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Lesson 3-

Adjectives
( 3) ADJECTIVES
(1) Kinds of Adjectives
(2) Comparison of Adjectives
(3) Forming Adjectives
(4) Correct Usage of Adjectives
Adjectives are words which tell us something about nouns, that is about a person,
an animal, a thing or a place. They usually come before the nouns they describe. But
sometimes they come after the nouns as the following examples show:

Everyone knows a giraffe has a long neck.
My old car didn't have air conditioning.
My grandpa is quite tall and rather thin.
None of my tables is round.

The words 'long', 'old', 'tall', 'thin' and 'round' tell us something about the nouns:
giraffe, car, grandpa and tables. These words called adjectives tell us about their
shape, condition, and size. An adjective is therefore a word added to describe a
noun so that we are better informed about the noun.

Some words can be both adjective and adverbs. Examples are: early, fast, and
late. It is important to distinguish how they are used.
We arrived a little early for lunch. (Adjective)
We arrived early so we still had time before lunch. (Adverb)
You are a fast driver these days. (Adjective)
You drive fast these days. (Adverb)
I overslept and so I was late. (Adjective)
I overslept and so I got up late. (Adverb)


(1) KINDS OF ADJECTIVES
An adjective that tells us about the quality of the noun. Known as
Descriptive Adjective or Adjective of Quality, it tells us about the colour,
shape, size or condition of a noun.Example: I love blue sky. / Look at his big,
fat dog. / This square table has round legs.
An adjective that tells us about the quantity of the noun. This adjective is
called an Adjective of Quantity. An adjective of quantity tells us the quantity
or amount, and that is 'how many' or 'how much'.Example: I have eaten five
apples. / The zoo has many monkeys. / He has so much money to buy so
few things.
An adjective that tells us about the ownership of the noun. This adjective
is called a Possessive Adjective. A possessive adjective shows ownership
or possession. It indicates that something belongs to a person or
thing.Example: That is her plastic duck floating in the bath. / Look at that
elephant. Its tusks curve upwards.
An adjective which poses questions in an 'interrogative' manner. It is
called an Interrogative Adjective. Like most adjectives, an interrogative
adjective comes before a noun.Example: Which monkey bit you? Whose
trousers are torn? What girl do you like?In the example, 'which', 'whose' and
'what' come before the nouns 'monkey', 'trousers' and 'girl' respectively. They
refer to the nouns and are therefore adjectives.
An adjective which specifies a noun. Called a Demonstrative Adjective, it
is one that points out a fact about a person or thing.Example: This boy
entered the eating contest for fun. / That piglet is looking for its mother. /
These spiders have long legs. / Those faces are truly beautiful.In the
example, 'this', 'that', 'these' and 'those' come before the nouns 'boy', 'piglet',
'spiders' and 'faces'. They tell us something about the nouns and so are
adjectives.
Adjectives which end in '-ing', e.g. an interesting film, an amazing player,
an annoying habit.
Adjectives which end in '-ed', e.g. the damaged goods, the escaped
prisoners, improved version.

(2) COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
We use the Positive degree to compare two equal nouns.
Example: His head is as big as my head.
We use the Comparative degree to compare two unequal nouns.
Example: His head is bigger than my head.
We use the Superlative degree to compare three or more nouns.
Example: His head is the biggest in the family.

Positive Comparative Superlative
bold bolder boldest
deep deeper deepest
near nearer nearest
rich richer richest
tall taller tallest

Positive Comparative Superlative
careful more careful most careful
enjoyable more enjoyable most enjoyable
forgetful more forgetful most forgetful
useful more useful most useful
wonderful more wonderful most wonderful
Positive Comparative Superlative
bad worse worst
good better best
little less least
(3) FORMING ADJECTIVES
There are various ways to form adjectives from nouns and verbs as follow:
Add '-al' : music=musical; nation=national; person=personal
Add '-ful' : care=careful; doubt=doubtful; peace=peaceful
Add '-ic' : acrobat=acrobatic; artist=artistic; photograph=photographic
Add '-ive' : attract=attractive; effect=effective; act=active; instruct=instructive
Add '-ous' : mountain=mountainous; danger=dangerous; peril=perilous
Add '-y' : greed=greedy; oil=oily
Change 'y' to 'i' and add '-ful' : beauty=beautiful; pity=pitiful
Change 'y' to 'i' and add '-ous' : mystery=mysterious; glory=glorious
Drop 'e' and add 'y' : anger=angry; ease=easy; ice=icy
Drop 'e' and add 'al' : nature=natural; agriculture=agricultural

Adjectives can be formed from Nouns
Noun Adjective
accident accidental
danger dangerous
length long
star starry
wind windy
Adjectives can be formed from Verbs
Verb Adjective
enjoy enjoyable
help helpful
obey obedient
play playful
talk talkative
Adjectives can be formed from Adjectives
Adjective Adjective
comic comical
correct corrective
elder elderly
red reddish
sick sickly
(4) CORRECT USAGE OF ADJECTIVES
We use some in a positive statement and any in a negative statement or a question.
Example: I have some money to buy a couple of lollipops. (Positive statement)
Example: I haven't any money to lend you. (Negative statement)
Example: Do you need to go to the toilet? (A question)
We use some with countable nouns and uncountable nouns.
Example: "I have caught some fish for you to cook", he said to her. (Countable noun)
Example: There is some rabbit stew in the pot. (Uncountable noun)
We can use some in a question if it is an invitation or a request.
Example: Would you like to have some goose soup? (Invitation)
Example: Will you please give me some medicine for my cough? (Request)
We can join some or any with one, body or thing to form compound words.
Example: He believed somebody has run away with his wife.
Example: The police are looking for someone with three gold teeth.
Example: He is hiding something under his bed.
Example: There wasn't anyone in the cemetery.
Example: It hasn't anything to do with you, so please stop asking.
Example: Has anybody seen my grandmother?