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Transportation

EGEE 101H - Rick Devery & Meghan

Stouter

Agenda

1. Brief History

  • 2. External/Internal Combustion Engines

  • 3. Environmental Impacts

  • 4. Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

  • 5. Alternative Transportation

  • 6. Public Policy

  • 7. Video and Conclusion

History

1886- regarded the year of birth of the modern automobile - with the Benz Patent- Motorwagen, by German

1910- Henry Ford and mass production

1769 - Creation of steam engined

inventor Karl Benz
inventor Karl Benz

automobiles.

History 1886 - regarded the year of birth of the modern automobile - with the Benzhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/history/0/ http://inventors.abo ut.com/library/inven 21245426 tors/blbenz.htm http://www. 53deluxe.c om/everyth ing- else/9236/ happy- birthday- henry-ford/ " id="pdf-obj-2-17" src="pdf-obj-2-17.jpg">
History 1886 - regarded the year of birth of the modern automobile - with the Benzhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/history/0/ http://inventors.abo ut.com/library/inven 21245426 tors/blbenz.htm http://www. 53deluxe.c om/everyth ing- else/9236/ happy- birthday- henry-ford/ " id="pdf-obj-2-21" src="pdf-obj-2-21.jpg">
http://www. 53deluxe.c om/everyth ing- else/9236/ happy- birthday- henry-ford/
http://www.
53deluxe.c
om/everyth
ing-
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happy-
birthday-
henry-ford/

External Combustion Engine

How does it Work?

Water heated into steam

Enters one side of cylinder

Pushes piston, connected to drive-train

Spins wheels

Can be powered by anything that burns Heavy, slow to start, not efficient.

External Combustion Engine How does it Work? ❏ Water heated into steam ❏ Enters one side

http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/steam1.htm

External Combustion Engine

External Combustion Engine The de Dion & Bouton steam - powered tricycle - 1880s http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_car Crouch
External Combustion Engine The de Dion & Bouton steam - powered tricycle - 1880s http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_car Crouch

The de Dion & Bouton steam - powered tricycle - 1880s

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_car

Crouch steam coach - 1899

http://blog.pennlive.com/go/2012/03/antique_a

uto_museums_alternati.html

External Combustion Engine The de Dion & Bouton steam - powered tricycle - 1880s http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_car Crouch

Early 1900s British steam car

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/0/21245426

Internal Combustion Engines

Four-Stroke Engine - Gas Engine

Internal Combustion Engines Four-Stroke Engine - Gas Engine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine http://auto.howstuffworks.com/engine2.htm ❏ I ntake Stroke - Mixture

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine

http://auto.howstuffworks.com/engine2.htm

Intake Stroke - Mixture of gas and air is allowed into engine

Compression Stroke - Piston moves up, compressing mixture to high density.

Combustion Stroke - A spark plug ignites mixture, causing piston to move downwards

Exhaust Stroke - A valve opens, piston moves up expelling spent mixture. Cycle repeats.

Internal Combustion Engines - Cont.

Internal Combustion Engines - Cont. 1894 Mercedes Benz http://www.emercedesbenz.com/Sep08/12_001387_eMercedesB enz_Feature_The_Worlds_First_Production_Car_The_Benz_Paten t_Motor_Car_Velocipede_Of_1894.html 1965 Toyota Corolla http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/transpor t/7189583/Toyota-a-history-in-pictures.html?image=5

1894 Mercedes Benz

http://www.emercedesbenz.com/Sep08/12_001387_eMercedesB

enz_Feature_The_Worlds_First_Production_Car_The_Benz_Paten

t_Motor_Car_Velocipede_Of_1894.html

Internal Combustion Engines - Cont. 1894 Mercedes Benz http://www.emercedesbenz.com/Sep08/12_001387_eMercedesB enz_Feature_The_Worlds_First_Production_Car_The_Benz_Paten t_Motor_Car_Velocipede_Of_1894.html 1965 Toyota Corolla http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/transpor t/7189583/Toyota-a-history-in-pictures.html?image=5

1965 Toyota Corolla

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/transpor

t/7189583/Toyota-a-history-in-pictures.html?image=5

Internal Combustion Engines - Cont. 1894 Mercedes Benz http://www.emercedesbenz.com/Sep08/12_001387_eMercedesB enz_Feature_The_Worlds_First_Production_Car_The_Benz_Paten t_Motor_Car_Velocipede_Of_1894.html 1965 Toyota Corolla http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/transpor t/7189583/Toyota-a-history-in-pictures.html?image=5

1908 Ford Model T

  • http://www.caranddriver.com/photos-10q1/338131/1908-ford- 1935 Citroën 15

Internal Combustion Engines - Cont. 1894 Mercedes Benz http://www.emercedesbenz.com/Sep08/12_001387_eMercedesB enz_Feature_The_Worlds_First_Production_Car_The_Benz_Paten t_Motor_Car_Velocipede_Of_1894.html 1965 Toyota Corolla http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/transpor t/7189583/Toyota-a-history-in-pictures.html?image=5

model-t-photo-338173

http://www.autogallery.org.ru/pcitroen.htm

Internal Combustion Engines - Cont. 1894 Mercedes Benz http://www.emercedesbenz.com/Sep08/12_001387_eMercedesB enz_Feature_The_Worlds_First_Production_Car_The_Benz_Paten t_Motor_Car_Velocipede_Of_1894.html 1965 Toyota Corolla http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/transpor t/7189583/Toyota-a-history-in-pictures.html?image=5
Internal Combustion Engines - Cont. 1894 Mercedes Benz http://www.emercedesbenz.com/Sep08/12_001387_eMercedesB enz_Feature_The_Worlds_First_Production_Car_The_Benz_Paten t_Motor_Car_Velocipede_Of_1894.html 1965 Toyota Corolla http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/transpor t/7189583/Toyota-a-history-in-pictures.html?image=5

1984 Audi Quattro

2014 Ford Fusion

  • http://www.netcarshow.com/audi/1984- http://www.ford.com/cars/fusion/

sport_quattro/

Internal Combustion Engines - Cont.

Diesel Engines

Internal Combustion Engines - Cont. http://takemebeyondthehorizon.wordpress.com/2009/04/04/the-diesel-engine/ ❏ Four Stroke diesel engines have the same four strokes

http://takemebeyondthehorizon.wordpress.com/2009/04/04/the-diesel-engine/

Four Stroke diesel engines have the same four strokes as petrol engines, but with one important difference

Rather than a spark plug, they use direct fuel injection to combust fuel.

Diesel has higher energy density than gas which means more efficient.

High compression ratios make diesel engines larger, heavier, and more expensive generally

Capable of lower horsepower than most petrol engines.

Internal Combustion Engine - Cont.

Internal Combustion Engine - Cont. 1980 Volkswagen Golf GTI 2005 Volkswagen Fox http://trialx.com/i/2012/11/18/1980-volkswagen-golf- http://www.autoplenum.de/Auto/VW/Fox/Bild-id313093.html information-and-images/
Internal Combustion Engine - Cont. 1980 Volkswagen Golf GTI 2005 Volkswagen Fox http://trialx.com/i/2012/11/18/1980-volkswagen-golf- http://www.autoplenum.de/Auto/VW/Fox/Bild-id313093.html information-and-images/

1980 Volkswagen Golf GTI

2005 Volkswagen Fox

  • http://trialx.com/i/2012/11/18/1980-volkswagen-golf- http://www.autoplenum.de/Auto/VW/Fox/Bild-id313093.html

information-and-images/

Environmental Impacts

Environmental Impacts <a href=http://www.car-emissions-explained.co.uk/ ❏ The U.S. transportation sector is responsible for about a third of our country’s climate -changing emissions. ❏ Globally, about 15 percent of manmade carbon dioxide comes from cars, trucks, airplanes, ships and other vehicles ❏ More than 125 million Americans live in areas with unacceptable air pollution. ❏ Soil Contamination, Water Pollution, and Deforestation " id="pdf-obj-9-4" src="pdf-obj-9-4.jpg">

The U.S. transportation sector is responsible for about a third of our country’s climate-changing emissions.

Globally, about 15 percent of manmade carbon dioxide comes from cars, trucks, airplanes, ships and other vehicles

More than 125 million Americans live in areas with unacceptable air pollution.

Soil Contamination, Water Pollution, and Deforestation

Environmental Impacts

Environmental Impacts <a href=http://www.daihatsu.com/brand/craftsmanship/relationships/index.html Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector in 2012 http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/sources/transportation.html " id="pdf-obj-10-4" src="pdf-obj-10-4.jpg">

Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

by Economic Sector in 2012

Environmental Impacts <a href=http://www.daihatsu.com/brand/craftsmanship/relationships/index.html Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector in 2012 http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/sources/transportation.html " id="pdf-obj-10-12" src="pdf-obj-10-12.jpg">

http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/sources/transportation.html

Hybrid Vehicles (HEVs)

Hybrid Vehicles (HEVs) 1997 Toyota Prius http://www.toyotainthenews.com/toyota-celebrates- ten-years-of-the-prius-hybrid/ 2013 Toyota Prius http://www.newcars.com/toyota/prius/2013 http://www.motorauthority.com/photos/toyota_priu s_2014 http://www.motortrend.com/roadtests/sedans/1403_2 014_ford_focus_titanium_first_test/photo_15.html

1997 Toyota Prius

http://www.toyotainthenews.com/toyota-celebrates-

ten-years-of-the-prius-hybrid/

Hybrid Vehicles (HEVs) 1997 Toyota Prius http://www.toyotainthenews.com/toyota-celebrates- ten-years-of-the-prius-hybrid/ 2013 Toyota Prius http://www.newcars.com/toyota/prius/2013 http://www.motorauthority.com/photos/toyota_priu s_2014 http://www.motortrend.com/roadtests/sedans/1403_2 014_ford_focus_titanium_first_test/photo_15.html

2013 Toyota Prius

http://www.newcars.com/toyota/prius/2013

Hybrid Vehicles (HEVs) 1997 Toyota Prius http://www.toyotainthenews.com/toyota-celebrates- ten-years-of-the-prius-hybrid/ 2013 Toyota Prius http://www.newcars.com/toyota/prius/2013 http://www.motorauthority.com/photos/toyota_priu s_2014 http://www.motortrend.com/roadtests/sedans/1403_2 014_ford_focus_titanium_first_test/photo_15.html
Hybrid Vehicles (HEVs) 1997 Toyota Prius http://www.toyotainthenews.com/toyota-celebrates- ten-years-of-the-prius-hybrid/ 2013 Toyota Prius http://www.newcars.com/toyota/prius/2013 http://www.motorauthority.com/photos/toyota_priu s_2014 http://www.motortrend.com/roadtests/sedans/1403_2 014_ford_focus_titanium_first_test/photo_15.html

http://www.motorauthority.com/photos/toyota_priu

s_2014

http://www.motortrend.com/roadtests/sedans/1403_2

014_ford_focus_titanium_first_test/photo_15.html

Electric Vehicles

Main Parts

Battery Controller Electric Motors

Advantages

No “gears” No exhaust = no emissions

Not governed by laws of thermodynamics like ICE = higher

efficiency

Disadvantages

Battery Range Mass production Existing infrastructure doesn’t support EVs Norms

Electric Vehicles

Tesla Model S

http://jacobfoxx.com/2013/08/23/tesla-model-s-glimpse-future/

Electric Vehicles Tesla Model S http://jacobfoxx.com/2013/08/23/tesla-model-s-glimpse-future/ Tesla Roadster http://www.autoblog.com/tesla/roadster/ Nissan Leaf http://www.someofcars.com/nissan-leaf-2014/

Tesla Roadster

http://www.autoblog.com/tesla/roadster/

Nissan Leaf

http://www.someofcars.com/nissan-leaf-2014/

Alternative Transportation

Carpooling

The average car consumes about 550 gallons of gas every year

The U.S. could save 33 million gallons of gas each day if the average

commuting vehicle carried one additional person

Public Transportation

Saves the U.S. the equivalent of 4.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually and more than 11 million gallons of gasoline per day. It also saves 37 million metric tons of carbon dioxide annually Households that use public transportation save an average of more than $8,000 every year.

Alternative Transportation

1 million additional transit commuters, 2000 - 2012 61% increase in bicycle commuting, 2000 - 2012 4.4% increase work from home, 2012 ; 50% increase from 1990 4.5% 1-year increase in light rail ridership 27 City bike share systems

Public Policy

Environmental Protection Agency

Clean Air Act of 1970

Mandated catalytic converters Emissions testing

Public Policy ❏ Environmental Protection Agency ❏ Clean Air Act of 1970 ❏ Mandated catalytic convertershttp://www.raritanval.edu/co mmunity/forum/sustain/hom e.html " id="pdf-obj-16-15" src="pdf-obj-16-15.jpg">

Video and Conclusion

Future of cars in America Video