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Student Name: Student Number

COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive Summary page 3
Intrductin page !
"#e Case $ Cisc page %
Advantages & E'( page )
*isadvantages & E'( page 7
A+ternative Optins page 7 , -
E'( and Cisc page - , 12
.de+s page 12
/I0 Cisc1s 2est Optin page 12 , 1!
/II0 Cmmunicatin page 1!
/III0 "raining page 1!
/I30 Imp+ementatin .anagement page 1! , 1%
'ecmmendatins at Cisc page 1% , 1)
Cnc+usin page 17
'e&erences page 14 , 1-
Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
E5EC6"I3E S6..A'7
"#e purpse & t#is reprt is t address t#e peratina+ E'( system at Cisc8 Cisc spent
&i&teen mi++in d++ars n initia+i9ing Orac+e as t#eir business prcess system8 Cisc #as
been met :it# sme bstructin t t#e system :it#in t#e rganisatin8 "#is reprt &und
t#at t#e advantages & an E'( system :i++ ensure an e&&icient and prductive business
prcess prducing a cmpetitive edge8 "#e disadvantages & E'( systems inc+uding
+arge strage needs; net:r<ing re=uirements and training ver#eads :ere &re=uent+y
mentined t#rug#ut t#e researc# &r t#is reprt8
A+ternative ptins :ere researc#ed and discussed t n avai+8 An integrated +egacy
system is mre cst e&&ective but sti++ &&ers n +in< bet:een t#e departments & an
rganisatin8 " be ab+e t success&u++y perate in t#e mar<et current in&rmatin is
re=uired t be cmpetitive8
It :as recmmended in t#is reprt t#at Cisc cntinue :it# a cnstant revie: & t#e
mar<et demand; custmer1s needs; members & t#e rganisatin needs and tec#n+gy
re=uirements t cntinue t be cmpetitive8 Cmmunicatin; training and
imp+ementatin management :i++ be t#e <ey &actrs in any imp+ementatin prcess t#at
Cisc s#u+d c#se t adpt and evade resistance t c#ange8
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Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
IN"'O*6C"ION
"#e purpse & t#is reprt is t address t#e peratina+ E'( system at Cisc8 Cisc1s
&i&teen mi++in d++ar E'( pr>ect :as initia+i9ed in 1--! and by a++ measures t#e
imp+ementatin prcess :as a triump# t management8 .re recent+y t#e vie: & E'(
systems #as c#anged and many are s<eptica+ abut t#e many advantages E'(1s :ere
suppsed t &&er rganisatins8 "#is reprt :i++ identi&y t Cisc t#e many advantages
E'( systems #ave t &&er rganisatins8 ?:ever; t be impartia+ t#is reprt :i++ a+s
researc# and discuss t#e disadvantages & E'( systems8 A+ternative ptins :i++ a+s be
researc#ed and prpsed t Cisc in t#e expectatin t#at it :i++ assist in &uture directin
& t#e rganisatin1s business prcesses8 'esearc# :as a+s underta<en t identi&y :#y
t#ere :as s<epticism :it#in t#e rganisatin t:ards t#e E'( system8 "#e 2ancr&t
mde+ prvides guide+ines &r rganisatins t btain a success&u+ imp+ementatin and
t#e steps :it#in t#e mde+ are identi&ied &r Cisc1s use8 'esearc# #as been underta<en
t identi&y #: Cisc can better manage t#e imp+ementatin prcess8 "#e resu+ts & t#is
researc# :i++ be ut+ined &r Cisc t examine8 "#e &ina+ e+ement & t#is reprt :i++ ma<e
recmmendatins t Cisc a&ter ana+y9ing and discussing a++ researc# materia+ prduced
t cmpse t#is reprt8
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Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
The Case Cisco
Cisc1s &i&teen mi++in d++ar E'( pr>ect :as initia+ised in 1--! and by a++ measures t#e
imp+ementatin prcess :as a triump# t management8 Cisc1s management c#se
Orac+e E'( app+icatin8 In 1--7 Orac+e app+icatins :as t#e secnd ran<ed vendr and
:as n t#e +eading edge & t#e trend t:ard industry &cused s+utins in t#e E'( mar<et
/@aug#+in; 1---08 Orac+e pssessed a very cmpetitive prduct in t#e mar<et & E'(
app+icatins8 At t#e time & imp+ementatin & t#e app+icatin at Cisc; E'( systems
:ere cnsidered a c#a++enge t execute states @aug#+in /1---08 (rb+ems :u+d arise due
t t#e deve+pers & t#e app+icatin systems ma<ing assumptins abut management
be+ie&s and business practices8 A#en an rganisatin :u+d imp+ement an app+icatin;
t#e rganisatin :u+d be expected t accept t#se assumptins and c#ange existing
business prcesses t cn&rm t t#e app+icatin /@aug#+in; 1---08
.re recent+y t#e vie: & E'( systems #as c#anged and many are s<eptica+ abut t#e
many advantages E'(1s :ere suppsed t &&er rganisatins8 Cisc exists in a #ig#+y
cmpetitive mar<et and #as c#anged since t#e inceptin & Orac+e app+icatins in 1--!8
Cisc1s cmpetitrs; custmers; partners and rganisatina+ envirnment #ave
trans&rmed8 In t#e current ecnmic mar<et; it #as been necessary &r Cisc t ma<e
adaptatins in t#eir business prcesses8 Cisc1s management and sta&& n: #ave t
decide; given t#e current status & t#e cmpetitive mar<et; :#et#er t prceed :it# t#eir
E'( system8 I& Cisc cntinues :it# adaptatins t t#eir E'( app+icatin; :i++ it supprt
t#eir strategic directin and be a psitive &eature t t#e rganisatin8
'esearc# indicates t#at t#e E'( s&t:are mar<et #as becme ne & tday1s +argest I"
investments :r+d:ide8 It is expected t#at t#ere :i++ be a cntinued gr:t# & E'(
pr>ects as E'( vendrs are cntinuus+y expanding t#e capabi+ities & t#eir pac<ages by
adding &unctina+ity &r ne: business &unctins /S#e#ab; S#arp; Supramaniam and
Spedding; 200!08 Bunctins suc# as :eb based app+icatins are critica+ t rganisatina+
per&rmance and surviva+ /S#e#ab et a+; 200!08 Ai++ it be necessary &r Cisc t prceed
:it# adaptatins r are t#ere any t#er ptins avai+ab+e8
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Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
Advantages of ERP
"raditina+ app+icatin systems; :#ic# rganisatins genera++y emp+y; treat eac#
transactin separate+y /Cupta; 200008 Speci&ic app+icatin is meant t cater &r t#e very
&unctin t#ey :ere bui+t &r :it# de&inite bundaries8 An E'( app+icatin stps treating
transactins separate+y and cnsiders t#em t be part & t#e inter,+in<ed prcesses t#at
ma<e up t#e business8 "#e data stred in an E'( app+icatin is nt cn&ined t any
departmenta+ r &unctina+ bundaries; rat#er; integrated t be used by mu+tip+e users; &r
mu+tip+e purpses and at mu+tip+e p+aces /Cupta; 200008
(rimari+y t#e advantages & an E'( app+icatin :i++ be examined t understand :#y
Cisc intrduced Orac+e t maintain t#eir business prcesses8 Cupta /20000 states t#e
advantages & an E'( app+icatin are as &++:s:
Ease & use
Integratin & a++ &unctins a+ready estab+is#ed
Supp+iers and custmers can be n+ine cmmunicatins
Custmi9atin is an ptin
Imprved decisin ma<ing due t avai+abi+ity & time+y and apprpriate
in&rmatin
Imprved prcess times
Beasibi+ity & administering prae &act cntr+ n t#e peratins
Internet inter&ace is an ptin
'educes p+anning inaccuracies
E'( app+icatins increase t#e e&&iciency and prductivity &r t#eir users8 "#is inc+udes
a++ inv+ved in t#e supp+y c#ain8 2y +in<ing t#e supp+y c#ain :it# t#er business
systems; users can be better cnnected :it# supp+iers; distributrs and end custmers8
"#e vera++ bene&it is t be ab+e t s#are in&rmatin :it# custmers and supp+iers and
ensuring e&&icient and prductive business prcesses /Cupta; 200008
%
Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
Disadvantages of ERP
A+t#ug# E'( app+icatins #ave certain advantages suc# as +: perating cst and
en#anced custmer service; t#ey #ave sme disadvantages due t t#e tig#t integratin &
app+icatin mdu+es and data8 @arge strage needs; net:r<ing re=uirements and
training ver#eads are &re=uent+y mentined disadvantages & E'( app+icatins /S#e#ab
et a+; 200!08 Additina+ disadvantages t E'( app+icatins states Cupta /20000 are:
Organisatina+ resistance t c#ange may be #ig#
C#angever may ta<e a +ng time causing cst verruns
*ata errrs :i++ be carried t#rug#ut t#e system
.aintenance is cst+y and time cnsuming
'esearc# states t#at rganisatins spend bet:een t#ree and seven times mre mney n
E'( imp+ementatin and assciated services cmpared t t#e purc#ase & t#e s&t:are
+icence /S#e#ab et a+; 200!08 "#is suggests t#at E'( pr>ects are:
@arge
Cst+y
*i&&icu+t
'e=uire +arge investment in capita+
@arge investment in sta&& time
@arge investment in management time
Alternative Options
In a cmpetitive mar<etp+ace; business agi+ity is vita+8 "#e sner yu can respnd t a
sa+es en=uiry :it# t#e abi+ity t &&er precise de+ivery dates and &+exibi+ity :it#ut
)
Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
impacting t#er custmersD yu may #ave t#e edge n cmpetitrs8 .st rganisatins
perating a +egacy system; &ind sner r +ater t#at t#ey need t +in< systems t ac#ieve
better business prcesses /Ads#ead; 200%08 " eradicate existing systems and rep+acing
t#em :it# a sing+e vendr app+icatin cu+d be a very cst+y ptin8 "#e =uestin an
rganisatin must &irst address is :#y d yu :ant t integrate and #: muc# are yu
prepared t spendE /Ad#ead; 200%08 "#e simp+est but nt necessari+y t#e c#eapest
s+utin is t base a++ yur systems n an app+icatin &rm t#e ne vendr and ac#ieve
integratin /Ads#ead; 200%08 ?:ever; suc# an apprac# is nt necessari+y use&u+ r
even a re=uirement &r mst rganisatins /Ads#ead; 200%08
'esearc# #as &und a re+ative+y simp+e and inexpensive :ay & ac#ieving sme <ind &
prcess integratin8 Ads#ead /200%0 c+aims t#at a data :are#use is a database t :#ic#
data is cpied &rm t#e varius business systems8 Ait# t#e data in ne p+ace and n: in
a cmmn &rmat; =ueries can be made :it#ut disturbing t#e per&rmance r stabi+ity &
t#se peratina+ systems8 "#e disadvantage is t#at data :are#uses are genera++y batc#
updated dai+y r :ee<+y; s t#e cntents are t sme degree; ut & date /Ads#ead; 200%08
Ads#ead /200%0 researc# paper indicated t#at .itsubis#i .trs 6F emp+yed t#e data
:are#using system because sme interna++y deve+ped app+icatins &r varius
&unctins inc+uding parts; sa+es and :arranty management :ere unab+e t be inter&aced
direct+y8 .itsubis#i .trs decided t#at it :as a gd use & resurces t integrate t#e
systems via data :are#using8 "#e rganisatin simp+y extracts data t a SG@ database
and t#en run =ueries &rm t#ere8 .att#e:s Bds :anted t imprve p+ant cntr+
systems and uti+i9ed t#eir SG@ database t drive a++ t#er systems; cutting ut manua+ re,
<eying /"in#am; 200%08
*ata :are#using and &+at &i+e trans&ers dea+ :it# integratin in batc# &rmat; but :#at i&
yu :ant t ac#ieve data avai+abi+ity in rea+ timeE @in<ing systems in rea+ time is
pssib+e by #and cding cnnectrs bet:een varius app+icatins but t#ere are
disadvantages /Ad#ead; 200%08 I& ne app+icatin c#anges t#e cnnectrs #ave t be
c#anged; it can be cmp+ex &rm an I" psitin and especia++y di&&icu+t i& t#e tec#nician
:# :rte t#e cde +eaves t#e rganisatin /Ads#ead; 200%08
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Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
@egacy systems are described as nes t#at resist mdi&icatin and ev+utin t meet
business re=uirements; :it# a cnse=uentia++y negative+y impact n cmpetitiveness
/"#emistc+eus and Irani; 200108 ?:ever; studies indicate t#at t#ey d prvide re+iab+e
s+utins and as a resu+t t#e amunt & +egacy systems in use remains #ig#8 It is a+s
indicated t#at 34 percent & rganisatins d nt rep+ace t#eir +egacy systems :#en
adpting E'( app+icatin systems /"#emistc+eus et a+; 200108 "#e &unctina+ity and
re+iabi+ity t#at +egacy systems prvide #ave +ed rganisatins t <eep t#em in use
because:
"#ere is n time t rep+ace t#em
'ep+acement is a #ig# ris< prcess
"#ere is a s#rtage & emp+yees :it# t#e apprpriate I" s<i++s
'ep+acement is t expensive
It ta<es t +ng t rea+i9e t#e bene&its & t#e rep+acement
"#e case studies used &r ana+ysis in t#is researc# s#: t#at rganisatins piece tget#er
t#eir +egacy systems :it# existing r ne: app+icatins :it# success /"#emistc+eus et
a+; 200108 A+mst a++ t#e typica+ app+icatin systems are nt#ing but t#e data
manipu+atin t+s8 "#ey stre data; prcess t#em and present t#em in t#e apprpriate
&rm :#enever re=uested by t#e user8 In t#is prcess; t#e n+y prb+em is t#at t#ere is n
+in< bet:een t#e app+icatin systems being used by t#e di&&erent departments :it#in t#e
rganisatin /Cupta; 200008 Organisatins &e+t t#at E'( systems &rce t#em t c#ange
t#eir business strategy t &it t#e pac<age /"#emistc+eus et a+; 200108
ERP and Cisco
"#e *a++as Independent Sc#+ *istrict rep+aced its +egacy systems :it# an Orac+e1s
&inancia+s; prcurement; #uman resurces and payr++ app+icatins in 1--- states A++en
/200408 *uring t#e imp+ementatin prcess; t#e ga+ :as migratin &rm utdated +egacy
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COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
systems tec#n+gy t a :eb,accessib+e database and app+icatin s&t:are tec#n+gy8
Br t#e participants in t#e initia+ stages & t#e imp+ementatin; understanding and
describing t#e +d tec#n+gy :as as imprtant as embracing and +earning t#e ne:
tec#n+gy /A++en; 200408 A+t#ug# t#e tec#n+gica+ t+s :ere at t#e cre & t#e
transitin; t#e entire business cu+ture & t#e sc#+ district c#anged as :e++ /A++en; 200408
"#e c#ange in business practices and cu+ture & t#e sc#+ district :ere signi&icant and
t#e c#ange management; cmmunicatin and training cmpnents & t#e E'( system
prved t be cmp+ex /A++en; 200408 "#e vera++ success & t#e imp+ementatin :as nt
:it#ut di&&icu+ty8 (st imp+ementatin survey respnses and resu+ts cn&irmed t#at t#ere
:ere sti++ nging issues at t#e sc#+ district /A++en; 200408
As is :it# Cisc; pst imp+ementatin t#e rganisatin sti++ #as nging bstructins8
Cisc #as imp+emented a 1% mi++in d++ar E'( app+icatin t t#eir rganisatin and
sme members & t#e rganisatin are s<eptica+ abut t#e apparent advantages & an E'(
app+icatin8 Cisc cmpetes in a #ig#+y v+ati+e mar<et and t cntinue :it# t#e E'(
pr>ect; Cisc is re=uired t deve+p and app+y apprpriate cntinuity p+anning and
interventin :#ere and :#en re=uired &r t#e pr>ect and rganisatin t be triump#ant8
E+banna /20070 agrees t#at imp+ementing an integrated pac<aged s&t:are re=uires
ac#ieving sme srt & scia+ integratin in rder t <eep a++ inv+ved cmmitted t t#e
imp+ementatin8 "#is scia+ integratin cu+d be ac#ieved t#rug# de+icate transitina+
trans+atin prcesses & t#e inv+ved and manageria+ acceptance t#at t#is mig#t nt +ead
t ac#ieving t#e pac<age prescribed integratin; but rat#er t a versin & t#e enterprise
integratin t#at is scia++y acceptab+e and supprted by t#e E'( system /E+banna; 200708
'esearc# identi&ies Orac+e as ne & t#e tp E'( vendrs /A+,.as#ari; 200308 E'(
systems are bene&icia+ in prviding supprt &r a++ variatins & best business practices; in
enab+ing t#e imp+ementatin & t#ese practices :it# a vie: t:ards en#ancing
prductivity and in emp:ering t#e custmer t mdi&y t#e imp+emented business
prcess t suit t#eir needs /A+,.as#ari; 200308 "#e adptin & an E'( system in an
rganisatin re=uires intense e&&rts; &cusing n tec#n+gica+ and business prcesses &
imp+ementatin8 Cisc :u+d #ave t & cnsidered many &actrs prir t t#e acceptance
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Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
& an E'( system8 "#e &++:ing &actrs are re=uired t be cnsidered again be&re any
decisin t supprt t#e E'( system /A+,.as#ari; 20030:
Ensuring t#at ade=uate in&rastructure is p+anned &r in a :ay t#at it becmes
re+iab+y avai+ab+e :#en re=uired8
Ensuring net:r< supprt &r E'( system8
*ep+ying ade=uate serverHnet:r<
Intrducing ne: (Cs :it# t#e +atest cn&iguratin t#at :u+d be ade=uate &r t#e
E'( system8
Estab+is#ing ade=uate training centre
Bcusing n bui+ding a team:r< envirnment :#ere team si9e spans acrss t#e
entire rganisatin8
E'( educatin s#u+d be carried ut acrss t#e rganisatin abut its successes
and &ai+ures
E'( is di&&icu+t and it is necessary &r t#e best pep+e t :r< &u++ time n t#e
pr>ect8
"p management1s cmmitment must c#ange mindset t#rug# +earning at a++
+eve+s8
Cmmitment t imp+ement
'easnab+y :e++ :r<ing manua+ systems8
Strategic decisin n centra+i9ed versus decentra+i9ed imp+ementatin8
Bai+ures & E'( system imp+ementatin pr>ects #ave been <n:n t +ead t
rganisatina+ ban<ruptcy /S#e#ab et a+; 200!08 'esearc# cmmenced n t#e prb+ems
and utcmes in E'( pr>ects and t: basic researc# =uestins :ere addressed:
18 ?: success&u+ are cmpanies at di&&erent pints in time in t#eir E'( experiences
and #: are di&&erent measures & success re+atedE
28 A#at prb+ems d E'( adpters encunter as t#ey imp+ement and dep+y E'(
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COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
and #: are t#ese prb+ems re+ated t utcmesE
Organisatins experience prb+ems at a++ p#ases & t#e E'( system +i&e cyc+e and
researc# estab+is#ed t#at many & t#e prb+ems experienced in +ater p#ases riginated
ear+ier; but remained unnticed r uncrrected /S#e#ab et a+; 200!08 "#ese &inding
suggest t#at management & rganisatins :i++ d :e++ t adpt ear+y identi&icatin and
crrectin & prb+ems /S#e#ab et a+; 200!08
odels
.any researc#ers suggest t#e 2ancr&t mde+ in rder t gain a gd utcme & an E'(
imp+ementatin prcess /S#e#ab et a+; 200!08 "#is mde+ prvides guide+ines &r
rganisatins t btain a success&u+ imp+ementatin8 A#en Cisc #as examined t#e
resu+ts & t#is reprt; uti+i9ing t#e 2ancr&t mde+ :i++ assist in any directin r ptin
t#ey c#se t engage:
18 Bcus8 Essentia++y a p+anning p#ase in :#ic# t#e <ey activities are t#e set up &
t#e steering cmmittee; se+ectin and structuring & t#e pr>ect p+an8
28 As is8 "#e as is p#ase inv+ves ana+ysis & current business prcesses; insta++atin
& t#e E'(; mapping & t#e business prcesses n t t#e E'( &unctins and
training & t#e pr>ect team8
38 " be8 "#e t be p#ase entai+s #ig# +eve+ design and t#en detai+ed design sub>ect
t user acceptance &++:ed by interactive prttyping accmpanied by cnstant
cmmunicatin :it# users8
!8 Cnstructin and testing8 "#e <ey activities are t#e deve+pment & a
cmpre#ensive cn&iguratin; t#e ppu+atin & t#e test instance :it# rea+ data;
bui+ding and testing inter&aces; :riting and testing reprts8
%8 Imp+ementatin p#ase8 2ui+ding net:r<s; insta++ing des<tps and managing user
training and supprt8
Cisc1s 2est Optin
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COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
Cisc recent+y upgraded Orac+e 1087 t versin 11i8 "#e ne: versin 11i inc+uded
upgrades t t#eir purc#asing prcess /Cisc I" at :r<; 200-08 Organisatin :ide
supprt assisted Cisc in turning t#e c#a++enge & updating int a #uge pprtunity :it#
t#e end resu+t being a better experience &r custmers; partners and t#e entire
rganisatin8 " ma<e t#e imp+ementatin & t#e ne: upgrades t Orac+e as
straig#t&r:ard as pssib+e; t#e management team emp+yed numerus best practices
/Cisc I" at Ar<; 200-0:
6p &rnt cmmunicatins: users :ere made a:are & b>ectives; c#anges; impacts
and bene&its; :#ic# generated readiness &r pr>ect mi+estnes and activities8
Sta<e#+der impact and readiness data: a :eb,based <n:+edge management
database gave eac# &unctina+ area and >b r+e 2!x7 access t up t date
in&rmatin n t#e re+ease impacts; activities and status8
Spnsrs#ip and end,user net:r<: &unctina+ +eve+ ambassadrs :ere identi&ied
and recruited t ensure t#at users in eac# a&&ected area :ere prepared and
emp:ered during t#e c#ange prcess8 Ambassadrs cmmunicated :it# t#eir
user cmmunities and s+icited &eedbac< abut t#e impact ana+ysis and business
readiness p+ans8 "#eater visits :ere cnducted :it# grups mst impacted by t#e
re+ease in rder t s+icit t#eir t#ug#ts and cncerns8 As a resu+t & t#e va+uab+e
&eedbac< &rm user grups; management; and guidance cmmittee members;
p+ans :ere ad>usted8
"raining and supprt: training curses :ere creative+y deve+ped and de+ivered
and prgress :as mnitred t ensure cmp+etin by sta<e#+ders8 A tta+ & 120
#urs & training mdu+es inc+uded 13 instructr,+ed and 32 :eb based mdu+es8
"raining and c++atera+ :ere created in mu+tip+e +anguages in rder t increase
understanding by t#e cu+tura++y diverse grup & custmers and interna+
sta<e#+ders8
'esearc# #as i++ustrated t#at Cisc1s ptins are t eit#er prceed :it# t#eir current E'(
app+icatin r t investigate and cmmence an integrated +egacy system8 " c#ange t#e
rganisatin1s business systems n: :u+d cst+y and time cnsuming8 Ait# t#e nature
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COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
& t#e cmpetitive mar<et t#at Cisc &unctin in; #aving t#e edge is & great cnse=uence8
"#ere&re; cnstant revie: & t#e mar<et; custmer1s needs; members & t#e rganisatin
needs and tec#n+gy re=uirements are essentia+ t Cisc8 In &uture revie:s Cisc :i++
#ave gained sme vita+ +essns n #: best t prceed :it# any ne: imp+ementatins
and upgrades t t#e current E'( system8
Case studies /A++en; 20040 a+s recmmended t#e &++:ing guide+ines &r best practices
in imp+ementatin & E'( systems:
Cmmunicatin
"raining
Imp+ementatin management
Cmmunicatin
"#e resu+ts & t#e case study indicated t#at emp+yees #ad a +ac< & t#rug#
understanding & t#e system8 Cmmunicatins can be imprved by #sting :r<s#ps
:it# t#e mst a&&ected t t#e c#anges and deve+ping strategies tget#er8 A rea++catin
& :r< +ad :it#in t#e a&&ected departments t a++: t#e members & sta&& t deve+p
expertise in ne: peratins /A++en; 200408
"raining
A+,.as#ari /20030 suggests resistance t c#ange as a prb+em :it# imp+ementatin8 Br
examp+e sme emp+yees becme re+uctant t +earn ne: tec#ni=ues r accept ne:
respnsibi+ities8 Emp+yees :it#in t#e rganisatin s#u+d be encuraged in t#e training
prcess and be given amp+e pprtunities t ma<e recmmendatins and assist in t#e
deve+pment & training8 A#en emp+yees are ab+e t assist in t#e deve+pment t#ere is a
strng sense & :ners#ip in t#e system and t#e :i++ing t +earn8 "#ere :i++ be demands
made n t#e +eaders#ip and supervisin & t#e training strategies /A++en; 200408
Imp+ementatin .anagement
13
Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
*esign & a c#ange management cntr+ p+icy and created by a grup & <ey
sta<e#+ders; inc+uding end,users :u+d cnstitute a set & standardi9ed prcedures t
address imp+ementatin issues8 A pst,imp+ementatin dep+yment p+an s#u+d =uic<+y
&++: and encurage a c++abrative and pen cmmunicative envirnment based n
actua+ needs assessment /A++en; 200408
Cupta /20000 agrees and recmmends t#at t#e <eys t success&u+ imp+ementatin & E'(
are as &++:s:
Cmmitment &rm tp management
Brm a tas< &rce :it# persnne+ &rm a++ &unctina+ areas t &ster ties bet:een
pr>ect management and business units
"a<e an assessment & #ard:are re=uirements
Step,by,step intrductin rat#er t#an a++ at nce start ear+y p+anning n user
training and supprt
Start ear+y p+anning n user training and supprt
Stream+ine decisin ma<ing s t#at imp+ementatin :r< can mve =uic<+y
2e patient because E'( imp+ementatin ta<es time
Reco!!endations to Cisco
Evidence suggests t#at interest in and adptin &; E'( add,ns; especia++y t#se aimed
at imprving prductin peratins and e&&iciencies; is n: c+se t utstripping E'(
itse+&8 "rans+ating :#at1s critica+ &r yur rgani9atin re=uires a #+istic revie: & yur
business prcesses and its issues /"in#am; 200)08 A#en t#ese issues are identi&ied n:
and in t#e &uture; yu :i++ be ab+e t cmmence discussins n :#et#er t cntinue :it#
t#e E'( system r nt8 Cisc #as a+ready made t#e investment & capita+ by insta++ing an
E'( system and t#ere :u+d be a signi&icant amunt & time and capita+ t imp+ement an
integrated +egacy system8 Nt t mentin t#e time and capita+ in managing t#e resistance
t c#ange :it#in t#e rganisatin8 Cisc must nt underestimate t#e e&&rt inv+ved in
1!
Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
c#ange management at any stage & upgrading E'( systems /Femp I @:; 200408 A
c#ange management p+icy s#u+d be imp+emented and c#anges made as +essns are
+earned &rm prb+ems t#at arise8 Cisc s#u+d a+s <eep department managers in&rmed
& t#e mtivatin &r imp+ementing and upgrading t#e E'( system; rat#er t#an >ust being
in&rmed & bene&its and be expected t advcate t#e system /Femp I @:; 200408
Cmmunicatins abut t#e system must be very c+ear and matc# :it# :#at t#e system
actua++y &&ers t avid resistance t c#ange /Femp I @:; 200408
1%
Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
CONC@6SION
In cnc+usin t#is reprt #as summari9ed t#e E'( system and circumstances at Cisc8
E'( systems sti++ prvide many advantages t rganisatins8 E'( app+icatins increase
t#e e&&iciency and prductivity &r t#eir users8 "#e vera++ bene&it is t be ab+e t s#are
in&rmatin :it# custmers and supp+iers and ensuring e&&icient and prductive business
prcesses &r t#at cmpetitive edge in t#e mar<et8 "#e disadvantages & E'( systems
inc+ude +arge strage needs; net:r<ing re=uirements and training ver#eads are
&re=uent+y mentined8 "#e vera++ rganisatina+ resistance t c#ange may be #ig# and
researc# indicated t#at rganisatins spend bet:een t#ree and seven times mre mney
n E'( imp+ementatin and assciated services cmpared t t#e purc#ase & t#e s&t:are
+icence8
"#e a+ternative ptins t E'( system are +egacy systems r data :are#using and &+at
&i+e trans&ers a+s <n:n as integrated +egacy system8 "#is ptin can be mre cst
e&&ective and researc# identi&ied rganisatins t#at success&u++y perate in t#e mar<et
uti+i9ing t#ese a+ternative ptins8 'esearc# &und t#at t#e integrated +egacy systems sti++
&&ered n +in< bet:een t#e app+icatin systems being used by t#e di&&erent departments
:it#in t#e rganisatin8 ?:ever; rganisatins &e+t t#at E'( systems &rce t#em t
c#ange t#eir business strategy t &it t#e pac<age8
'esearc# estab+is#ed Orac+e as ne & t#e tp E'( vendrs and s#u+d Cisc cntinue
and maintain t#ere E'( system t#ere are many &actrs t cnsider be&re &urt#er
imp+ementatins8 A cnstant revie: & t#e mar<et demand; custmer1s needs; members
& t#e rganisatin needs and tec#n+gy re=uirements are essentia+ t Cisc1s success8
In rder t btain a success&u+ imp+ementatin t#is reprt estab+is#ed t#e 2ancr&t mde+
#as a success&u+ utcme :#en uti+i9ed8 Cmmunicatin; training and imp+ementatin
management :i++ be t#e <ey &actrs in any success&u+ imp+ementatin prcess t#at Cisc
s#u+d adpt t avid resistance t c#ange8
1)
Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
'EBE'ENCES
Ads#ead; A 200%; JSystems ta+<ing t systems1; Manufacturing Computer Solutions,
September; pp8 2!,2% /n+ine pr=uest08
A++en; @ 2004; JA#ere gd E'( imp+ementatins g bad: a case &r cntinuity1;
Business Process Management Journal, v+8 1!; n8 3; pp8327,337 /n+ine emera+d08
A+,.as#ari; . 2003; JEnterprise resurce p+anning /E'(0 systems: a researc# agenda1;
Industrial Management & Data Systems, 103H1; pp822,27 /n+ine emera+d08
Cisc; Business Applications Case Study: o! Cisco I" #pgraded its $%P Purc&asing
Module, vie:ed 30 Ku+y 200-;
#ttp:HH:::8cisc8cmH:ebHabutHciscitat:r<HbusinessL&LitHE'(Lpurc#asingL:eb8#888
E+banna; A 2007; JImp+ementing an integrated system in a scia++y dis,integrated
enterprise1; Information "ec&nology & People, v+8 20; n8 2; pp8121,13- /n+ine
emera+d08
Cupta; A 2000; JEnterprise resurce p+anning: t#e emerging rganisatina+ va+ue
systems1; Industrial Management & Data Systems, 100H3; pp811!,114 /n+ine emera+d08
Femp; .; @:; C 2004; JE'( innvatin imp+ementatin mde+ incrprating c#ange
management1; Business Process Management Journal, v+8 1!; n8 2; pp8224,2!2 /n+ine
emera+d08
@aug#+in; S 1---; JAn E'( Came (+an1; "&e Journal of Business Strategy, KanHBeb; 20;
1; pp832 /n+ine pr=uest08
17
Student Name: Student Number
COIS: 12073 Assessment item 3
S#e#ab; E; S#arp; .; Supramaniam; @ I Spedding; " 200!; JEnterprise resurce
p+anning an integrative revie:1; Business Process Management Journal, v+8 10; n8 !;
pp83%-,34) /n+ine emera+d08
"#emistc+eus; . and Irani; M 2001; J2enc#mar<ing t#e bene&its and barriers &
app+icatin integratin1; Benc&mar'ing: An International Journal, v+8 4; n8!; pp8 317,
331 /n+ine pr=uest0
"in#am; 2 200%; JExtending yur E'(: spending a +itt+e t gain a +t1; Manufacturing
Computer Solutions, .ay; pp812,1% /n+ine pr=uest08
"in#am; 2 200%; JIntegrated business is <ey t success1; Manufacturing Computer
Solutions, September; pp81),17 /n+ine pr=uest08
14