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A Report On

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INTRODUCTION

A spectrometer is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of
the electromagnetic spectrum.
Typically it is used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials.

There are three types of Spectrometer:
1. Filter - bank
2. Auto - correlator
3. Acousto-optic

The radio spectroscopy has became a fundamental tool to study astronomical objects at the
microwave band. Therefore, the design and construction of instruments with high spectral
resolution, low power consumption and compact size for easy handle and transport are
necessary.
The acousto-optical spectrometer (AOS) has been extensively used in radio astronomy, since
Lambert described its principle (Lambert 1962). They are an efficient option for satellite
telescopes due to the low power consumption and compact size which make easy to handle
and transport.




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PRINCIPLE

An Acousto Optical Spectrometer (AOS) is based on the diffraction of light at ultrasonic waves.
Acousto-optic effects are based on the change of the refractive index of a medium due to the
presence of sound waves in that medium.
Sound waves produce a refractive index grating in the material, and it is this grating that is
seen by the light wave.
These variations in the refractive index, due to the pressure fluctuations, may be detected
optically by diffraction.







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CONSTRUCTION

The schematic diagram of a Acousto Optical Spectrometer is shown in the figure.
A piezoelectric transducer, driven by the RF signal (from the receiver), generates an acoustic
wave in a crystal (the so-called Bragg-cell). This acoustic wave modulates the refractive index
and induces a phase grating. The Bragg-cell is illuminated by a collimated laser beam. The
angular dispersion of the diffracted light represents a true image of the IF-spectrum according
to the amplitude and wavelengths of the acoustic waves in the crystal. The spectrum is
detected by using a single linear diode array (CCD), which is placed in the focal plane of an
imaging optics.
Depending on the crystal and the focal length of the imaging optics, the resolution of this type
of spectrometer can be varied.
The commonly used TeO2 crystal is known for its acousto - optical properties.



3. Components of an Acousto Optical Spectrometer

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WORKING

The working of the Acousto Optical Spectrometer is as follows:

The intermediate frequency (IF) of an heterodyne receiver of a radio telescope is
injected into a piezo-electric transducer that mechanically modulate a Bragg cell illuminated
by a collimated light beam. This Bragg cell, also known as Acousto-Optical Detector (AOD), is
an acusto-optical crystal of TeO2, which detects a laser light beam as a function of the injected
IF. The TeO2 crystal is known for its acousto-optical properties.

The propagation of the acoustic wave through the photo-elastic medium produces
traveling periodic variations in the refractive index of this medium. The diffraction pattern
depends essentially on the length L of the interaction zone between the light beam and the
acoustic waves.

So the regimes of diffraction have two limiting cases, corresponding to a short and a
large lengths of interaction. The Bragg diffraction regime, that we use, occurs with a large L. In
this case the dynamic acoustic grating is rather thick. So, during the analysis of the diffraction
process, one has to take into account the phase relations between waves of different orders.
Such regime can be realized only when the angle of incident light on a thick acoustic
gratingmeets the Bragg condition.







4. The schematic diagram of an Acousto-Optical Spectrometer
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APPLICATIONS

The applications of Acousto-Optical Spectrometer in various fields are as follows:

To study astronomical objects : Their temperature, velocity, weight, etc.

Out-of-door measurements: Environment monitoring, remote sensing, atmosphere gas
analysis, express-analysis.

Industrial applications: Technological processes control, quality testing.

Laboratory investigations: Scientific researches, spectral analysis, spectral identification
algorithms development, spectral data base accumulation.

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