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Transformada de Fourier

Para otros usos de este trmino, vase Transformacin (desambiguacin).


En matemtica, la transformada de Fourier, denominada as por Joseph Fourier, es
una aplicacin que hace corresponder a una funcin f, con valores complejos y definida en la recta,
con otra funcin g definida de la manera siguiente:

Donde f es , es decir, f tiene que ser una funcin integrable en el sentido de la integral de
Lebesgue. El factor, que acompaa la integral en definicin facilita el enunciado de algunos de los
teoremas referentes a la transformada de Fourier. Aunque esta forma de normalizar la transformada
de Fourier es la ms comnmente adoptada, no es universal. En la prctica las variables x
y suelen estar asociadas a dimensiones (como el espacio -metros-, frecuencia -herzios-,...) y
entonces es correcto utilizar la frmula alternativa:

de forma que la constante beta cancela las dimensiones asociadas a las variables obteniendo un
exponente adimensional.
La transformada de Fourier as definida goza de una serie de propiedades de continuidad que
garantizan que puede extenderse a espacios de funciones mayores e incluso a espacios
de funciones generalizadas.
Adems, tiene una multitud de aplicaciones en muchas reas de la ciencia e ingeniera: la fsica,
la teora de los nmeros, la combinatoria, el procesamiento de seales(electrnica), la teora de la
probabilidad, la estadstica, la ptica, la propagacin de ondas y otras reas. En procesamiento de
seales la transformada de Fourier suele considerarse como la decomposicin de una seal en
componentes de frecuencias diferentes, es decir, g corresponde al espectro de frecuencias de la
seal f.
La rama de la matemtica que estudia la transformada de Fourier y sus generalizaciones es
denominada anlisis armnico.
Son varias las notaciones que se utilizan para la transformada de Fourier de f. He aqu algunas de
ellas:
.
ndice
[ocultar]
1 Definicin
o 1.1 Definicin formal
2 Propiedades bsicas
3 Tabla de transformadas bsicas
4 Teorema de inversin
5 La transformada de Fourier en el espacio de Schwartz
6 Propiedades de homomorfismo
7 Uso en Ingeniera
8 Interpretacin geomtrica
9 Vase tambin
10 Enlaces externos
Definicin[editar]

La transformada de Fourier relaciona una funcin en el dominio del tiempo, mostrada en rojo, con una
funcin en el dominio de la frecuencia, mostrado en azul. Las frecuencias componentes, extendidas para
todo el espectro de frecuencia, son representadas como picos en el dominio de la frecuencia.
La transformada de Fourier es bsicamente el espectro de frecuencias de una funcin. Un buen
ejemplo de eso es lo que hace el odo humano, ya que recibe una onda auditiva y la transforma
en una descomposicin en distintas frecuencias (que es lo que finalmente se escucha). El odo
humano va percibiendo distintas frecuencias a medida que pasa el tiempo, sin embargo, la
transformada de Fourier contiene todas las frecuencias contenidas en todos los tiempos en que
existi la seal; es decir, en la transformada de Fourier se obtiene un slo espectro de
frecuencias para toda la funcin.
Definicin formal[editar]
Sea f una funcin Lebesgue integrable:

La transformada de Fourier de f es la funcin

Esta integral tiene sentido, pues el integrando es una funcin integrable. Una estimativa
simple demuestra que la transformada de Fourier F(f) es una funcin acotada. Adems por
medio del teorema de convergencia dominada puede demostrarse que F(f) es continua.
La transformada de Fourier inversa de una funcin integrable f est definida por:

Ntese que la nica diferencia entre la transformada de Fourier y la transformada de
Fourier inversa es el signo negativo en el exponente del integrando. El teorema de
inversin de Fourier formulado abajo justifica el nombre de transformada de Fourier
inversa dado a esta transformada. El signo negativo en el exponente del integrado
indica la traspolacin de complementos yuxtapuestos. Estos complementos pueden ser
analizados a travs de la aplicacin de la Varianza para cada funcin.
Propiedades bsicas[editar]
La transformada de Fourier es una aplicacin lineal:

Valen las siguientes propiedades para una funcin absolutamente integrable f:
Cambio de escala:

Traslacin:

Traslacin en la variable transformada:

Transformada de la derivada: Si f y su derivada son integrables,

Derivada de la transformada: Si f y t f(t) son integrables, la
transformada de Fourier F(f) es diferenciable

Estas identidades se demuestran por un cambio de variables
o integracin por partes.
En lo que sigue, definimos la convolucin de dos funciones f, g en
la recta se define de la manera siguiente:

Nuevamente la presencia del factor delante de la integral
simplifica el enunciado de los resultados como el que sigue:
Si f y g son funciones absolutamente integrables, la
convolucin tambin es integrable, y vale la igualdad:

Tambin puede enunciarse un teorema anlogo para la
convolucin en la variable transformada,

pero este exige cierto cuidado con el dominio de
definicin de la transformada de Fourier.
Tabla de transformadas
bsicas[editar]
En algunas ocasiones se define la transformada con
un factor multiplicativo diferente de , siendo
frecuente en ingeniera el uso de un factor unidad en
la transformada directa y un factor de en la
transformada inversa. A continuacin se lista una tabla
de funciones y sus transformadas de Fourier con un
factor unidad. Si se desea utilizar otro factor, slo debe
multiplicar la segunda columna por ese factor.
Funcin Transformada


(Funcin unitaria de
Heaviside)



















Teorema de inversin[editar]
La idea del teorema de inversin es que dada una
funcin f, la transformada de Fourier inversa aplicada
a la transformada de Fourier de f resulta en la funcin
original, en smbolos:

Sin embargo, el resultado formulado de esta forma
no es vlido, porque el dominio de la transformada
de Fourier como lo hemos definido en el primer
prrafo de este artculo no es invariante, o sea que
la transformada de Fourier de una funcin
integrable no es necesariamente integrable.
Para formular el teorema de inversin necesitamos
encontrar espacios de funciones que sean
invariantes bajo la transformada de Fourier. De
hecho, hay numerosas posibilidades, la ms
natural del punto de vista tcnico siendo el espacio
de Schwartz de funciones rpidamente
decrecientes. Sin embargo aqu tomamos un
camino ms directo para formular un enunciado:
Teorema. El espacio de funciones
complejas f definidas en la recta tales que f y la
transformada de Fourier de f sean integrables, es
invariante tanto por la transformada de Fourier que
por la transformada de Fourier inversa. Adems
para una funcin f en este espacio, vale el
teorema de inversin (1).
Otra posibilidad para formular un teorema de
inversin se fundamenta en el hecho de que la
transformada de Fourier tiene muchas extensiones
naturales.
La transformada de Fourier en el
espacio de Schwartz[editar]
El espacio de Schwartz consiste de las funciones
tomando valores complejos, definidas en R e
infinitamente diferenciables tales que para
todo m, n enteros no negativos

donde
(n)
es la n-sima derivada de .
Denotamos al espacio de Schwartz por el
smbolo .
Teorema
Tanto la transformada de Fourier como la
transformada de Fourier inversa son
aplicaciones lineales

Adems vale la frmula de inversin:

El espacio de Schwartz es invariante
con respecto a los operadores
diferenciales con coeficientes
polinomiales, es decir de la forma

donde P
k
son polinomios.
Debido a las propiedades

y

la transformada de
Fourier es una
herramienta muy
importante para el estudio
de las ecuaciones
diferenciales tanto para la
teora que para su
resolucin prctica.
Propiedades de
homomorfismo[e
ditar]
Debido a que las
"funciones
base" e
ikx
son homomorfis
mos de la lnea real (ms
concretamente, del
"grupo del crculo")
tenemos ciertas
identidades tiles:
1. Si
entonces

2. La transformada
de Fourier es
un morfismo:

Es decir, la transformada
de Fourier de
una convolucin es el
producto de las
transformadas de Fourier.
Uso en
Ingeniera[editar]
La transformada de
Fourier se utiliza para
pasar al dominio de la
frecuencia una seal para
as obtener informacin
que no es evidente en el
dominio temporal. Por
ejemplo, es ms fcil
saber sobre qu ancho de
banda se concentra la
energa de una seal
analizndola en el
dominio de la frecuencia.
Tambin sirve para
resolver ecuaciones
diferenciales con mayor
facilidad y, por
consiguiente, se usa para
el diseo de
controladores clsicos de
sistemas realimentados si
conocemos la densidad
espectral de un sistema y
la entrada podemos
conocer la densidad
espectral de la salida.
Esto es muy til para el
diseo de filtros de
radiotransistores.
La transformada de
Fourier tambin se utiliza
en el mbito del
tratamiento digital de
imgenes, como por
ejemplo para mejorar o
definir ms ciertas zonas
de una imagen fotogrfica
o tomada con una
computadora.
Interpretacin
geomtrica[editar]
Definido el producto
escalar entre funciones
de la siguiente manera:

la transformada de
Fourier se puede
entender como el
producto escalar entre la
funcin x(t) y la
exponencial
compleja evaluad
o sobre todo el rango de
frecuencias f. Por la
interpretacin usual del
producto escalar, en
aquellas frecuencias en
las que la transformada
tiene un valor mayor, ms
parecido tiene x(t) con
una exponencial
compleja.
Vase
tambin[editar]
ptica de Fourier
Transformada de
Fourier discreta
Wikiversidad albe
rga proyectos de
aprendizaje
sobre Transformada
de Fourier.
Enlaces
externos[editar]
Fourier Java Applet
Tables of Integral
Transforms en Ingls.
Transformada de
Fourier por John H.
Mathews
The DFT Pied:
Enseando la
transformada de
Fourier en un da en
The DSP Dimension
(Ingls).
Fourier transform
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fourier transforms
Continuous Fourier transform
Fourier series
Discrete-time Fourier transform
Discrete Fourier transform
Fourier analysis
Related transforms
The Fourier transform (English pronunciation: /frie/), named after Joseph Fourier, is a
mathematical transformation employed to transform signals between time (or spatial) domain
and frequency domain, which has many applications in physics and engineering. It is reversible,
being able to transform from either domain to the other. The term itself refers to both the transform
operation and to the function it produces.
In the case of a periodic function over time (for example, a continuous but not
necessarily sinusoidal musical sound), the Fourier transform can be simplified to the calculation of a
discrete set of complex amplitudes, called Fourier series coefficients. They represent the frequency
spectrum of the original time-domain signal. Also, when a time-domain function is sampled to
facilitate storage or computer-processing, it is still possible to recreate a version of the original
Fourier transform according to the Poisson summation formula, also known as discrete-time Fourier
transform. See alsoFourier analysis and List of Fourier-related transforms.
Contents
[hide]
1 Definition
2 Introduction
o 2.1 Example
3 Properties of the Fourier transform
o 3.1 Basic properties
o 3.2 Invertibility and periodicity
o 3.3 Uniform continuity and the RiemannLebesgue lemma
o 3.4 Plancherel theorem and Parseval's theorem
o 3.5 Poisson summation formula
o 3.6 Convolution theorem
o 3.7 Cross-correlation theorem
o 3.8 Eigenfunctions
4 Fourier transform on Euclidean space
o 4.1 Uncertainty principle
o 4.2 Spherical harmonics
o 4.3 Restriction problems
5 Fourier transform on function spaces
o 5.1 On L
p
spaces
o 5.2 Tempered distributions
6 Generalizations
o 6.1 FourierStieltjes transform
o 6.2 Locally compact abelian groups
o 6.3 Gelfand transform
o 6.4 Non-abelian groups
7 Alternatives
8 Applications
o 8.1 Analysis of differential equations
o 8.2 Fourier transform spectroscopy
o 8.3 Quantum mechanics and signal processing
9 Other notations
10 Other conventions
11 Tables of important Fourier transforms
o 11.1 Functional relationships
o 11.2 Square-integrable functions
o 11.3 Distributions
o 11.4 Two-dimensional functions
o 11.5 Formulas for general n-dimensional functions
12 See also
13 References
14 External links
Definition[edit]
There are several common conventions for defining the Fourier transform of
an integrable function (Kaiser 1994, p. 29), (Rahman 2011, p. 11). This article will use
the following definition:
, for any real number .
When the independent variable x represents time (with SI unit of seconds), the transform
variable represents frequency (in hertz). Under suitable conditions, is determined by via
the inverse transform:
, for any real number x.
The statement that can be reconstructed from is known as the Fourier inversion
theorem, and was first introduced in Fourier's Analytical Theory of Heat (Fourier 1822,
p. 525), (Fourier & Freeman 1878, p. 408), although what would be considered a proof by
modern standards was not given until much later (Titchmarsh 1948, p. 1). The
functions and often are referred to as a Fourier integral pair or Fourier transform
pair (Rahman 2011, p. 10).
For other common conventions and notations, including using the angular
frequency instead of the frequency , see Other conventions and Other notations below.
The Fourier transform on Euclidean space is treated separately, in which the variable x often
represents position and momentum.
Introduction[edit]
See also: Fourier analysis

The Fourier transform relates the function's time domain, shown in red, to the function's frequency
domain, shown in blue. The component frequencies, spread across the frequency spectrum, are
represented as peaks in the frequency domain.
The motivation for the Fourier transform comes from the study of Fourier series. In the study
of Fourier series, complicated but periodic functions are written as the sum of simple waves
mathematically represented by sines and cosines. The Fourier transform is an extension of
the Fourier series that results when the period of the represented function is lengthened and
allowed to approach infinity (Taneja 2008, p. 192).
Due to the properties of sine and cosine, it is possible to recover the amplitude of each wave
in a Fourier series using an integral. In many cases it is desirable to use Euler's formula,
which states that e
2i
= cos(2) + i sin(2), to write Fourier series in terms of the basic
waves e
2i
. This has the advantage of simplifying many of the formulas involved, and
provides a formulation for Fourier series that more closely resembles the definition followed
in this article. Re-writing sines and cosines ascomplex exponentials makes it necessary for
the Fourier coefficients to be complex valued. The usual interpretation of this complex
number is that it gives both the amplitude (or size) of the wave present in the function and
the phase (or the initial angle) of the wave. These complex exponentials sometimes contain
negative "frequencies". If is measured in seconds, then the waves e
2i
and e
2i
both
complete one cycle per second, but they represent different frequencies in the Fourier
transform. Hence, frequency no longer measures the number of cycles per unit time, but is
still closely related.
There is a close connection between the definition of Fourier series and the Fourier
transform for functions f which are zero outside of an interval. For such a function, we can
calculate its Fourier series on any interval that includes the points where fis not identically
zero. The Fourier transform is also defined for such a function. As we increase the length of
the interval on which we calculate the Fourier series, then the Fourier series coefficients
begin to look like the Fourier transform and the sum of the Fourier series of f begins to look
like the inverse Fourier transform. To explain this more precisely, suppose that T is large
enough so that the interval [T/2, T/2] contains the interval on which f is not identically zero.
Then the n-th series coefficient c
n
is given by:

Comparing this to the definition of the Fourier transform, it follows
that since f(x) is zero outside [T/2,T/2]. Thus the Fourier
coefficients are just the values of the Fourier transform sampled on a grid of width 1/T,
multiplied by the grid width 1/T.
Under appropriate conditions, the Fourier series of f will equal the function f. In other
words, f can be written:

where the last sum is simply the first sum rewritten using the definitions
n
= n/T,
and = (n + 1)/T n/T = 1/T.
This second sum is a Riemann sum, and so by letting T it will converge to the
integral for the inverse Fourier transform given in the definition section. Under
suitable conditions this argument may be made precise (Stein & Shakarchi 2003).
In the study of Fourier series the numbers c
n
could be thought of as the "amount" of
the wave present in the Fourier series of f. Similarly, as seen above, the Fourier
transform can be thought of as a function that measures how much of each
individual frequency is present in our function f, and we can recombine these waves
by using an integral (or "continuous sum") to reproduce the original function.
Example[edit]
The following images provide a visual illustration of how the Fourier transform
measures whether a frequency is present in a particular function. The function
depicted f(t) = cos(6t) e
t2
oscillates at 3 hertz (if t measures seconds) and tends
quickly to 0. (The second factor in this equation is an envelope function that shapes
the continuous sinusoid into a short pulse. Its general form is a Gaussian function).
This function was specially chosen to have a real Fourier transform which can easily
be plotted. The first image contains its graph. In order to calculate we must
integrate e
2i(3t)
f(t). The second image shows the plot of the real and imaginary
parts of this function. The real part of the integrand is almost always positive,
because when f(t) is negative, the real part of e
2i(3t)
is negative as well. Because
they oscillate at the same rate, when f(t) is positive, so is the real part of e
2i(3t)
. The
result is that when you integrate the real part of the integrand you get a relatively
large number (in this case 0.5). On the other hand, when you try to measure a
frequency that is not present, as in the case when we look at , the integrand
oscillates enough so that the integral is very small. The general situation may be a
bit more complicated than this, but this in spirit is how the Fourier transform
measures how much of an individual frequency is present in a function f(t).


Original function showing oscillation 3 hertz.


Real and imaginary parts of integrand for Fourier transform at 3 hertz


Real and imaginary parts of integrand for Fourier transform at 5 hertz


Fourier transform with 3 and 5 hertz labeled.
Properties of the Fourier transform[edit]
Here we assume f(x), g(x) and h(x) are integrable functions, are Lebesgue-
measurable on the real line, and satisfy:

We denote the Fourier transforms of these functions by , and
respectively.
Basic properties[edit]
The Fourier transform has the following basic properties: (Pinsky 2002).
Linearity
For any complex numbers a and b, if h(x) = af(x) + bg(x), then

Translation
For any real number x
0
, if then
Modulation
For any real number
0
if then
Scaling
For a non-zero real number a, if h(x) = f(ax), then The case a =
1 leads to the time-reversal property, which states: if h(x) = f(x), then
Conjugation
If then
In particular, if f is real, then one has the reality condition , that is, is
a Hermitian function.
And if f is purely imaginary, then
Integration
Substituting in the definition, we obtain

That is, the evaluation of the Fourier
transform in the origin ( ) equals the
integral of f all over its domain.
Invertibility and periodicity[edit]
Further information: Fourier inversion
theorem and Fractional Fourier transform
Under suitable conditions on the function f, it can be recovered from its Fourier
transform Indeed, denoting the Fourier transform operator by so then for
suitable functions, applying the Fourier transform twice simply flips the
function: which can be interpreted as "reversing time". Since reversing
time is two-periodic, applying this twice yields so the Fourier transform operator
is four-periodic, and similarly the inverse Fourier transform can be obtained by applying the
Fourier transform three times: In particular the Fourier transform is invertible
(under suitable conditions).
More precisely, defining the parity operator that inverts time, :


These equalities of operators require careful definition of the space of functions in question, defining
equality of functions (equality at every point? equality almost everywhere?) and defining equality of
operators that is, defining the topology on the function space and operator space in question.
These are not true for all functions, but are true under various conditions, which are the content of
the various forms of the Fourier inversion theorem.
This four-fold periodicity of the
Fourier transform is similar to a
rotation of the plane by 90,
particularly as the two-fold
iteration yields a reversal, and in
fact this analogy can be made
precise. While the Fourier
transform can simply be
interpreted as switching the time
domain and the frequency
domain, with the inverse Fourier
transform switching them back,
more geometrically it can be
interpreted as a rotation by 90 in
the timefrequency
domain (considering time as the x-
axis and frequency as the y-axis),
and the Fourier transform can be
generalized to the fractional
Fourier transform, which involves
rotations by other angles. This can
be further generalized to linear
canonical transformations, which
can be visualized as the action of
the special linear group SL
2
(R) on
the timefrequency plane, with the
preserved symplectic form
corresponding to the uncertainty
principle, below. This approach is
particularly studied in signal
processing, under timefrequency
analysis.
Uniform continuity and the
RiemannLebesgue
lemma[edit]


The rectangular
function isLebesgue integrable.


The sinc function, which is the
Fourier transform of the rectangular
function, is bounded and
continuous, but not Lebesgue
integrable.
The Fourier transform may be
defined in some cases for non-
integrable functions, but the
Fourier transforms of integrable
functions have several strong
properties.
The Fourier transform, , of any
integrable function f is uniformly
continuous and
(Katznelson 1976). By
the RiemannLebesgue
lemma (Stein & Weiss 1971),

However, need not be integrable. For example, the Fourier transform of the rectangular function,
which is integrable, is the sinc function, which is not Lebesgue integrable, because its improper
integrals behave analogously to the alternating harmonic series, in converging to a sum without
being absolutely convergent.
It is not generally possible to write the inverse transform as a Lebesgue integral. However, when
both f and are integrable, the inverse equality

holds almost everywhere.
That is, the Fourier
transform
is injective on L
1
(R). (But
if f is continuous, then
equality holds for
every x.)
Plancherel theorem
and Parseval's
theorem[edit]
Let f(x) and g(x) be
integrable, and
let and be
their Fourier transforms.
If f(x) and g(x) are
also square-integrable,
then we haveParseval's
theorem (Rudin 1987, p.
187):

where the bar
denotes complex
conjugation.
The Plancherel
theorem, which is
equivalent
to Parseval's
theorem, states
(Rudin 1987, p. 186):

The Plancherel
theorem makes it
possible to
extend the
Fourier transform,
by a continuity
argument, to
a unitary
operator on L
2
(R).
On L
1
(R)L
2
(R),
this extension
agrees with
original Fourier
transform defined
on L
1
(R), thus
enlarging the
domain of the
Fourier transform
to L
1
(R) + L
2
(R)
(and
consequently
to L
p
(R) for 1 p
2). The
Plancherel
theorem has the
interpretation in
the sciences that
the Fourier
transform
preserves the
energy of the
original quantity.
Depending on the
author either of
these theorems
might be referred
to as the
Plancherel
theorem or as
Parseval's
theorem.
See Pontryagin
duality for a
general
formulation of this
concept in the
context of locally
compact abelian
groups.
Poisson
summation
formula[edit]
Main
article: Poisson
summation
formula
The Poisson
summation
formula (PSF) is
an equation that
relates
the Fourier
series coefficients
of the periodic
summation of a
function to values
of the function's
continuous
Fourier transform.
It has a variety of
useful forms that
are derived from
the basic one by
application of the
Fourier
transform's
scaling and time-
shifting
properties. The
frequency-
domain dual of
the standard PSF
is also
called discrete-
time Fourier
transform, which
leads directly to:
a popular,
graphical,
frequency-
domain
representatio
n of the
phenomenon
of aliasing,
and
a proof of
the Nyquist-
Shannon
sampling
theorem.
Convolution
theorem[edit]
Main
article: Convolutio
n theorem
The Fourier
transform
translates
between convolut
ion and
multiplication of
functions. If f(x)
and g(x) are
integrable
functions with
Fourier
transforms
and respect
ively, then the
Fourier transform
of the convolution
is given by the
product of the
Fourier
transforms
and (under
other conventions
for the definition
of the Fourier
transform a
constant factor
may appear).
This means that
if:

where
denotes the
convolution
operation,
then:

In linear
time
invariant
(LTI)
system
theory, it
is
common
to
interpret
g(x) as
the impul
se
response
of an LTI
system
with
input f(x)
and
output h(
x), since
substituti
ng
the unit
impulsefo
r f(x)
yields h(x
) = g(x).
In this
case,
rep
resents
the frequ
ency
response
of the
system.
Converse
ly, if f(x)
can be
decompo
sed as
the
product
of two
square
integrabl
e
functions
p(x)
and q(x),
then the
Fourier
transform
of f(x) is
given by
the
convoluti
on of the
respectiv
e Fourier
transform
s a
nd .
Cross-
correla
tion
theore
m[edit]
Main
article: Cr
oss-
correlatio
n
In an
analogou
s
manner,
it can be
shown
that
if h(x) is
the cross
-
correlatio
n of f(x)
and g(x):

then
the
Fouri
er
transf
orm
of h(x
) is:

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f
(
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h
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F
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=

2


w
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n
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p
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m
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f

c
o
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v
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.
Summary of popular forms of the Fourier transform
ordinary
frequency
(hertz)
unit
ary



angular
frequency
(rad/s)
non-
unit
ary



unit
ary



A
s

d
i
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e
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a
b
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y
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.
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"
n
o
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a
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f
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c
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f

2


a
p
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F
o
r

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f
(
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g
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r
e
s
p
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c
t
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v
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l
y
.

O
n
l
y

t
h
e

t
h
r
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m
o
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t

c
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m
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n
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t

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f
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t
o

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c
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t
h
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n
t
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1
0
5

g
i
v
e
s

a

r
e
l
a
t
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o
n
s
h
i
p

b
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F
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d

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r
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c
a
n

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e

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s

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l
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h
e

F
o
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r
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e
r

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s
f
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m

a
n
d

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t
s

i
n
v
e
r
s
e
.
F
u
n
c
t
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o
n
a
l

r
e
l
a
t
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n
s
h
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p
s
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d
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t
]
T
h
e

F
o
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r
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r

t
r
a
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s
f
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s

i
n

t
h
i
s

t
a
b
l
e

m
a
y

b
e

f
o
u
n
d

i
n

E
r
d

l
y
i

(
1
9
5
4
)

o
r

K
a
m
m
l
e
r

(
2
0
0
0
,

a
p
p
e
n
d
i
x
)
.

Function
Fourier
transform
unitary,
ordinary
frequency
Fourier
transform
unitary, angular
frequency
Fourier
transform
non-unitary,
angular
frequency
Remarks











Definition
1
0
1


Linearity
1
0
2


Shift in time
domain
1
0
3

Shift in
frequency
domain, dual of
102
1
0
4



Scaling in the
time domain.
If is large,
then is
concentrated
around 0
and
sp
reads out and
flattens.
1
0
5


Duality.
Here needs to
be calculated
using the same
method as
Fourier
transform
column. Results
from swapping
"dummy"
variables
of and or
or .
1
0
6

1
0
7



This is the dual
of 106
1
0
8


The
notation
denotes
the convolution
of and
this rule is
the convolution
theorem
1
0
9




This is the dual
of 108
1
1
0
For pu
rely real

Hermitian
symmetry. ind
icates
the complex
conjugate.
1
1
1
For a
purely
realeven
function
, and are purely real even
functions.

1
1
2
For a
purely
realodd
function
, and are purely imaginary odd
functions.

1
1
3


Complex
conjugation,
generalization of
110
S
q
u
a
r
e
-
i
n
t
e
g
r
a
b
l
e

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s
[
e
d
i
t
]
T
h
e

F
o
u
r
i
e
r

t
r
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n
s
f
o
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m
s

i
n

t
h
i
s

t
a
b
l
e

m
a
y

b
e

f
o
u
n
d

i
n

(
C
a
m
p
b
e
l
l

&

F
o
s
t
e
r

1
9
4
8
)
,

(
E
r
d

l
y
i

1
9
5
4
)
,

o
r

t
h
e

a
p
p
e
n
d
i
x

o
f

(
K
a
m
m
l
e
r

2
0
0
0
)
.

Function
Fourier
transform
unitary,
ordinary
frequency
Fourier transform
unitary, angular
frequency
Fourier
transform
non-unitary,
angular
frequency
Remarks












2
0
1


The rectangu
lar pulse and
the normaliz
ed sinc
function,
here defined
as sinc(x) =
sin(x)/(x)
2
0
2


Dual of rule
201.
The rectangu
lar
function is
an ideal low-
pass filter,
and the sinc
function is
the non-
causal impul
se response
of such a
filter.
Thesinc
function is
defined here
as sinc(x) =
sin(x)/(x)
2
0
3


The function
tri(x) is
the triangula
r function
2
0
4


Dual of rule
203.
2
0
5



The
function u(x)
is
the Heavisid
e unit step
function and
a>0.
2
0
6




This shows
that, for the
unitary
Fourier
transforms,
the Gaussian
functionexp(
x
2
) is its
own Fourier
transform for
some choice
of . For this
to be
integrable
we must
have
Re()>0.
2
0
7




For a>0.
That is, the
Fourier
transform of
a
decaying exp
onential
functionis
a Lorentzian
function.
2
0
8



Hyperbolic
secant is its
own Fourier
transform
2
0
9













is
the Hermite'
s
polynomial.
If a = 1 then
the Gauss-
Hermite
functions
are eigenfun
ctions of the
Fourier
transform
operator. For
a derivation,
see Hermite
polynomial.
The formula
reduces to
206 for n =
0.
D
i
s
t
r
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b
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1
9
5
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o
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a
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a
m
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2
0
0
0
)
.

Function
Fourier
transform
unitary,
ordinary
frequency
Fourier
transform
unitary, angular
frequency
Fourier
transform
non-unitary,
angular
frequency
Remarks












3
0
1


The
distribution (
) denotes
the Dirac delta
function.
3
0
2




Dual of rule
301.
3
0
3



This follows
from 103 and
301.
3
0
4




This follows
from rules 101
and 303
using Euler's
formula:



3
0
5




This follows
from 101 and
303
using



3
0
6



3
0
7



3
0
8



Here, n is
a natural
number and
is
the n-th
distribution
derivative of
the Dirac delta
function. This
rule follows
from rules 107
and 301.
Combining this
rule with 101,
we can
transform
all polynomials
.
3
0
9



Here sgn() is
the sign
function. Note
that 1/x is not a
distribution. It
is necessary to
use the Cauchy
principal
value when
testing against
Schwartz
functions. This
rule is useful in
studying
the Hilbert
transform.
3
1
0




1/x
n
is
the homogeneo
us
distributiondefi
ned by the
distributional
derivative

3
1
1


This formula is
valid for 0 >
> 1. For > 0
some singular
terms arise at
the origin that
can be found
by
differentiating
318. If Re >
1,
then is a
locally
integrable
function, and
so a tempered
distribution.
The
function
i
s a
holomorphic
function from
the right half-
plane to the
space of
tempered
distributions. It
admits a
unique
meromorphic
extension to a
tempered
distribution,
also denoted
for
2, 4, ...
(Seehomogene
ous
distribution.)
3
1
2




The dual of
rule 309. This
time the
Fourier
transforms
need to be
considered
as Cauchy
principal value.
3
1
3



The
function u(x) is
the
Heaviside unit
step function;
this follows
from rules 101,
301, and 312.
3
1
4


This function is
known as
the Dirac
comb function.
This result can
be derived
from 302 and
102, together
with the fact
that


as
distributions.
3
1
5



The
function J
0
(x)
is the zeroth
orderBessel
function of first
kind.
3
1
6



This is a
generalization
of 315. The
function J
n
(x)
is the n-th
order Bessel
function of first
kind. The
function T
n
(x)
is
the Chebyshev
polynomial of
the first kind.
3
1
7




is the Euler
Mascheroni
constant.
3
1
8



This formula is
valid for 1 >
> 0. Use
differentiation
to derive
formula for
higher
exponents. u is
the Heaviside
function.
T
w
o
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d
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s
i
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f
u
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[
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Function
Fourier transform
unitary, ordinary
frequency
Fourier transform
unitary, angular
frequency
Fourier transform
non-unitary,
angular frequency
4
0
0










4
0
1



4
0
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1
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I
V
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3
.
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[
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Function
Fourier
transform
unitary,
ordinary
frequency
Fourier transform
unitary, angular
frequency
Fourier transform
non-unitary,
angular frequency
5
0
0










5
0
1







5
0
2


5
0
3



R
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f
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(
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1
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4
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S
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A
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4
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