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Special features of MIDAS/Civil for cable stayed bridge analysis

Special features for cable stayed bridge analysis

MIDAS/Civil provides superb pre- and post-processors in conjunction with Cable Stayed Bridge
Wizard, which readily creates a cable stayed bridge model. Initial tension forces in cables can be
also calculated through the Unknown Load Factor function. MIDAS/Civil enables us to carry out
construction stage analysis, which is a prerequisite for cable stayed bridge analysis. And such
analysis allows us to examine structural displacements, forces, stresses, etc. during construction.

MIDAS/Civil is also capable of carrying out analyses for traffic moving loads, response spectrum,
time history, buckling, etc, that are applicable for a completed structure all within the same program.
It contains a true cable element, which is used to reflect geometric nonlinearity of a cable stayed
bridge for both stage analysis and analysis for a completed structure.

Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard

Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard automatically generates a symmetrical or unsymmetrical cable stayed
bridge model including, truss or box girders with a specified profile. The quick modeling capability
permits more time for engineering and reduces potential errors. The following outlines a process of

Cable replacement checks
Buckling analysis
(Girders & Towers)
Stability checks
Seismic analysis
(3-D analysis including
Wind analysis
(Eigenvalue analysis)
Wind tunnel test
Dynamic analysis
Moving load analysis
(Influence line/surface analysis)
Dead load analysis
(Temperature, Settlement,
Fabrication & Erection errors)
Static analysis
Define construction stages
Define construction loads
Construction stage analysis
(Backward stage analysis)
Construction stage analysis
Summary of design forces, reactions and displacements
Initial state configuration
(Completed state)
Modeling & Boundary condition assignment
Selection of design standards

Figure 1. Completed cable stayed bridge model created by Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard

Calculation of Initial cable tension forces

MIDAS/Civil calculates initial tension forces in cables while satisfying the design conditions specified
by the engineer. Optimum initial tension forces are found through Unknown Load Factor, which
minimizes trial and error. The Unknown Load Factor function calculates initial cable tension forces
while satisfying the specified constraint conditions of zero and the range of maximum and minimum
values for displacements, reactions, member forces, etc.

Figure 2. Analysis result of an initial equality condition of a completed cable stayed bridge after
calculating initial tension forces in the cables by Unknown Load Factor
Dynamic analysis reflecting geometric nonlinearity

In order to examine the dynamic characteristics of a cable stayed bridge more accurately, geometric
stiffness due to cable tensions is reflected in the analysis. MIDAS/Civil accounts for geometric
stiffness of cables by the Initial Force for Geometric Stiffness function for eigenvalue analysis.

Figure 3. Eigenvalue analysis of a cable stayed bridge based on the geometric stiffness reflecting
the initial forces in cables entered in Initial Force for Geometric Stiffness

Nonlinear analysis using cable elements

A cable stayed bridge generally contains linear materials; nevertheless, it exhibits nonlinear behavior
of overall loaddisplacement relationship. In a long span cable stayed bridge, cable sag may need to
be reflected to account for a decrease in its stiffness. MIDAS/Civil includes a cable element that can
reflect the geometric nonlinear behavior of cables for the analysis of a completed structure and
construction stage analysis. The cable element in MIDAS/Civil performs as an equivalent truss
element for linear analysis, but it automatically transforms into a catenary cable element for nonlinear

Figure 4. Nonlinear analysis result of a completed cable stayed bridge using cable element

Construction stage analysis

In order to determine the tension forces for cable erection in a cable stayed bridge, an initial equality
condition is established under the dead load and then construction stage analysis is carried out.
Generally, structural members and cable sections and tensions are determined from the overall
analysis of a completed state. And the stage tension forces in cables and fabrication/erection
cambers for girders are determined in the construction stage analysis.

Construction stage analysis can be classified into backward analysis and forward analysis. Backward
analysis entails a method by which the completed structure determined under the initial equality state
is staged in the reverse order of construction by eliminating structural members and loadings
pertaining to each construction stage. Forward analysis is performed in the order of true construction

For construction stage analysis, capabilities for activating and deactivating elements, loads and
boundary conditions are necessary to represent each stage. MIDAS/Civil provides group definitions
to represent such variation of any combination for any construction stage.

Backward analysis is performed first to determine reasonable tension forces in cables for erection.
Using the erection tensioning forces, forward analysis is repeated and true erection tensioning forces
are obtained. MIDAS/Civil allows easy verification of construction stage analysis results in windows
by means of graphics and tables.

Figure 5. Stage models of backward analysis

Figure 6. Stage models of forward analysis

Rendering window
Modeling window

Figure 7. Construction stage analysis model defined by stages using the Construction Stage function