layers of stator windings and rotor are submitted
by Fourier series.
The parameters of an electromagnetic field in a solid rotor (radial
and tangential component of flux density, current density and power
loss) are obtained on the basis of the analytical solution of Bessel
differential equation for a vector magnetic potential by a method of
variables separation and are submitted by appropriate Bessel and
Kelvin functions.
With reference to an asynchronous motor with a solid rotor the
performance data are calculated and compared with the test results.
The changes of magnetic permeability in steel of a rotor are taken
into account by splitting it on concentric rings, in each of which the
permeability is constant.





1. FORMULATION

The rotating magnetic field in the locations of conductors (in slots,
windows between poles) can be presented by the sum of potential
p
H and
some adding
0
H (easily calculated) magnetic fields. The localisation of adding
field in the location of conductors requires arrangement on a part of each slot
boundary (at the bottom or in the wedge part) infinitely thin current layers with a
line density
0
H , the joint currents of its are equal to full currents of slots.
The scalar magnetic potential (SMP) of a current layer j- of a slot will
be defined by expression

( ) dl H I l U
l
j j j

=
0
0 /2
& & &

The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 43
where
j
I

full current of a slot,


l variable of integration on slot boundary, read out from edges of
a current layer,
j
o
H

projection of vector of a adding field to a direction of integration.


At summation SMP of current layers of all slots

( ) ( )

j
j
l U l U


we will receive resultant relation, the geometrical site of which is dictated by
convenience of calculation of magnetic field. For example, it is possible to
suppose the field is fixed on a circle of an air gap passing on stator teeth edges.

In the beginning for simplification of a problem we neglect stairstep
jaggies of stator and rotor cores (it is considered they are smooth; in
subsequent, at refinement of the solution we shall come to conformal mapping
of an air gap with bilateral stairstep jaggies on a circular ring)
1)
and we assume
the length of the machine infinitely large (edge effects missed).

For the sake of greater generality we assume that the rotor of the
machine is performed from massive steel. The selection of this material does a
mathematical model by more universal, as at transition to high enough values of
magnetic permeability and resistivity on an axis z the massive environment
gains properties of laminated steel core.

The cross section of the machine is shown in Fig. 1. By digits 1, 2 and 3
are marked accordingly: the massive ferromagnetic rotor, air gap, stator core,
magnetic permeability which in the beginning is considered as infinitely large.
Usage SMP of current layers allows receiving the analytical solution the
Dirichlet problem for circular rings of three mentioned environments at constancy
of its magnetic permeabilities.

1)
As a first approximation for estimated value of a smooth air gap it is possible to accept value
of a geometrical air gap (distance between circles passing on heads of fingers of a stator
and a rotor), multiplied on air gap factor (Carter factor).
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 44
r


Fig. 1. Cross section of an electric machine with a solid rotor




2. CALCULATION OF A MAGNETIC FIELD
IN AN AIR GAP

On the stator core surface with the bolded arcs are shown current layers
of phase A slots. Their scalar magnetic potential (SMP) can be presented by
a trigonometric series

( )
( )
=

=
n a r U
n
n A
cos ,
1
2
2 2
(1)
where
( ) ( )
t F a
n n
= cos
2 2
(2)

( )
m
n w
n
I
p n
k w
F

2
2
=
(3)
where

m
I amplitude of a phase current of frequency ;

n w
k w, number of orbits and winding factor of a phase;
2
1
3
The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 45
p number of pairs of poles of a statoric winding,
a ngular coordinate of a view point in a magnetic field (

p = ,
here

angular coordinate of the same view point, but in


mechanical (geometrical) coordinate system).

Summarising (1) with SMP two other phases

( )
( )

=
3
2 cos
3
2 cos ,
1
2
2 2
n t F r U
n
n B
(4)

( )
( )


+ =

=
3
2 cos
3
2 cos ,
1
2
2 2
n t F r U
n
n C
(5)

we have

( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )

n j
n
n
n t j
n
n
n
n
e F e F n t F r U
m m
m


=

=
=
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 2
2
3
2
3
cos
2
3
,

(6)
where
the upper sign corresponding to harmonics numbers

( ) ,... 13 , 7 , 1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0 1 6 = = + = n k k n

the lower sign ( ) . ,... 17 , 11 , 5 ,..., 3 , 2 , 1 1 6 = = = n k k n
1)


On other side of air area 2 (with radius
1
r ) current of phase A and the
eddy currents of ferromagnetic rotor will induce SMP in the form

( )
( ) ( )

=
+ =
1
1 1
1 2
sin cos ,
n
n n A
n b n a r U
&
&
(7)

where

( ) 1 1
,
n n
b a
&
& unknown factors.


1)
For the sake of simplicity of the analysis we assume that the stator winding has an integer of
slots on a pole and phase. In this case miss even harmonics in the formulas (2),(5),(6).
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 46
SMP, assigned by the formulas (1) and (7), allows finding the solution the
Dirichlet problem for an annular domain 2 [1]

( ) ( ) + + + =

n D r B r n C r A r r U
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
A
sin cos ) ( ,
1
2
(8)

where the factors
n n n n
D C B A , , , are determined by the formulas

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

=
=
=
=
. /
, /
, /
, /
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2 2 1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2 2 1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
n n
n
n
n
n n
n
n n
n
n
n
n n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
r r b r b r r r D
r r a r a r r r C
r r b r b r B
r r a r a r A
& &
& &
& &
& &
(9)


From expressions (8) and (9) follows the relation for radial component of
magnetic field (MF) intensity on boundary of areas 1 and 2

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )

n b b n
n a a n
r r
r U
r H
n n n n
n
n n n n
r r
A
rA
sin
cos
1 ,
,
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1 2
1
+ +
+ + =

= =
& &
(10)


where

( ) ( )
n n n n
n
r r r r
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1 1
/ + =

( ) ( )
n n n
n
r r r r
2
1
2
2 2 1 2
/ 2 =

Taking into account operation of two other stator windings phases (B and
), the formulas (7) and (10) can be given in the form

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )

=
n j
n
n
n t j
n
n n
n
n
e F
e F n t F n t F r U
m
m
&
&
m
&
m
&
1
1
1
1 1
2
1
1
1 1 2
2
3
2
3
sin cos
2
3
,

(11)
The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 47
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )


+
+ =
n j
n
n n n n
n t j
n
n n n n r
e F F n
r
e F F n
r
r H
m
m
& &
& &
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1 2
2
3
2
3
,
(12)

where

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

+ =
= =
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1 1
1
1
, sin , cos
n n
n
n
n
n
n
F j F F
t F b t F a
& & &
& &
&



From the formula (11) we can receive expression for tangential component
of MF intensity

( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )


=

=


=
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1 2
1 2
2
3
2
3 ,
,
n
n j
n
n
n t j
n
e F n
r
j
e F n
r
j
r
r U
r H
m m
& &

(13)




3. CALCULATION OF A MAGNETIC FIELD
IN A FERROMAGNETIC ROTOR

We draw attention now to the ferromagnetic rotor environment 1, rotating
with speed (in a direction of a first harmonic MF). Assuming const =
1

1)
and
entering a vector magnetic potential

1 1 1
rot A H =

we have from the first Maxwell equation, written in fixed coordinate system


1)
Below this condition will concern only to rather thin elementary concentric annular domains,
into which will be divided the massive ferromagnetic cylinder of a rotor. On boundaries of
these rings the magnetic permeability will change jumps. Inside rings the environment will be
linear, i.e. its parameters and are saved invariable. The monotone change of these
parameters will be watched at infinitely large number of elementary concentric rings.
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 48
1 1
rot rot = A (14)
where

[ ]

= =
1 1
1
1 1 1
rot rad A v
t
A
U q E
(15)

is a current density in steel rotor (here
1
v running speed of a view point of the
ferromagnetic environment).

From the vector analysis it is known

A A A
2
1 1
div qrad rot rot =


Selecting for calibration of the vector potential the Culomb condition

0 div
1
= A

And neglecting strength of an electrical (Culomb) field inside the steel array

0 qrad
1
= U

from an equation (14) we shall have

[ ] 0
1 1
1
1
2
=

+ B v
t
A
A


At harmonically varying MF it is fair

0
1
2
=
z r
e B r A j A
&
& &

(16)

As considered MF is two-dimensional parallel, thus in cylindrical coordinate
system

0
1
rot
1 1
1 1
=

= =

r
z z
A
r
A r
r
B A

The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 49
From here follows
z z r
e A A A A = = =
1 1 1
, 0

= =

= =
r
A
z
A
r
A
B A
A
r z
A r A
r
B A
z r z
z z
r r
1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
rot
,
1 1
rot


(17)

Therefore equation (16) can be written

0
1 1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
=

z
z z z z
A j
A A
r
r
A
r
r
A
&
& & & &

(18)

We shall solve it by a method of variables separation, supposing

( ) ( ) = n r R A
z 1
&
(19)

And, if to select

( )

=
n j
e n
m


then after the substitution (19) in (18) we receive an ordinary differential
equation
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0
2 2 2
2
2
2
= + + + r R r S k n
r d
r dR
r
r d
r R d
r
n

where
j k =
2

n S
n p
S
n
) 1 ( 1
1
=

= m
m


where

=
p
S 1
1
slip of a rotor for first harmonic of a magnetic field;
The upper sign (-) corresponds to values 1 6 + = k n ( ,...) 13 , 7 , 1 ,...; 1 , 0 = = n k ;
The lower sign (+) to ,...). 17 , 11 , 5 ,...; 3 , 2 , 1 ( 1 6 = = = n k k n
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 50
Its solution is known [2]

( ) ( ) ( ) r S k Y C r S k J C r R
n n n
n
n n n 2
1
1
+ =

=
(20)
where
( ) ( ) r S k Y r S k J
n n n
, cylindrical Bessel functions of n order, accordingly
of the first and second kind;
n n
C C
2 1
, arbitrary constants.
Taking into account, that ( ) = 0
n
Y , it is necessary to accept 0
2
=
n
C . In
outcome we shall have

( )
n j
n n
n
n z
e r S k J C A
m
&

=
=
1
1 1
(21)

where the constants
n
C
1
will be retrieved from boundary conditions of a problem.
Using (17) we have
( )

=
n j
n
n
n n r
e r S k J C n
r
j
B
m
m
&
1
1 1
(22)
( )

=

=
n j
n
n
n n n
e r S k J C S k B
m
&
1
1 1
(23)
where
( ) x J x J
n n
= / .
On boundary of areas 1 and 2 ( )
1
r r = we have
2 1 2 1
, H H B B
r r
& & & &
= = (24)

To draw attention to the equations (12) and (13) for
r
H
2
and
2
H , from
equations (24) we shall receive a set of equations for finding of unknowns
n
C
1

and
( ) 1
n
F
&

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )

=
+ =
1
1
1 1
1
2
2
1
1
0
1 1
2
3
,
2
3
n n n n n
n n n n n n n
F n
r
j
r S k J C S
k
F F r S k J C j
&
& &
m


The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 51
Its solution will be

( )
( ) ( )
1 1 1 0 1 1
2
2 0 1
1
2 2
3
r S k J r S k r S k J n
F n j
C
n n n n n n
n n
n
+

=
&
(25)

( )
( )
( )
( )
n
n
n n n
n n
n
n
r S k J r S k
r S k J
r
n
F
F
2
1
1 1
1
1 0
1
2
1

=
&
&
(26)


Considering known equalities

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

+ =
=
+
+
x J x J x x J n
x J x J x J
n n n
n n n
1 1
1 1
2
, 2
(27)

it is possible to give the formulas (25), (26) in form

( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
2
2 1
1
3
r S k J a r S k J a r S k
F n j
C
n n n n n n n n
n n
n
+
+

=
&
(28)

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
n
n
n n n n
n n n n
n
n
n
r S k J r S k J
r S k J r S k J
F
F
2
1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2 0
1
2
1

+


=
+
+
&
&
(29)

where
n
n
a
1 0
1
1
1


+ =
,
n
n
a
1 0
1
2
1


+ =


After a substitution of expression (28) for a factor
n
C
1
in the formulas
(22), (23) for radial and tangential components of a magnetic flux density in the
steel cylinder we shall have

( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( )

=
+

+
+
+

=
1
1 1 2 1 1 1
1 1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
3
n
n n n n n n
n j
n n n n n
n
n
r
r S k J a r S k J a
e r S k J r S k J F n
r
B
m
&
&
(30)
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 52
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( )

=
+

=
1
1 2 1 1 1
1 1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
3
n
n n n n n n
n j
n n n n n
n
n
S k J a r S k J a
e r S k J r S k J F n
r
j
B
m
&
m
&
(31)

On other side of an air gap (in the environment 2) on a circle
2
r r =
we have according to the formulas (8), (11), (12), (29)

jn
n n n n n n
n n n n n n
n
n
n r
e
r q j J a r q j J a
r q j J a r q j J a
F n
r
r B
m
& &
) ( ) (
) (
~
) (
~
2
3
) , (
1
2
3
1 2 1
2
3
1 1
1
2
3
1 2 1
2
3
1 1 ) 2 (
1
1
2
0
2 2
+
+

=
+

=

(32)

=
=
1
) 2 (
2
0
2 2
2
3
) , (
n
jn
n
e F n
r
j
r B

m
& &
(33)
where
n
n
n
n
a a
1
2
1
2
1
~

,
n
n
n
n
a a
2
2
1
2
2
~
+

.

The obtained formulas were used with reference to an asynchronous
motor (AM) with a solid rotor executed on the basis mass-produced three-phase
AM type 4200 2, with the following data:
37
2
= P kW; 2943

= n rpm; 220

= U V; 70

= I A; 06 , 120

= M Nm;
89 , 0 cos = ; 90 , 0 = ; 36
1
= z ; 6 = q ; 60 = W ; 0652 , 0 = R (0,0207 rel.u.);
314 = rad/s;
7
10 5 , 0 = (
.
m)
-1
; 97
1
= r mm; 9 , 97
2
= r mm; 9 , 0 = mm;
130 = l mm; material of rotor steel 3.
In Figs. 2-3 the peak values of the first and seventh harmonics of a magnetic
flux density on a surface of a solid rotor in a function of slip for the given motor,
calculated on the formulas (30), (31)
1)
, are shown at
0
100 = =
e
and
var = =
e
(here
e
- magnetic permeability of steel on a rotor surface).

1)
Cylindrical, Bessel functions of the first kinds with complex arguments:
0 ,
4 3 4 3
> = = =
n
j j
n n n
S xe re q r S j r S k


0 ,
4 4
< = = =
n
j j
n n n
S xe re q r S j r S k


where
n n
S q = , r q x
n
=
expresses through Kelvin functions:
( ) ( ) x i j x r xe J
n n
j
n
be be
4 3
+ =


( ) ( ) n x i j x r xe J
n n
j
n

cos be be
4
=
The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 53
a) b)


Fig. 2. Amplitude values of radial (a) and tangential (b) components of first
harmonic of a magnetic flux density on a solid rotor surface in function of the rotor
slip concerning a first harmonic of a magnetic field (Curve 1:
0
100 = =
e
;
- 2:
e
= accordingly to magnetisation curve of steel 3)




4. CURRENT DENSITY IN A FERROMAGNETIC ROTOR

In accordance with expressions (15), (16) complex amplitudes of a current
density in a rotor will be

r z z
B r A j
1 1 1
& & &
=
(34)

After a substitution in (34) formulas (21) and (22) accordingly for
z
A
1
&
and
r
B
1
&
we shall have

( )

=
n j
n n n
n
n z
e r S k J C S j
m
& &
1
1
1


Taking into account expressions (27), (28) we shall have

( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( )

=
+
+

+
+

=
n j
n
n n n n n n
n n n n n n
n
n
z
e
r S k J a r S k J a
r S k J r S k J F S
r
r
m
&
&
1
1 1 2 1 1 1
1 1
2
1
2
1
1
2
3



A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 54
a) b)


Fig. 3. Amplitude values of the seventh harmonics radial (a) and tangential
(b) components of a magnetic flux density on the solid rotor surface in a function of
slip concerning the first harmonic of a magnetic field at
0
100 = =
e



Subsequently, our interest will be the square of the module of current density
for n harmonic. From last formula, skiping indexes 1z, we have

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

= =

1 1
1
2
1 1 1 1
1
2
1 1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
3
r S k J
a
a
r S k J r S k J
a
a
r S k J a
r S k J r S k J
S F
r
n
n n
n
n
n n n n
n
n
n n n
n n n n
n n
n
n
n n n
& & &

(35)

Cylindrical functions with considered complex argument

r q j r S j r S k
n n n
2 / 3
= =


where

n n
S q =


expresses through Kelvin functions

The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 55
( ) ( ) ( )
n
j
n n n n n n n
e b r q bei j r q ber r q j I

= + =
2 / 3


where

( ) ( ) r q bei r q ber b
n n n n n
2 2
+ =
,
( )
( ) r q ber
r q bei
n n
n n
n
arctq =



In outcome the formula for a square of a module of a current density (35)
will receive a form

( )
( )
( )

=
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
3
r q D
r q b
S F
r
n
n n
n n
n n
n
n
n
& &
(36)
where
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

+ =
+ + + 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
2
2
1 1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
cos 2
n n n n n n
n
n
n n
n
n
n n n n n
r q b r q b
a
a
r q b
a
a
r q b a r q D

From obtained formulas in Figs. 4-5 are shown the main and higher
harmonics amplitudes of the current density on the solid rotor surface in
function of rotor slip.



Fig. 4. Amplitude of a first harmonic of a current density
on a solid rotor surface in function of slip (curve 1:
0
100 = =
e
; - 2:
e
= is on a magnetization curve
of steel 3)
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 56
a) b)


Fig. 5. Amplitudes of fifth () and seventh (b) harmonics of a current density on the
solid rotor surface in function of slip at
0
100 = =
e





5. LOSSES IN A FERROMAGNETIC ROTOR

The losses in the steel cylinder from n harmonic of eddy currents in
accordance with (36) are

( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) dr r r q bei r q ber
r q D
S l
F
r
n
dr r
l
d dr r
l
P
r
n n n n
n n
n
n
n
n
r
n n n
r
n n
+

=
=

1
1 1
0
2 2
1
2
2
1
2
1
0 0
2
0
3
2
&
&
(37)

where l active length of the rotor.

The integral in this expression is named as Lommel one. His value is
known [3]. Finally

( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2
2
1
2
1
2
9
r q bei r q ber r q bei r q ber
F
r q D
S l n
P
n n n n n n n n
n
n
n
n n
n
n
+ +

=
&



(38)

The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 57
Using this formula the losses in a solid rotor from main and higher
harmonics of an eddy current in a function of slip were calculated. The graphs of
these relations are shown in Figs. 6-7.



Fig. 6. Losses in a solid rotor from a first harmonic
of eddy current in a function of slip (curve 1:
0
100 = =
e
; 2 -
e
= is on a magnetisation
curve of steel 3)


a) b)

Fig. 7. Losses in a solid rotor from a fifth () and seventh (b) harmonics of an eddy
current in a function of slip at
0
100 = =
e


The depth of penetration in the steel array n of a harmonics of a magnetic
field can be defined according to the formula

n n
S 2 = (39)

A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 58
The graph ( )
1 1 1
S = for a first harmonic of a magnetic field is presented
in Fig. 8.



Fig. 8. Depth of penetration in the steel array of
a rotor of a first harmonic magnetic fields in
a function of slip (curve 1:
0
100 = =
e
; - 2:
e
=
is on a magnetization curve of steel 3)




6. THE ELECTROMAGNETIC TORQUE
CALCULATION OF PERFORMANCE DATA

As is known, the area density of electromagnetic forces which are
operational in a tangent direction to a cylindrical surface of rotor will be equal [4]

( )
+ =
=
1
2 2 r r r
H B T
where
0 > small constant;
r radius of a circle flanking to a rotor.

On this circle (at 0 ) radial component of a magnetic flux density
( )
r
B
2
and tangential component of the magnetic fields intensity ( )
2
H will be
equal
( ) ( ) ( )

=
=
1
1 max 1 2
cos ,
n
n
r r
n t r B r B m
&
(40)
The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 59
( )
( )
( )

+ =
1
1 max 1 2
2
cos ,
n
n
n t r H r H



m
&
(41)

where

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
n r
j
n
r
n n n n n n
n n n n
n
n n
n
r
e r B
r q j J a r q j J a
r q j J r q j J
r
F n
r B


1 max
1
2 / 3
1 2 1
2 / 3
1 1
1
2 / 3
1 1
2 / 3
1
1 1
2
2 1
1 max
2
3
&
&
&
=
=
+
+
=
+
+


( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
) 2 (
1 max
1
2 / 3
1 2 1
2 / 3
1 1
1
2 / 3
1 1
2 / 3
1
1 1
2
2
1 max
2
3

+
+
+
=
=
+

=
n
j
n
n n n n n n
n n n n
n
n n
n
e r H
r q j J a r q j J a
r q j J r q j J
r
F n j
r H
&
&
m
&



In accordance with the theory of tensions for the electromagnetic torque
of an electric machine will be fair the expression

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
m n r
m
n m
n
r m
n r
m
n m
n
r
r
r H r B l r d m t
n t r H r B l r
d r H r B l r d T l r M

+ +
+ =
= = =

=
sin
2
cos
cos
, ,
1 max 1
1 1
max
2
1
2
0
1 max 1
1 1
max
2
1
1 2 1
2
0
2
2
1
2
0

2
1
m
m

(42)

With the help of this formula the electromagnetic torques from first and
higher harmonics of a magnetic field in a function of slip for the mentioned
above tested asynchronous motor with a solid rotor were determined. The
outcomes of calculations are adduced in Fig. 9-10.

Being repelled the formula (32) for radial component of a magnetic flux
density it is easy to define the stator current of the asynchronous machine with
a solid rotor.
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 60
For amplitude of a first harmonic of radial component of a magnetic flux
density it is fair

( )
n
j
n n n
n
r
e G F
r
n
B

2
1
2
0 ) (
2
2
3
=
&





Fig. 9. The electromagnetic torque of a first
harmonic of a magnetic field in a function of slip
1
S (curve 1:
0
100 = =
e
; - 2:
e
= is on
magnetisation curve of steel 3)


where
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
N N
N N
G
n
+
+
=
,
here:

( ) ( )
1 1 2 1 1 1 1
~ ~
r q ber a r q ber a N
n n n n n n +
+ =
( ) ( )
1 2 2 1 1 2
~ ~
r q bei a r q bei a N
n n n n
+ =
( ) ( )
1 1 2 1 1 1 3
r q ber a r q ber a N
n n n n n n +
+ =
( ) ( )
1 1 2 1 1 1 4
r q bei a r q bei a N
n n n n n n +
+ =

n n
S q =

n n n 2 1
=
The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 61
1 2 1
/ arctq N N
n
=
3 4 2
/ arctq N N
n
=
( )
( ) I k w np F
wn n
/ 2 2
2
=
&


As the magnetic flux of n harmonics of one pole is equal

n
l
B
n
r n

) (
2
2
& &
=


then for an effective value of EMF vector of n harmonic of stator winding we
have
( )
n
j
n n n wn n
e I G Q j k fw j E

= =
& &
2 / 2


where
( )
2
2
1 0
6
n w n n
k w
n p
l
Q

=


a) b)

c)

Fig. 10. The electromagnetic torque of
fifth (), seventh (b) and eleventh (c)
harmonics of magnetic field in a function
of slip S
1
(curve 1:
0
100 = =
e
; - 2:
e
= is on a magnetisation curve of
steel 3)


A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 62
Considering an equilibrium equation of voltages in one phase of a stator
winding circuit

1
Z I E U
& & &
+ =
where

=
n
n
E E
& &


let's have finally for a stator current

2
1
2
1
cos sin

+ +


=

n
n n n
n
n n n
G Q X G Q R
U
I




and his phase angle

+
=
n
n n n
n
n n n
G Q R
G Q X


sin
cos
tq arc
1
1



The calculation of a stator current defined, as visible, in a function of rotor
slip
1
S , allows to find according to the offered above formulas all performance
data of the asynchronous machine with a solid rotor.
The first harmonic of a magnetic flux density displaces on a surface of
a rotor, having amplitude

( ) ( )
( ) [ ]
( )
( ) [ ]
2
1 max 1
2
1 max 1 max 1
1
r B r B B
r r
+ = (43)


As the amplitudes of the nearest higher harmonics (5-th and 7-th) of flux
density are much less the first one, the magnetic permeability of a surface of
a rotor
e
= can be determined on a level of an effective value of a first
harmonic of flux density [5].
On a large part of pole pitch of a rotor surface the magnetic permeability
is close to minimum value
The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 63
( ) ( )
1 1 min
r B f
e
= = = (44)

appropriate to effective value of a first harmonic of a magnetic flux density on
the rotor surface (43). Therefore, as a first approximation, the magnetic
permeability of the rotor surface can be determined by expression (44).

It is more logical to determine the permeability
e
as average value of
a curve ( )
e e
= :

( )

= =

1
d
e e e (45)


At this stage the magnetic
permeability of whole rotor mass
will be assumed also as identical
and equal
e
as magnetic
permeability of a rotor surface.
Below it will be considered more
accurate calculation of perme-
ability using splitting the cylinder
of a rotor into concentric annular
domains.
The nature of change
min
=
e
functions of a rotor slip
is shown in Fig. 11. Here curve 2
is obtained with the help of
a magnetisation curve of steel 3
and amplitude of a first harmonic of
a magnetic flux density calculated
on the formulas (40), (41), (43).
In Fig.12 are shown computational and experimental [6] relations of the
torque (a) and a stator current (b) from slip for an asynchronous motor with
a solid rotor from steel 3, made on the basis mass-produced electric motor
2-81-2 of power 40 kW with synchronous speed 3000 rpm. The curves were
calculated taking into account the frontal effect of eddy currents short circuiting
of a rotor by reduction the electrical conductivity of rotor material on followed
factor [7]
l k 2 1

+ =


Fig. 11. Minimum value of relative magnetic
permeability on a surface of the steel array of
a rotor in a function of his slip (curve 1:
=
0 min

e
100; -2:
0 min

e
is on a magnet-
ization curve of steel 3)

A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 64
a) b)

Fig. 12. The electromagnetic torque () and current of a stator (b) in a function of slip
of an asynchronous motor with a smooth solid rotor from steel 3, made on the basis
of asynchronous machine 2-81-2 (curve 1 corresponds to
-1

6
m) Om ( 10 6 = ; curve - 2:
-1

6
m) Om ( 10 5 = ; curve- 3:
-1

6
m) Om ( 10 4 = ; 5 , 2

= ; o - experimental points


The overstating of the calculated torque values as compared to experimental
ones (approximately to 14 %) at this stage of calculation is due to neglecting the
magnetic voltage in the stator core (it is assumed =
3
).
In summary we shall mark, that analytical and numerical methods of
calculation of asynchronous machines with a solid rotor many activities are
dedicated. The analytical approaches, naturally, are connected to those or
diverse assumptions. Let's call these of them, which are assumed in this study:
1. the curvature of magnetic cores and air gap is neglected (the
electromagnetic phenomena are considered in rectangular coordinate
system) [6];
2. the effect of higher harmonics of magneto-motive force (MMF) on
characteristics of machines is not analysed [6, 7, 8, 9];
3. the leakage of magnetic flux in an air gap is rather neglected (magnetic
flux coming out of stator core is assumed as equal to magnetic flux
entering from an air gap to a rotor core) [7, 9] or its calculation is made
approximately [6, 8];
4. the calculation of a magnetic field in steel rotor core is made at given on
his surface waves of a magnetic flux density (

B ) and electric field
strength (
z
E ) [6, 8];
5. the connection between EMF of a rotor and stator is on the basis of an
approximated integral representation of a Faraday law of flux density
[6, 8, 9].


The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 65

7. CALCULATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD
AT FINAL VALUE OF MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY
OF THE STATOR CORE
In the previous calculations the magnetic permeability of the stator core
(environment 3 in Fig. 1) was assumed infinitely large. In this case environment
3 did not exert influence on a magnetic field in an adjacent annular domain air
gap. But such effect takes place in reality, when the magnetic permeability
of the core of a stator is finite.

7.1. Calculation of magnetic field at the existence
of eddy currents in the stator core
Supposing the stator core electro-conductive, the calculation of a magnetic
field in its can be made similarly to calculation of a magnetic field in a massive
steel rotor. Pursuant to the formulas (20), (22), (23) we shall have for the
environment 3
( ) ( ) [ ]
n j
n
n n n n r
e r k Y D r k J D n
r
j
B
m
m
&

=
+ =
1
3 2 3 1 3
(46)
( ) ( ) [ ]

n j
n
n n n n
e r k Y D r k J D k B
m
&

=
+ =
1
3 2 3 1 3 3
(47)
where
3 3 3
j k = ,
n n
D D
2 1
, - constants defined from boundary conditions.
In the environment 2 (air gap) on boundary circle with radius
2
r r = we
have according with the formulas (8), (11), (12)

( )
( ) ( )
( )


n j
n
n n n n r
e F F n
r
r H
m
& &

=

+ =
1
2
1
1
2
2
2 2
2
3
,
(48)
( )
( )


n j
n
n
e F n
r
j
r H
m
& &

=

=
1
2
2
2 2
2
3
,
(49)
where
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2 2
n n n
F F F
& & &
+ =

,
( ) 2
n
F
&
adding stipulated by a magnetic field of the
stator core.
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 66
The formulas (46)-(49) contain three unknowns of a factor
( ) 2
2 1
, ,
n n n
F D D
&
,
which are determined from three equations expressing boundary condition

( ) ( ) , ,
2 2 0 2 3
r H r B
r r
& &
=

( )
( )
( )

+ =
2
2 2
2 2
3
2 3
,
,
,
r
r U
r H
r B
&
&


( ) 0 ,
3 3
= r B
r
&


From these three equations it is easy to receive expressions for unknowns
of factors

( )
( ) ( )
( )
N k r M n
F F r k Y n j
D
n
n n n n n
n
3 2 1 0 3
2
1
1
2 3 3 3 0
1
2
3


+
+
=
& &


( )
( ) ( )
( )
N k r M n
F F r k J n j
D
n
n n n n n
n
3 2 1 0 3
2
1
1
2 3 3 3 0
2
2
3


+
+
=
& &
m


( )
( ) ( )
( )
N k r M n
F F N r k
F
n
n n n n
n
3 2 1 0 3
2
1
1
2 2 3 0
2


+
+
=
& &
&

where
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 3 3 3 3 2 3
r k Y r k J r k Y r k J M
n n n n
=

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 3 3 3 3 2 3
r k Y r k J r k Y r k J N
n n n n
=




7.2. Calculation of a magnetic field if neglected
eddy currents in the stator core

The magnetic field in the environment 3 (Fig. 1) can be determined on
the basis of the solution of Neumann boundary problem. In this case we
assume given the radial (normal) components of magnetic field intensity on
boundaries of area 3:
The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 67
( )
( ) ( )
n b n a r H
n
n
n A r
sin
~
cos
~
,
2
1
2
2 3
+ =

=


( ) 0 ,
3 3
= r H
A r


Then the scalar magnetic potential in this area will be equal [1]

( ) ( ) ( ) k n r D r B n r C r A r U
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n A
+ + + + =

sin
~ ~
cos
~ ~
,
1
3
(50)
where
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

=
+
+
+
+
,
~
~
,
~
~
,
~
~
,
~
~
2
2
2
3
2 2
3
1
2
2
2
2
3
2 2
3
1
2
2
2
2
3
2 1
2
2
2
2
3
2 1
2
n n
n
n n
n
n n
n
n n
n
n n
n
n
n
n n
n
n
n
r r n
b r r
D
r r n
a r r
C
r r n
b r
B
r r n
a r
A
(51)

k - constant.

As regards the magnetic field of phase A is even function (Fig.1) we can
accept
( )
0
~
2
=
n
b . Then we have 0
~ ~
= =
n n
D B .
Meaning that

( ) ( )
t H a
n n
cos
~ 2 2
&
= (52)

and summarise magnetic fields of all three phases, we have

( )
( )
( )
( )


=

=
=
1
2
1
2
2 3
2
3
cos
2
3
,
n
n j
n
n
n r
e H n t H r H


m
&
m
& &
(53)


After the substitution of expressions (51) in the formula for SMP (50) we have
for an inner boundary of area 3
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 68
( )
( )
k n a
n
r r U
n
n
n
A
+ =

cos
~
,
2
1
3
2 2 3

where
( ) ( )
n n n n
n
r r r r
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3 3
/ + =

Summarising SMP of all three phases and taking into account (52) we
shall receive

( )
( )
k e H
n
r r U
n j
n
n
n
+ =

m
&
2
1
3
2 2 3
2
3
,


Then the tangential component of MF intensity for
2
r r = will be equal

( )
( )
( )

n j
n
n
n
e H
j
r
r U
r H
m
&
2
1
3
2
2 3
2 3
2
3
,
,

=
=

=
(54)

The boundary conditions for boundary between areas 2 and 3 are
represented by two equations

( ) ( ) , ,
2 3 3 2 2 0
r H r H
r r
=

( ) ( )
( )

=
2
2 2
2 3 2 2
,
, ,
r
r U
r H r H


Substituting in these the formulas (6), (48), (49), (53), (54), we shall
receive two equations for finding two unknowns
( ) 2
n
H
&
and
( ) 2
n
F
&
:

( ) ( )
( )
( ) 2
3
2
1
1
2
2
0
n n n n n
H F F
r
n
& & &

= +

;
( ) ( ) ( ) 2
2
2
3
2
2
n n n n
F
r
n
H F
r
n
& & &
+ =




Solving above equations, we shall find
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
n n
n n n n
n
r
F F n
H
3 1 0 3 2
2
1
1
2 0
2


+
+
=
& &
&
(55)
The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 69
( )
( ) ( )
n n
n n n n
n
F F
F
3 1 0 3
2
3
1
3 2 0
2


+
+
=

& &
&
(56)


We see, that in an ideal case, when =
3
, we have

( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2 2
, 0
n n n
F F H
& & &
= =

or
( )
0
2
=
n
F
&





8. CONSIDERING THE CHANGE OF MAGNETIC
PERMEABILITY IN MASSIVE FERROMAGNETIC
ROTOR

The relation of magnetic
permeability to a diving depth of
a magnetic field in a body of a rotor is
easy for taking into account by splitting
his array into elementary segments
shaped of concentric rings (Fig. 13). To
each i elementary segment there will
correspond the value of magnetic
permeability equal
1

i
.
On boundaries of elementary
segments the magnetic permeability
will jump. Inside an elementary ring
the parameters of the environment

i
and
i
are invariable, i.e.
environment will be homogeneous
(linear), and the initial differential
equation (18) for a vector potential in it will be linear. Therefore for such
elementary segments there is no necessity initially to consider magnetic
permeability as a continuous function of space coordinates. That it, apparently,
becomes, if number of elementary concentric rings to take infinitely large.
Pursuant to the formulas (17), (20) we shall have following expressions
for components of complex amplitude n of a harmonics of a magnetic flux
density in an elementary segment


Fig. 13. Elementary segments of a rotor in
the form of concentric rings with numbers
1, 2, , m
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 70
( )
( ) ( ) [ ] r S k Y C r S k J C n
r
j
B
n
i
n n
i
n
i
n n
i n
r
i
2 1 1
+ = m
&
(57)

( )
( ) ( ) [ ] r S k Y C r S k J C S k B
n
i
n n
i
n
i
n n
i
n
i n i
+ =
2 1 1
&
(58)
where

1
, , , 2 , 1
i i
j k m i = = K


For last (m) of a segment shaped circle, it is necessary to accept

0
2
=
n
m
C



The unknown factors
n
i
C
1
,
n
i
C
2
and
( ) 1
n
F
&
with the help of the formulas (12),
(13) for elementary segments will be determined from boundary conditions (24).
For example, from boundary conditions of an air gap and outside surface
of a rotor the equations follow

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) 2
2 0
1
1 0 1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2 / 3
2 / 3
n n
n n n n n n n n
F j
F j r S k Y C r S k J C
&
&
m


=
= +
(59)

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0 2 / 3
1 1
1 1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
= +
n n n n n n n n
F S k r n j r S k Y C r S k J C
&

(60)

Let's enter into consideration vector of unknowns

[ ]
T
m
x x x x
2 2 1
K =


The components which one will be equal

( ) ( ) ( ) 1
2 1 1 2 2
1
2 2 1
1
3 2 2
2
4 1
2
3 2
1
2 1
1
1
, , ,
, , , , ,
n m n
m
m n
m
m n
m
m n n n n
F x C x C x C
x C x C x C x C x
&
K
= = = =
= = = = =



The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 71
Then from boundary conditions i and (i+1) of elementary segments
having a boundary circle of radius
1
r r
i
= , we shall receive equations

1 2 22 2 , 1 2 12 1 11
b a x a x a x a
m m
= + + (61)

0
2 22 2 , 2 2 22 1 21
= + +
m m
a x a x a x a (62)

0
2 2 2 2 , 1 2 1 2 1 2 , 1 2 2 2 , 1 2 1 2 1 2 , 1 2
= + + +
+ + + + + + + + i i i i i i i i i i i i
x a x a x a x a (63)

0
2 2 2 2 , 2 2 1 2 1 2 , 2 2 2 2 , 2 2 1 2 1 2 , 2 2
= + + +
+ + + + + + + + i i i i i i i i i i i i
x a x a x a x a (64)
where
i = 1, 2, ..., (m-1)

( )
1
1
11
r S k J a
n n
= , ( )
1
1
12
r S k Y a
n n
= , 2 3
1 0 2 , 1 n m
j a m =

( )
1
1
21
r S k J a
n n
= , ( )
1
1
22
r S k Y a
n n
= ,
n m
S k r jn a
1
1 1
1
2 , 2
2 3 =

( )
1 1 2 , 1 2
r S k J a
i
n
i
n i i
=
+
, ( )
1
1
1 2 , 1 2
r S k J a
i
n
i
n i i
+
+ +
= , ( )
1 2 , 1 2
r S k Y a
i
n
i
n i i
=
+


( )
1
1
2 2 , 1 2
r S k Y a
i
n
i
n i i
+
+ +
= ,
( )
( )
1 1
1
1 2 , 2 2
r S k J k a
i
n
i
n
i i
i i
=
+
+


( )
( )
1 1
1
2 , 2 2
r S k Y k a
i
n
i
n
i i
i i
=
+
+
,
( ) ( )
( )
1
1 1
1 1 2 , 2 2
r S k J k a
i
n
i
n
i i
i i
+ +
+ +
=

( ) ( )
( )
1
1 1
1 2 2 , 2 2
r S k Y k a
i
n
i
n
i i
i i
+ +
+ +
= ,

0 , 0
2 , 2 2 , 1 2
= =
m m m m
a a , ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] z Y z Y z Y
n n n 1 1
2
1
+
=


The unknown constants of rings will be determined from a vector-matrix
equation
b Ax = (65)
where
( )
( ) 2
2 0 1
2 3
n n
F j b
&
= ;
0 =
k
b
, m k 2 ..., , 3 , 2 =
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 72
The matrix A has following frame

[ ]



=
0
1 2 , 2 2 2 , 2 3 2 , 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
1 2 , 1 2 2 2 , 1 2 3 2 , 1 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
66 65 64 63
0 0
0 0 0 0 0
56 55 54 53
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
44 43 42 41
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
34 33 32 31
2 , 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
22 21
2 , 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
12 11
A
m m
a
m m
a
m m
a
m m
a
m m
a
m m
a
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
m
a a a
m
a a a
K
K
K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
K
K
K
K
K
K


The solution of a set of equations (65) allows to determine components of
complex amplitude n of a harmonics of a magnetic flux density in ring segments
of a rotor according to the formulas (57), (58). Therefore, there are modules of
amplitudes of a first harmonic of flux density in these segments

( ) ( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
2
1
max 1
2
1
max 1
1
max 1
B B B
i
r
i i
+ =


on which ones (turning towards their effective values [5]) with the help
of a magnetisation curve of a rotor material the magnetic permeability i
of a segment
1

i
will be determined.
If to enter the denotations

= =
= =
, , Re
, Re
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
n
i
m n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
m n
i
n
i
n
i
C J b C a
C J b C a
(66)

, ke
2
he , ke
2
he x r x i x i x r
n n n n

= =
(67)

where

( )
1
1
1
r S x
i
n
i i
=
, , ..., 2, , 1 m i =
( )
1 1
0
r r = (68)

The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 73
it is possible to give amplitude values of radial and tangential harmonics of flux
density on outside boundaries of annular domains of a rotor with radiuses
( )
1
1
r
i

( ) m i ..., 2, , 1 = in form
( )
( )
2 2
1
1
1 n
r
n
r
i
n
r
i
D C
r
n
B + =

(69)
( ) 2 2 1 1
1
2 2
1
n n
n
i i
i
n i
D C
S
B


+ =
(70)

where expression for functions
n
C and
n
D depend on the sign of slip
n
S
1)
.
1) 0 >
n
S
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x i x i b x r x r a x r b x i a x C x C
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
r
n
r
he be he be be be
2 2 1 1
+ + + = =
+

(71)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x r x r b x i x i a x i b x r a x D x D
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
r
n
r
he be he be be be
2 2 1 1
+ + = =
+

(72)
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) (
) (
) x i x i x i x i x r
x r x r x r b x r x r x r x r x i
x i x i x i a x r x r x i x b
x i x i x r x r a x C x C
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n n
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
he he be be he
he be be he he be be he
he be be be be be bei
be be be be
+ + +
+ + + +
+ + +
+ +
+
+ +
+ + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + = =

(73)

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) (
) (
) x i x i x i x i
x r x r x r x r b x r x r x r x r
x i x i x i x i a x r x r x i x i b
x i x i x r x r a x D x D
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n n
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
he he be be
he he be be he he be be
he he be be be be be be
be be be be
+ +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ +
+
+ +
+ + + +
+ + + + +
+ + + = =


(74)

1)
Bessel cylindrical functions of the second kinds with complex arguments
0 ,
4 3 4 3
> = = =
n
j j
n n n
S xe re q r S j r S k


0 ,
4 4
< = = =
n
j j
n n n
S xe re q r S j r S k


where
n n
S j q =
are expressed through Kelvin functions:
( )

+ + = x r x i j x i x r xe Y
n n n n
j
n
be ke
2
be ke
2
4 3


( ) n x r x i j x i x r xe Y
n n n n
j
n

cos be ke
2
be ke
2
4

+ = .
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 74
2) 0 <
n
S
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x i x i b x r x r a x r b x i a x C x C
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
r
n
r
he be he be be be
2 2 1 1
+ + + + = =

(75)

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x r x r b x i x i a x i b x r a x D x D
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
r
n
r
he be he be be be
2 2 1 1
+ + + + = =


(76)

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) (
) (
) x i x i x i x i
x r x r x r x r b x r x r x r x r
x i x i x i x i a x r x r x i x i b
x i x i x r x r a x C x C
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n n
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
he he be be
he he be be he he be be
he he be be be be be be
be be be be
+ +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ +

+ +
+ + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + = =

(77)

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) (
) (
) x i x i x i x i
x r x r x r x r b x r x r x r x r
x i x i x i x i a x r x r x i x i b
x i x i x r x r a x D x D
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n n
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
he he be be
he he be be he he be be
he he be be be be be be
be be be be
+ +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ +

+ +
+ + + +
+ + + + +
+ + = =

(78)

The expressions (57), (58) rather easily allow to calculate a two-layer
rotor [10] (first layer massive cylinder from alloy of iron and copper, the
second layer the laminated core from electric machines steel) or to take into
account availability of the coopering of the solid rotor surface enriching
performance data of an asynchronous motor [6, 8]. In this case for one or
several first concentric rings it is necessary to accept

0
= =
e
i i

Cu(Al)
=
i



If there are homogeneous concentric ring elementary segments the
formulas (35), (38) for a current density and losses in a rotor will be other.
Pursuant to initial expression (34) for a current density and, considering the
formula (57) for radial component n of a harmonics of a magnetic flux density
for i of a ring, we shall have for complex amplitude of a current density in it

( )
( ) ( ) [ ] r S k Y C r S k J C S j
i
n n
i i
n n
i
n
i n i
2 1 1
+ =
&
(79)

The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 75
According to denotations above introduced in (66)-(68), (71), (72), (75), (76)
it is fair

( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) x D j x C r S k Y C r S k J C j
n
r
n
r
n
i
n n
i
n
i
n n
i
+ = +
2 1


where
r q r S x
n
i
n
i i
= =
1 1
; the sign (+) corresponds to 0 >
n
S ; the sign (-) 0 <
n
S .

Therefore, for a module of amplitude n of a harmonics of a current density in
i ring we have

( )
( ) ( ) r q D r q C S
n
i
n
r
n
i
n
r
n
i n i 2 2
1

+ =
(80)

The losses in a rotor from n harmonic of a current density should be found
according to the formula

( )
[ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
rdr r q D r q C S l
rdr
l P
r
r
n
i
n
r
n
i
n
r
m
i
i
n
r
i
n i
n
i
i



=
+ = =
1
1
1
1
2 2
1
1
2
0
1
2

(81)

In Figs. 14-16 some parameters of a magnetic field of ring concentric
segments of a solid rotor in a function of slips calculated on the formulas (65),
(69), (70) are presented.


Fig. 14. Amplitude of a first harmonic
of radial component of a magnetic
flux density on outer boundaries
of ring concentric segments (m = 12)
of a solid rotor as a function of slip

A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 76


Fig. 15. Amplitude of a first harmonic of radial
component of a magnetic flux density on outer
boundaries of ring concentric segments (m = 4) of
a solid rotor as a function of slip





Fig.16. Magnetic permeability of concentric ring
segments (m = 12) of a solid rotor in a function of
slip





PRACE INSTYTUTU ELEKTROTECHNIKI, zeszyt 220, 2004
The analytical approaches to calculation of electric machines ... 77
LITERATURE
1)


1. Polyanin A.D.: Handbook on linear equations of mathematical Physics.-M.: Physmathlit,
2001, p.576
2. Kamke E.: Handbook on ordinary differential equations.-M.: Nayka, p.1971.-576
3. Watson G.: The theory of Bessel functions, parts 1, 2.-M., 1949.
4. Ivanov-Smoleskij A.W. Electromagnetic forces and transformation of energy in electric
machines.-.: Vyssh. shkola, 1989, p.312
5. Neumann L.R.: A skin effect in ferromagnetic bodies. M.-L.: State publishing house, 1949,
p.190
6. Lishenko A. I., Lesnik V.A.: Asynchronous machines with solid rotors. Kiev: Nauk. dumka,
1984, p.168
7. Kucevalov W.M.: Asynchronous and synchronous machines with solid rotors. M.: Energia,
1979, p.161
8. Postnikov I.M.: Designing of electric machines. Kiev: Publishing house of a technical
publications. UkrSSR, 1960, p.910
9. Kovach K. P., Rac I.: Transients in AC machines (transl. from German). M. , 1963., p.744
10. Mogilnikov W.S., Olejnikov A.M., Strelnikov A.N.: Asynchronous motors with two-layer
rotor. - M.: 1983, p.120

Manuscript submitted 28.10.2004
Reviewed by Jerzy Zadrony




ANALITYCZNE PODEJCIE DO OBLICZANIA
MASZYN ELEKTRYCZNYCH W OPARCIU O ROZWIZANIE
PROBLEMW BRZEGOWYCH DOMEN PIERCIENIOWYCH
METOD ROZDZIAU ZMIENNYCH FOURIERA


A.A. AFANASJEV, A.G. BABAK, A.V. NIKOLAEV

STRESZCZENIE Szczelina powietrzna obustronnie uzbiona,
bdca obszarem przejcia, moe by konformalnie odwzorowana
jako piercie koowy; tradycyjnie t procedur przeprowadza si
w przyblieniu przy pomocy wspczynnikw Cartera. Przekroje po-
przeczne rdzeni stojana i wirnika maj rwnie ksztat piercieni.
Wirujce pole magnetyczne w obszarach przewodw (w obkach,
w oknach midzy biegunami) moe by przedstawione przez sum
pl potencjau i pewnego dodatkowego (atwego do obliczenia) pola.

1)
All in Russian
A.A. Afanasjev, A.G. Babak, A.V. Nikolaev 78
Umieszczenie dodatkowego pola w miejscu, gdzie s przewody
wymaga rozmieszczenia w brzegowej czci obka (w czci przy
dnie lub klinie) nieskoczenie cienkich warstw prdu tak, aby czne
prdy byy rwne penym prdom obkw.
Uycie skalarnych magnetycznych potencjaw (SMP) warstw
prdu pozwala otrzyma analityczne rozwizanie problemu Dirichleta
dla koowych piercieni wspomnianych trzech obszarw (szczelina
powietrzna, rdze magnetyczny stojana i wirnika) przy zaoeniu,
e przenikalnoci magnetyczne s stae.
Dla uzyskania lepszego uoglnienia problemu zakadamy, e rdze
wirnika jest wykonany z litej stali. Wybranie tego materiau czyni
model matematyczny bardziej uniwersalnym, gdy przy przejciu do
wysokich wartoci przenikalnoci magnetycznej i rezystywnoci, ma-
teria lity uzyskuje wasnoci stali blachowanej.
SMP warstw prdu uzwoje statora i wirnika przedstawia si za
pomoc szeregw Fouriera.
Parametry pola elektromagnetycznego w litym wirniku (promie-
niowa i styczna skadowa indukcji, gsto prdu i straty mocy)
otrzymuje si na podstawie analitycznego rozwizania rnicz-
kowych rwna Bessela dla wektorowego potencjau magnetycznego
metod rozdziau zmiennych i przedstawia si je przez odpowiednie
funkcje Bessela i Kelvina.
Obliczone dane dla silnika asynchronicznego z litym wirnikiemi
porwnano z wynikami prb. Zmiany przenikalnoci magnetycznej
w stali wirnika uwzgldniono przez podzielenie go na wsposiowe
piercienie o staej przenikalnoci w kadym z nich.