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RESEARCH PROJECT B (NBBS 2106)

LOWER BACK PAIN AMONG NURSES


IN HOSPITAL SULTANAH AMINAH
JOHOR BAHRU, JOHOR
By:
MAIZATUL AKMAR IBRAHIM
MATRIC NO: 7206181!"#8001
Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of
BACHELOR NURSING SCIENCE WITH HONOUR
SUPER$ISOR: MRS% MANIKA
SEMESTER MA& 2012
TABLE O' CONTENT
CONTENTS PAGE
ACKNOWLE(GEMENTS
ABSTRACT
CHAPTER 1 : I)*+,-./*0,)
1.0 Background of study
1.1 Problem statement
1.2 Significant of study
1.3 b!ecti"e of study
1.# $o%er Back Pain
CHAPTER 2 : L0*1+2*.+1 R13014
CHAPTER " : R1512+/6 M1*6,-,7,89
3.0 Study setting
3.1 &esearch design
3.2 Sam'le
3.3 &esearch instrument
3.# Data collection and 'rocedure
3.( )thical consideration
3.* $imitations of study
3.+ Pilot test
CHAPTER : (2*2 A)279505 A)- I)*1+:+1*2*0,) O; (2*2
#.0 Data analysis and inter'retation of data
#.1 &esearch findings
CHAPTER ! : (05/.550,)5 A)- I<:70/2*0,)5
(.0 Discussions of research findings
(.1 ,m'lications of research findings
(.2 &ecommendations of research
(.3 -onclusions of research
CHAPTER 6 : R1;1+1)/15
CHAPTER 7 : A::1)-0=
Maizatul Akmar Ibrahim/ NBBS 2106
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ACKNOWLE(GEMENTS
.irstly/ thanks a lot to 0od because gi"e me the o''ortunity to finish this research 'ro!ect. ,
%ould like to e1'ress my a''reciation and thanks to 2adam 2anika as a su'er"isor &esearch
Pro!ect B for her endless su''ort/ encouragement/ guideline and teaching. , e1tend my thanks to
all my friends for their su''ort/ ideas and o'inions. S'ecial thanks to my belo"ed and
understanding husband that ga"e me a lot of moral su''ort to finish this research 'ro!ect. , %ish
to thank the ethical -ommittee &esearch Study 3-&-4 for gi"ing me a''ro"al and 'ermission
to conduct the study. 5ith this com'leted of research 'ro!ect/ , %ish to share the kno%ledge %ith
all my friends.
)dited by:
2ai6atul 7kmar ,brahim
Semester 2ay 2012

Maizatul Akmar Ibrahim/ NBBS 2106
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LOWER BACK PAIN AMONG NURSES
IN HOSPITAL SULTANAH AMINAH, JOHOR BAHRU, JOHOR
ABSTRACT
,ntroduction: 8ursing is an occu'ation associated %ith high risk of de"elo'ing lo%er back 'ain
due to their nature of %ork 'ractices. 9he aim of this study %as to determine the incidences of
lo%er back 'ain among nurses %orking in :os'ital Sultanah 7minah ;ohor Bahru/ ;ohor.
2ethods: 7 structured questionnaire %as the tool of data collection. 9he study 'o'ulation and
sam'le included all nurses in ortho'edic %ard and ortho'edic clinic. 7 total of (0 nurses
'artici'ated in the study. 9he first set requested socio<demogra'hic data/ follo%ed by the &oland
2orris $o% Back Pain =uestionnaire %hich e1amined lo%er back 'ain 're"alence. Descri'ti"e
statistics %ere em'loyed to summari6e the demogra'hic data of the study sam'le/ %hich %ere
'resented using frequency tables and e1'ressed as 'ercentages/ means and standard de"iations.
&esults:
-onclusion:
>ey%ords: $o%er back 'ain/ nurses/ %ork factors
Maizatul Akmar Ibrahim/ NBBS 2106
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Maizatul Akmar Ibrahim/ NBBS 2106
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Maizatul Akmar Ibrahim/ NBBS 2106
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CHAPTER 1
INTRO(UCTION
1%1 B2/>8+,.)- ,; S*.-9
$o%er back 'ain is one of the most common causes of !ob<related disability and a leading
contributor to missed %ork. ,t is often caused by in!uries to the back or as a result of a disorder such as
arthritis. Sym'toms include shooting or stabbing 'ain/ limited fle1ibility/ and an inability to stand
straight. Back 'ain is the second most common neurological ailment in the ?nited State/ second only
to headache. 8early e"eryone at some 'oint %ill ha"e lo%er back 'ain that interferes %ith %ork/
routine daily acti"ities/ or recreation. 7mericans s'end at least (0 billion dollars each year on lo%er
back 'ain relief. .or some fortunate 'eo'le/ 'ain in the lo%er back may be resol"ed by itself or %ith
the aid of medication %ithin t%o to four %eeks. :o%e"er/ there are some cases of lo%er back 'ain that
may last for more than a fe% %eeks/ during %hich case that condition is termed as @chronic@ and
A'rogressi"e@/ meaning it can only gro% %orse o"er time. 2oreo"er/ *0B to C0B of those 'atients
%ho suffer their first e'isode of lo%er back 'ain may e1'erience recurring 'ain %ithin one year. 2ost
'eo'le %ill ha"e lo%er back 'ain at some 'oint in their li"es. 2en and %omen are equally affected/
and lo%er back 'ain occurs most often bet%een age 30 and (0 years old/ due in 'art to the aging
'rocess/ but also as a result of sedentary life styles %ith too little e1ercise or sometimes 'unctuated by
too much e1ercise. 9he risk of e1'eriencing lo%er back 'ain from disc disease or s'inal degeneration
increases %ith age. Different situations, such as age or pregnancy, determine what risk factors may
be present as well as the principle measures to take in order to prevent or avoid back pain.
onstruction workers, warehouse personnel, delivery good drivers, nurses, shopkeepers and farm
workers, most of these occupations suffer the highest incidence of back in!uries, because the work
involves a lot of bending and lifting. "ut nursing is the riskiest occupation for back in!uries. #n facts,
nursing has the second highest incidence of all types of non$fatal work$related in!uries in the %.&.'. #n
all industries combined, "ureau of (abor &tatistics, )**+, in!ury data show that nearly )2 out of ),,
nurses in hospitals, and )-.3 out of ),, nurses working in nursing homes report work$related
musculoskeletal in!uries, including back in!uries, which is about double the rate for all industries
combined.
1.2 Problem Statement
Polit D Beck 3200#4 indicated 'roblem statement as an e1'ression of dilemma or
disturbing situation that needs in"estigation for the 'ur'ose of 'ro"iding and direction. 2artin/ 1EE#
3in 8ies%iadomy/ 20024 suggested that a good 'roblem statement hel's the researcher to mo"e
through the ste's of research 'rocess. $o%er back 'ain 3$BP4 is a "ery frequently occurring
'henomenon. 7mong adults in the general 'o'ulation/ +0<C(B %as belie"ed to e1'erience at least one
e'isode of lo% back 'ain at some time during their li"es. 9he direct and indirect costs of $BP in terms
of quality of life/ 'roducti"ity/ and em'loyee absenteeism are enormous/ making this common