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GSM Architecture Overview

GSM Architecture Overview



Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview
Introduction
Introduction
It provides an overview of the GSM network architecture.
This includes a brief explanation of the different network
subsystems and a description of the functionality of the
elements within each of the subsystems. Topics include:
General architecture overview
The Mobile Station MS! Subsystem and "lements
The #ase Station Subsystem #SS! and "lements
The $etwork Subsystem $SS! and "lements
Introduction to network interfaces
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

A GSM network is made up of three subsystems:
The Mobile Station (MS)
The Base Station Sub-system (BSS) !omprisin" a BS# and
se$eral BTSs
The %etwork and Swit!hin" Sub-system (%SS) !omprisin" an
MS# and asso!iated re"isters
The interfa!es defined between ea!h of these sub systems in!lude:
&A& interfa!e between %SS and BSS
&Abis& interfa!e between BS# and BTS (within the BSS)
&'m& air interfa!e between the BSS and the MS
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

Abbre$iations:
MS# Mobile Swit!hin" #enter
BSS Base Station Sub-system
BS# Base Station #ontroller
()* (ome )o!ation *e"ister
BTS Base Trans!ei$er Station
+)* +isitor )o!ation *e"ister
T*, Trans!ei$er
Au# Authenti!ation #enter
MS Mobile Station
-.* -/uipment .dentity *e"ister
0M# 0perations and Maintenan!e #enter
1ST% 1ubli! Swit!hed Telephone %etwork
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview
Mobile Station
Mobile Station
The Mobile Station MS! consists of the physical e%uipment
used by a &'M$ subscriber to connect to the network. It
comprises the Mobile "%uipment M"! and the Subscriber
Identity Module SIM!. The M" forms part of the Mobile
Termination MT! which( dependin) on the application and
services( may also include various types of Terminal
"%uipment T"! and associated Terminal *dapter T*!.
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

The .MS. identifies the subs!riber within the GSM network while
the MS .S2% is the a!tual telephone number a !aller (possibly in
another network) uses to rea!h that person3
Se!urity is pro$ided by the use of an authenti!ation key and by
the transmission of a temporary subs!riber identity (TMS.)
a!ross the radio interfa!e where possible to a$oid usin" the
permanent .MS. identity3
The .M-. may be used to blo!k !ertain types of e/uipment from
a!!essin" the network if they are unsuitable and also to !he!k
for stolen e/uipment3
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview
MS and SIM
MS and SIM
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

The mobile station !onsists of :
mobile e/uipment (M-)
subs!riber identity module (S.M)
The S.M stores permanent and temporary data about the mobile4
the subs!riber and the network4 in!ludin" :
The .nternational Mobile Subs!ribers .dentity (.MS.)
MS .S2% number of subs!riber
Authenti!ation key (5i) and al"orithms for authenti!ation !he!k
The mobile e/uipment has a uni/ue .nternational Mobile
-/uipment .dentity (.M-.)4 whi!h is used by the -.*
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

The BSS !omprises:

Base Station #ontroller (BS#)


0ne or more Base Trans!ei$er Stations (BTSs)
The purpose of the BTS is to:

pro$ide radio a!!ess to the mobile stations


mana"e the radio a!!ess aspe!ts of the system
BTS !ontains:

*adio Transmitter6*e!ei$er (T*,)


Si"nal pro!essin" and !ontrol e/uipment

Antennas and feeder !ables


Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

The BS#:
allo!ates a !hannel for the duration of a !all
maintains the !all:
monitors /uality
!ontrols the power transmitted by the BTS or MS
"enerates a hando$er to another !ell when re/uired
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview
Network Switchin System (NSS)
Network Switchin System (NSS)
The $SS combines the call routin) switches MS+s and
GMS+! with database re)isters re%uired to keep track of
subscribers, movements and use of the system. +all
routin) between MS+s is taken via existin) &ST$ or IS-$
networks. Si)nalin) between the re)isters uses Si)nalin)
System $o. . protocol.
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

7un!tions of the MS#:
Swit!hin" !alls4 !ontrollin" !alls and lo""in" !alls
.nterfa!e with 1ST%4 .S2%4 1S12%
Mobility mana"ement o$er the radio network and other networks
*adio *esour!e mana"ement - hando$ers between BS#s
Billin" .nformation
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview
Inter!aces
Inter!aces
BS#
VLR
MSC
Um
Abis
A
ISDN,
TUP
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview
"#ercise
"#ercise
893 %ame the interfa!es used between
Mobile and BTS
BTS and BS#
BS# and MS#
Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview
Access Network
Access Network

Section 2 Access
Network
Ob$ective
Ob$ective
The Trainee will be able to understand:
2ifferent BTS !onfi"uration !ommonly used in the network
Ad$anta"es of the !onfi"uration and optimal use of the trunks
Abis mappin"
Section 2 Access
Network
Introduction
Introduction
A!!ess network is a !onne!tion between MS and %SS4 !omprise of
BTSs : BS#s3 .t is responsible for radio mana"ement3
BS# looks towards MS# throu"h sin"le A-interfa!e as bein) the
entity responsible for communicatin) with Mobile
Stations in a certain area. The radio e%uipment of a #SS
may support one or more cells.
* #SS may consist of one or more base stations( where an
*/bis/interface is implemented.

Section 2 Access
Network
BSS %on!iuration
BSS %on!iuration
#ollo!ated BTS
*emote BTS
2aisy #hain BTS
Star #onfi"uration
)oop #onfi"uration
Section 2 Access
Network

#ollo!ated BTS: BTS is situated alon" with BS# or the MS# and no
additional -9 link is re/uired3

BS#
BTS
Section 2 Access
Network

*emote BTS : BTS is situated in a stand alone position and additional -9
links are re/uired to !onne!t to BS#3
BS#
BTS
Section 2 Access
Network
&aisy %hain &aisy %hain
MS#
BS#
BTS 9
BTS ;
BTS <
BTS =
Section 2 Access
Network
Star %on!iuration Star %on!iuration
MS#
BS#
BTS 9
BTS ;
BTS <
BTS =
BS#
BTS <
Section 2 Access
Network
'oo( %on!iuration 'oo( %on!iuration
MS#
BS#
BTS 9
BTS ;
BTS <
BTS =
Section 2 Access
Network
%om(arison o! &i!!erent %on!iurations %om(arison o! &i!!erent %on!iurations
2aisy #hain: -asy to implement4 effe!ti$e utili>ation of
transmission links but if one of the link fails4 all the BTSs
!onne!ted in the !hain will went off3
Star #onfi"uration: -asy to implement but poor utili>ation of
links3 -a!h BTS re/uire one -9 to !onne!t to BS#3 But if link
"oes down only indi$idual BTS will be affe!ted3
)oop #onfi"uration: Sli"htly diffi!ult to implement but
effe!ti$e utili>ation of -9 links3 -$en if one link "oes off BTS will
!ontinue to !ommuni!ate with the network from the other side3
Section 2 Access
Network
BSS Inter!aces
BSS Inter!aces
Air .nterfa!e: *adio .nterfa!e between the BTS and
Mobile the supports fre/uen!y hoppin" and
di$ersity3
A .nterfa!e: .nterfa!e !arried by a ;-Mb link between
%SS and BSS3 At this interfa!e le$el4
trans!odin" takes pla!e3
0M# .nterfa!e: ,;? )ink3
Section 2 Access
Network

Section 2 Access
Network
Abis Inter!ace (B)S * BS%)
Abis Inter!ace (B)S * BS%)
.f the BTS and BS# are not !ombined4 A-bis interfa!e will be used3
0therwise4 BS interfa!e will be used3 Se$eral frame unit
!hannels are multiple@ed on the same 1#M support and BS#
and BTS !an be remote from ea!h other3 .ts main fun!tions are:
#on$ersion of ;AB bit en!oded blo!ks (!orrespondin" to 9AB@C
bit samples for ;Bms)
-n!oded blo!k syn!hroni>ation
+o!al a!ti$ity dete!tion
Alarm dispat!h to BS# $ia 1#M
Test loop ba!k operation
Section 2 Access
Network

TRX 1
TRX 2
Section 2 Access
Network
"#ercise
"#ercise
893 .n (ow many ways BTSs !an be !onne!ted and whi!h
!onfi"uration "i$es the optimal solutionD
8;3 Ehat is a differen!e between BS interfa!e and Abis interfa!eD
8<3 (ow many time slots are o!!upied by 9T*, on a 1#M frameD
Section 2 Access
Network
NSS )o(oloy
NSS )o(oloy

Section 3 NSS Topology
Ob$ective
Ob$ective
The Trainee will be able to understand:
Terminolo"y used in %etwork Sub System
1roto!ols and .nterfa!es inside %SS
#all routin" and !ir!uit "roups
Swit!hin" modules
Stand alone and inte"rated ()*
-!ho !an!eller and T*A' lo!ation
Authenti!ation4 #ipherin"4 0M#4 Billin" !enter
Transit Swit!h
Section 3 NSS Topology
Introduction
Introduction
%etwork Sub System !an be !onsidered as a heart of the GSM
%etwork3 All the maFor a!ti$ities like swit!hin" of !alls4 routin"4
se!urity fun!tions4 !all handlin"4 !har"in"4 operation :
maintenan!e4 hando$er de!isions4 takes pla!e within the
entities of %SS3
+arious kinds of interfa!es are used to !ommuni!ate between the
different entities3 2ifferent methods are used to optimi>e and
pro$ide the /uality network with the minimum operatin" !ost3
Section 3 NSS Topology
Network Switchin System (NSS)
Network Switchin System (NSS)
5ey elements of the %SS:

Mobile Swit!hin" #enter (MS#)

+isitor )o!ation *e"ister (+)*)

(ome )o!ation *e"ister (()*)

Authenti!ation #enter (Au#)

-/uipment .dentity *e"ister (-.*)

Gateway MS# (GMS#)


These elements are inter!onne!ted by means of an SSG
network
Section 3 NSS Topology
NSS Identi!ier
NSS Identi!ier
IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identifier.
The .M-. is an internationally-uni/ue serial number allo!ated to the MS
hardware at the time of manufa!ture3 .t is re"istered by the network operator
and (optionally) stored in the Au# for $alidation purposes3
.M-. H TA# I 7A# I S%* Isp
TA# H Type Appro$al #ode by !entral GSM body
7A# H 7inal Assembly #ode4 identifies the manufa!turer
S%* H Serial %umber4 uni/ue si@ di"it number
sp H spare for future use
Section 3 NSS Topology

IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identifier
Ehen a subs!riber re"isters with a network operator4 a uni/ue
subs!riber .MS. identifier is issued and stored in the S.M of the
MS as well as in the ()* 3 An MS !an only fun!tion fully if it is
operated with a $alid S.M inserted into an MS with a $alid .M-.3
.MS. !onsist of three parts:
.MS. H M## I M%# I MS.%
M## H Mobile #ountry #ode
M%# H Mobile %etwork #ode
MS.% H Mobile Station .dentifi!ation %umber
Section 3 NSS Topology

)MSI +)em(orary Mobile Subscriber Identity
A TMS. is used to prote!t the true identity (.MS.) of a subs!riber3 .t is issued
by and stored within a +)* (not in the ()*) when an .MS. atta!h takes
pla!e or a )o!ation Area ()A) update takes pla!e3 At the MS it is stored
in the MSJs S.M3 The issued TMS. only has $alidity within a spe!ifi! )A3
Sin!e TMS. has lo!al si"nifi!an!e4 the stru!ture may be !hosen by the
administration3 .t should not be more than four o!tets3
Section 3 NSS Topology

MSIS&N + Mobile Station IS&N Number
The MS.S2% represents the KtrueJ or KdialledJ number asso!iated
with the subs!riber3 .t is assi"ned to the subs!riber by the
network operator at re"istration and is stored in the S.M3
A!!ordin" to the ##.TT re!ommendations4 it is !omposed in the
followin" way:
MS.S2% H ## I %2# I S%
## H #ountry #ode
%2# H %ational 2estination #ode
S% H Subs!riber %umber
Section 3 NSS Topology

MS,N + Mobile Station ,oamin Number
The MS*% is a temporary4 lo!ation-dependant .S2% number
issued by the parent +)* to all MSs within its area of
responsibility3 .t is stored in the +)* and asso!iated ()* but not
in the MS3 The MS*% is used by the +)* asso!iated MS# for
!all routin" within the MS#6+)* ser$i!e area3
Section 3 NSS Topology

'AI + 'ocation Area Identity
-a!h )o!ation Area within the 1)M% has an asso!iated
internationally uni/ue identifier ()A.)3 The )A. is broad!ast
re"ularly by BTSs on the Broad!ast #ontrol !hannel (B##()4
thus uni/uely identifyin" ea!h !ell with
an asso!iated )A3
)A. H M## I M%# I )A#
M++ 0 Mobile +ountry +ode( same as in IMSI
M$+ 0 Mobile $etwork +ode( same as in IMSI
'*+ 0 'ocation *rea +ode( identifies a location area
within a GSM &'M$ network. Maximum len)th of '*+ is
12 bits.
Section 3 NSS Topology
Mobile Switchin %enter (MS%)
Mobile Switchin %enter (MS%)
The Mobile ser$i!es Swit!hin" #enter (MS#) performs the
telephony swit!hin" fun!tions of the system3 .t also !ontrols !alls
to and from other telephony and data systems4 su!h as the
1ubli! Swit!hed Telephone %etwork (1ST%) and 1ubli! )and
Mobile %etwork (1)M%)3
2ifferen!e between a MS# and an e@!han"e in a fi@ed network is -
MS# has to take into a!!ount the impa!t of the allo!ation of
radio resour!es and the mobile nature of the subs!ribers and
has to perform in addition4 at least the followin" pro!edures:
Section 3 NSS Topology

re/uired for lo!ation re"istration
pro!edures re/uired for hando$er
An MS# !an be !onne!ted to only one +)*3 Therefore4 all mobile
stations that mo$e around under base stations !onne!ted to the
MS# are always mana"ed by the same +)*3
An MS# would !ommuni!ate typi!ally with one -.*3 Ehile it is
possible for an MS# to !ommuni!ate to multiple -.*s4 this is
hi"hly unlikely sin!e the -.* pro$ides a !entrali>ed and
"eo"raphi! independent fun!tion3
Section 3 NSS Topology

The MS# !onsults an ()* to determine how a !all should be
routed to a "i$en mobile station:
7or in!omin" !alls to a mobile station4 the MS# would typi!ally
!onsult one ()*3
7or mobile-to-mobile !alls in lar"er networks4 a MS# !ould
!onsult ()*s of other systems to help minimi>e the trunk paths
to the other mobile station3

A "i$en MS# !an be inter!onne!ted to other MS#s to support
inter-MS# hando$ers
Section 3 NSS Topology

The followin" are typi!al MS# fun!tions in a !ellular system:
1ro$ide swit!hed !onne!tions with 1ST%
1ro$ide swit!hed !onne!tions between mobile subs!ribers
1ro$ide !oordination o$er si"nalin" with mobiles
#oordinate the lo!ation and hando$er pro!ess
1ro$ide !ustom ser$i!es to mobile users
#olle!t billin" data
Section 3 NSS Topology
-rotocols
-rotocols
MS#6BS# MS#6()*
MS#6+)*
MS#6-.*
MS#6GMS#
+)*6+)*
+)*6()*
MS#6MS#
0M#6MS#
0M#6()*
0M#6+)*
0M#6BSS
MS#67i@ed %etwork
MS#6+oi!e messa"in"
BSSMA1 T#A1IMA1 ,3;;? *;4 .S'1 other
Si"nalin"
S##1 S##1 ,3;;=
MT1 MT1 ,3;? MT1
SSG SSG
Section 3 NSS Topology
Switchin In MS%
Switchin In MS%
Si"nalin" network is separated from the spee!h network and
!onsists of
si"nalin" )inks (S))
si"nalin" 1oint (S1)
si"nalin" Transfer 1art (ST1)3
Section 3 NSS Topology

Telephony system !ontains:
Group Swit!h to swit!h the !alls4
ST to perform si"nalin" in a!!ordan!e with SSG
Trunk interfa!es for interfa!in" the 1#M3
Group swit!h pro$ides a semi permanent !onne!tion between time
slot (1#M) and ST3
Section 3 NSS Topology
Sinalin -oint (S-)
Sinalin -oint (S-)
S1 pro$ides the fun!tions of si"nalin" and transmit and re!ei$e
messa"es to and from different nodes3 -a!h S1 in the network will
ha$e an identifi!ation !ode termed as si"nalin" 1oint #ode (S1#)3
Section 3 NSS Topology
Sinalin )rans!er -oint (S)-)
Sinalin )rans!er -oint (S)-)
Si"nalin" Transfer 1art is si"nalin" point that only transfers messa"es
from one si"nalin" point (S1) to another3

SP
(SPC)
SP
(SPC)
STP
STP
Section 3 NSS Topology
Sinalin 'ink (S')
Sinalin 'ink (S')
Si"nalin" )ink is the A=kbps link inter!onne!tin" two si"nalin" 1oints
and pro$ides the fun!tions of messa"e error !ontrol and messa"e
se/uen!in"3 -a!h si"nalin" )ink has an S)# (si"nalin" )ink #ode)4
whi!h identifies the si"nalin" )ink with in the si"nalin" )ink Set3
Section 3 NSS Topology
Service Switchin -oint (SS-)
Service Switchin -oint (SS-)
The MS# !ontains:

The Ser$i!e Swit!hin" 1oint

0ne or more radio !ontrol point


SS1 handles the usual swit!hin" fun!tion and !an be !onne!ted $ia
;Mbps 1#M link with:

0ther e@!han"es of fi@ed 1ST% or mobile 1)M%4

1oints on the SSG si"nalin" network4

,3;? network
#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

The 0A:M network4
The .ntelli"ent network4
1ST% $ia user data !hannels and si"nalin" !hannels usin" .S'1
and *; proto!ols4
0ther elements of the GSM
Section 3 NSS Topology

Swit!hin" 7un!tion of SS1:
Main !ontrol4
Swit!hin" matri@4
1#M multiple@ !onne!tion4
Ser$i!e !ir!uits
0peration and maintenan!e
-stablishin" and releasin" se!tion of the links from and to
mobiles4
7indin" !ir!uits to the BSSM spe!ial !ir!uit "roups are !reated3
SS1 sele!ts an in!omin" and out"oin" !ir!uit3
Section 3 NSS Topology
%all ,outin
%all ,outin

.f a number re!ei$ed is a national or international number4 the address information is


passed to the SS13

.f the number re!ei$ed is an (1)M% ((ome 1)M%)4 the *#1 asks the ()* for a
roamin" number (MS*%)3 This MS*% is passed to the SS1 for routin"3

.f the number re!ei$ed is an emer"en!y ser$i!e number4 the ori"inatin" "eo"raphi!


area is atta!hed to it and the !ombined information passed to the SS13
#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

.n the SS1 the number re!ei$ed from *#1 follow the standard
translation pro!ess:
1reliminary analysis: Sele!tion of a translator (national4
international)4
Translation: 2etermination of a routin" depend on the first di"its
dialled4
*outin": 2etermination of an outin" !ir!uit "roup3
Section 3 NSS Topology
%ircuit Grou(s
%ircuit Grou(s
#all routes from the MS# throu"h !ir!uit "roups3 2ifferent !ir!uit
"roups are !reated inside it:
Group for the 1ST% (a!!ordin" to the e@!han"e)
Group for the BS#s
Group for the Supplementary ser$i!es
Group for the .E7
Section 3 NSS Topology
MSC
CG1
CG2
CGn
CGa
CGx
CG
CG
BSC1
BSC2
BSCn
PSTN1
PSTNx
Supp!m!n"a#$
S!#%i&!s
I'(
Section 3 NSS Topology
Inter!aces
Inter!aces
Section 3 NSS Topology
A*Inter!ace (MS% + BS%)
A*Inter!ace (MS% + BS%)
The interfa!e between the MS# and its BSS is spe!ified in the BC-series
of GSM Te!hni!al Spe!ifi!ations3 The BSS-MS# interfa!e is used to
!arry information !on!ernin":
BSS mana"ementM
!all handlin"M
mobility mana"ement3
Section 3 NSS Topology
B*Inter!ace (MS% + .',)
B*Inter!ace (MS% + .',)
The 3'4 is the location and mana)ement data base for the
mobile subscribers roamin) in the area controlled by the
associated MS+s!. 5henever the MS+ needs data
related to a )iven mobile station currently located in its
area( it interro)ates the 3'4. 5hen a mobile station
initiates a location updatin) procedure with an MS+( the
MS+ informs its 3'4 which stores the relevant
information. This procedure occurs whenever an MS
roams to another location area. *lso( when a subscriber
activates a specific supplementary service or modifies
some data attached to a service( the MS+ informs via
the 3'4! the 6'4 which stores these modifications and
updates the 3'4 if re%uired.
Section 3 NSS Topology
%*Inter!ace (/', * MS%)
%*Inter!ace (/', * MS%)
The Gateway MS+ must interro)ate the 6'4 of the re%uired
subscriber to obtain routin) information for a call or a short
messa)e directed to that subscriber.
Section 3 NSS Topology
&*Inter!ace (/', * .',)
&*Inter!ace (/', * .',)
This interface is used to exchan)e the data related to the location of the mobile
station and to the mana)ement of the subscriber. The main service provided to
the mobile subscriber is the capability to set up or to receive calls within the
whole service area. To support this( the location re)isters have to exchan)e
data. The 3'4 informs the 6'4 of the location of a mobile station mana)ed by
the latter and provides it either at location updatin) or at call set/up! with the
roamin) number of that station.
The 6'4 sends to the 3'4 all the data needed to support the service to the mobile
subscriber. The 6'4 then instructs the previous 3'4 to cancel the location
re)istration of this subscriber. "xchan)es of data may occur when the mobile
subscriber re%uires a particular service( when he wants to chan)e some data
attached to his subscription or when some parameters of the subscription are
modified by administrative means
Section 3 NSS Topology
"*Inter!ace (MS% * MS%)
"*Inter!ace (MS% * MS%)
5hen a mobile station moves from one MS+ area to
another durin) a call( a handover procedure has to be
performed in order to continue the communication. 7or
that purpose the MS+s have to exchan)e data to initiate
and then to reali8e the operation. *fter the handover
operation has been completed( the MS+s will exchan)e
information to transfer */interface si)nalin) as
necessary. 5hen a short messa)e is to be transferred
between a Mobile Station and Short Messa)e Service
+entre S+!( in either direction( this interface is used to
transfer the messa)e between the MS+ servin) the
Mobile Station and the MS+ which acts as the interface
to the S+.
Section 3 NSS Topology
0*Inter!ace (MS% * "I,)
0*Inter!ace (MS% * "I,)
This interfa!e is used between MS# and -.* to e@!han"e data4 in order
that the -.* !an $erify the status of the .M-. retrie$ed from the Mobile
Station3
Section 3 NSS Topology
G*Inter!ace (.', * .',)
G*Inter!ace (.', * .',)
5hen a mobile subscriber moves from a 3'4 area to another
'ocation 4e)istration procedure will happen. This procedure
may include the retrieval of the IMSI and authentication
parameters from the old 3'4.
Section 3 NSS Topology
/*Inter!ace (/', * A1%)
/*Inter!ace (/', * A1%)
5hen an 6'4 receives a re%uest for authentication and
cipherin) data for a Mobile Subscriber and it does not hold
the re%uested data( the 6'4 re%uests the data from the *u+.
The protocol used to transfer the data over this interface is
not standardi8ed.
Section 3 NSS Topology
Switch Modules
Switch Modules
Swit!h has three maFor types of e/uipment modules:
Swit!hin" module (SM)
#ommuni!ation module (#M)
Administrati$e module (AM)
Section 3 NSS Topology

Swit!hin" Module (SM):
All e@ternal lines4 trunks4 and spe!ial ser$i!es !ir!uits are
terminated at the swit!hin" module3 The analo" and di"ital
si"nals are !on$erted to the di"ital format used inside the swit!h3
The SM performs almost N?O of the !all pro!essin" and
maintenan!e fun!tions in!ludin":
)ine and trunk s!annin"
Tone "eneration
Announ!ements
#all pro"ress super$ision
*outine maintenan!e and self-maintenan!e3

Section 3 NSS Topology

The SM also pro$ides subs!riber !allin" features in!ludin":
P !all waitin"
P abbre$iated dialin"
P !all di$ersion
P !onferen!e !alls3
SM further has two !omponents:
93 #ontrol units - #ontrol all a!ti$ities within the SM4 su!h as !all
pro!essin" and maintenan!e fun!tions3
;3 1eripheral units - 1erform testin" fun!tions and pro$ide
!ustomers and other e@!han"es a!!ess to the swit!h3
Section 3 NSS Topology

#ommuni!ation Module (#M):
The #M ser$es as the hub (fo!al point) for all inter module !ommuni!ation
in a swit!h3 The #M has four main fun!tions:
93 #all swit!hin" - The #M inter!onne!ts the paths between modules to
!omplete telephone !alls and to relay data3
;3 Messa"e swit!hin" - The #M pro$ides paths to send information
between pro!essors to pro!ess !alls4 maintain re!ords4 and perform
system tasks3
#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

<3 %etwork timin" - The #M pro$ides a!!urate timin" and
syn!hroni>ation for the swit!h3
=3 7ast pump - The #M pro$ides resour!es to /ui!kly download (pump)
an SMJs software if needed3
Section 3 NSS Topology

Administrati$e Module (AM):
The AM !ontrols the #M and !ommuni!ates with all the SMs (throu"h
the #M)3 The AM monitors itself and the #M for malfun!tions3 .f there
are any problems4 they are reported to maintenan!e personnel3
The AM performs resour!e allo!ation and pro!essin" fun!tions that are
done more effi!iently on a !entrali>ed basis su!h as:

#all routin" for inter module and intra module !alls

Administrati$e data pro!essin"6billin" data


#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

Traffi! measurement reports6system performan!e reports
Memory mana"ement
System maintenan!e
Maintainin" file re!ords of !han"es to the system Software *elease3
1ersonnel interfa!e6system monitorin"
Allo!atin" trunks for !all pro!essin"3
Section 3 NSS Topology

S)i"&*
SM AM CM
C+n"#+
Uni"
P!#ip*!#a
Uni"
MSGS TMS
C+n"#+
Uni"
I,-
P#+&!ss+#
Dis.
Uni"
Tap!
Uni"
MCC
Section 3 NSS Topology
/ome 'ocation ,eister
/ome 'ocation ,eister
()* is a database that stores subs!ription and set of fun!tions
needed to mana"e subs!riber data in one 1)M% area3 Any
administrati$e a!tion by the ser$i!e pro$ider or !han"es made
by subs!riber is first !arried out on the ()* and then update the
+)*3 7ollowin" are the subs!riber data whi!h fre/uently
!han"es:
- .dentifi!ation number MS.S2% : .MS.
- Ser$i!e restri!tion
- Teleser$i!es
- Bearer ser$i!es
- Supplementary ser$i!es
Section 3 NSS Topology

Beside the permanent data it also in!lude dynami! data of home
subs!riber in!ludin" +)* address4 !all forward number and !all
barrin" numbers3
Triplets are also stored in the ()* for the authenti!ation purpose3
The ()* !ommuni!ates with other nodes: +)*4 A'#4 GMS# : SMS S#
$ia MA1 (Mobile A!!ess 1roto!ol)3 To support this !ommuni!ation
()* needs MT1 and S##1
Section 3 NSS Topology

Section 3 NSS Topology
MA- (Mobile A((lication -rotocol)
MA- (Mobile A((lication -rotocol)
The only way $ia whi!h ()* !ommuni!ates with other GSM nodes is Mobile
A!!ess 1roto!ol3 %umber of fun!tional blo!ks e@ist to support different MA1
operations e" ()#A1 is used for lo!ation !an!ellation or ()'A1 is re/uired
for lo!ation updatin"3 0ther fun!tions defined on the MA1 are:
- .nter MS# (ando$er and subse/uent hando$er
- 'pdate ()* and +)*
- 7ault *e!o$ery
- Mana"ement and handlin" of supplementary ser$i!es3
#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

- Support of Short Messa"e Ser$i!es3
- #all establishment 6 deli$ery
- Se!urity related data3
- *etrie$al of subs!riber data durin" !all setup3
()* also needs to !ommuni!ate with GMS#4 +)*4 A'# and SMS-S#4 for
whi!h MT1 and S##1 is essential3
Section 3 NSS Topology
S%%- (Sinalin %onnection %ontrol -oint) S%%- (Sinalin %onnection %ontrol -oint)
All MA1 messa"in" use S##1 to analy>e the GT (Global Title) of
in!omin" information3 .f GT belon"s to anther node4 then S##1
will use the ser$i!es of MT1 (Messa"e Transfer 1art) to reroute
the messa"e3
S##1 must ha$e the GT analysis to terminate and route MA1
messa"es from all nodes it !ommuni!ates with3
To find out the 21#4 S##1 looks in a routin" !ase translation
table3 The information about the 21# is then sent to MT1 whi!h
sends the messa"e to the appropriate S13
Section 3 NSS Topology
M)- (Messae )rans!er -art)
M)- (Messae )rans!er -art)
MT1 must be defined to allow the nodes to !ommuni!ate with ea!h
other3
The MT1 pro$ides the means for reliable transport and deli$ery of
'1 ('ser 1art) information a!ross the %o3 G network e" .S2%
'ser part (.S'1)4 the Telephone 'ser 1art (T'1)4 Si"nalin"
#onne!tion #ontrol 1art (S##1)4 .nterworkin" fun!tion 'ser 1art
(.E'1) and 2ata 'ser 1art (2'1)
#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

MT1 has the ability to rea!t to system and network failure that
affe!t the user information3
MT1 further has three fun!tional le$els:
93 MT1 )e$el 9 Si"nalin" data link
;3 MT1 )e$el ; Si"nalin" link
<3 MT1 )e$el < Si"nalin" network
Section 3 NSS Topology

()* !onne!ts with MS# $ia # interfa!e4 +)* $ia 2 interfa!e
Section 3 NSS Topology


()* !an be !onfi"ured in two ways:
93 .nte"rated with MS#
Section 3 NSS Topology

93 (s
;3 Stand Alone ()* (-@ternal 2atabase)
Section 3 NSS Topology
Interated .s Stand Alone /',
Interated .s Stand Alone /',
The .nte"rated ()* is a!!essed by other MS#Js6 +)*Js $ia MA14 and the swit!h !an
use MA1 to /uery other off swit!h ()*s3 The main ad$anta"es with an inte"rated
()* solution at this early sta"e are:

-ffi!ient use of (E and lower (E in$estments

7ewer physi!al !onne!tions re/uired due to fewer physi!al nodes

)ess !apa!ity re/uired in %o3 G network as maFor part of ()* si"nalin" is internal
within MS#6+)*6()*
Section 3 NSS Topology

A sin"le fault will affe!t a smaller number of subs!ribers than if
standalone ()* is used
MaFor drawba!ks are:
)ess pro!essin" !apa!ity a$ailable for MS#6+)*3
Additional Swit!hin" !apa!ity will be re/uired earlier
Mi"ration to standalone ()* (whi!h is to be preferred in a mature
lar"er network) will indu!e maFor !han"es in the network
Administration of subs!riptions
0peration and maintenan!e for ()* "eo"raphi!ally distributed
Section 3 NSS Topology

.n Stand Alone ()*4 !all pro!essin" a!ti$ities are not performed by the
swit!h3 0nly ()* /ueries are handled $ia the GSM standard MA1
messa"es !omin" o$er si"nalin" links from other Mobile Swit!hin"
#enters (MS#s) in the wireless network3
Section 3 NSS Topology

Benefits:
All ()* data is !entrali>ed4 thus simplifyin" its on"oin"
maintenan!e and operation
(i"h ()* #apa!ity
(i"h pro!essin" !apa!ity
0n "oin" enhan!ement
There are some drawba!ks with standalone ()*
A fault in a ()* will affe!t many subs!ribers
A fault in a ()* will in!rease the si"nalin" substantially in
the whole si"nalin" network
Section 3 NSS Topology
/', is res(onsible !or: /', is res(onsible !or:

#onne!tion of mobile subs!ribers and definition of


!orrespondin" subs!riber data3

Subs!ription to basi! ser$i!es3

*e"istration6deletion of supplementary ser$i!es3

A!ti$ation6dea!ti$ation of supplementary ser$i!es3

.nterro"ation of supplementary ser$i!es status3


#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

7un!tions for analysis of mobile subs!riber numbers


(MS.S2%4 .MS.4 additional MS.S2%) and other types of
addresses3

Statisti!al fun!tions for !olle!tin" data re"ardin" the


performan!e of the system3

7un!tions for !ommuni!ation with GMS# and +)* usin"


the %o3 G si"nalin" system and MA1

(andlin" of authenti!ation and !ipherin" data for mobile


subs!ribers in!ludin" !ommuni!ation with an authenti!ation !enter3
#ontinueL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

Get 1assword6*e"ister 1assword
Alert Ser$i!e #enter
1ro$ide *oamin" %umber
Send *outin" .nformation for SMS
Send *outin" .nformation for GMS#
Set Messa"e Eaitin" 2ata
Section 3 NSS Topology
.isitor 'ocation ,eister
.isitor 'ocation ,eister
.t is a subs!riber database !ontainin" the information about all the MS
!urrently lo!ated in the MS# ser$i!e area3 +)* !an be !onsidered as
a distributed ()* in the !ase of a roamin" subs!riber3 .f MS mo$es
into a new ser$i!e area (MS#)4 +)* re/uests the ()* to pro$ide the
rele$ant data and store it4 for makin" the !alls for that MS3
+)* is always inte"rated with MS# to a$oid the si"nalin" load on the
system3
.t !an also be $iewed as a subset of a ()*3
Section 3 NSS Topology

+)* !onne!ts with MS# $ia B interfa!e4 ()* $ia 2 interfa!e and with
another +)* $ia G interfa!e3
Section 3 NSS Topology
G
VLR is #!sp+nsib! /+#
0
S!""in1 up an2 &+n"#+in1 &as a+n1 )i"* supp!m!n"a#$
s!#%i&!s3
0
C+n"inui"$ +/ sp!!&* (4an2+%!#)
0
L+&a"i+n up2a"in1 an2 #!1is"#a"i+n
0
Up2a"in1 "*! m+bi! subs&#ib!# 2a"a3
0
Main"ain "*! s!&u#i"$ +/ "*! subs&#ib!# b$ a+&a"in1 TMSI
C+n"inu!2533
Section 3 NSS Topology
*e!ei$in" and deli$erin" short messa"es
0
4an2in1 si1nain1 "+ an2 /#+m
6 BSC an2 MSs usin1 BSSMAP
6 +"*!# n!")+#.s !1 PSTN, ISDN usin1 TUP
0
IM7I &*!&.
0
R!"#i!%! 2a"a /#+m 4LR i.! au"*!n"i&a"i+n 2a"a, IMSI,

&ip*!#in1 .!$
C+n"inu!2533

Section 3 NSS Topology
*etrie$e information for in!omin" !alls3
0
R!"#i!%! in/+#ma"i+n /+# +u"1+in1 &as3
0
A""a&*,D!"a&* IMSI
0
S!a#&* /+# m+bi! subs&#ib!#, pa1in1 an2 &+mp!"! "*! &a3

Section 3 NSS Topology
Security 0eature
Security 0eature
Both the users and the network operator must be prote!ted a"ainst
undesirable intrusion of third party3 As a !onse/uen!e4 a
se!urity feature is implemented in the tele!ommuni!ation
ser$i!es3 The followin" parts of the system ha$e been
reinfor!ed and pro$ide the $arious se!urity features:
93 A!!ess to the network authenti!ation
;3 *adio part !ipherin"
<3 Mobile e/uipment e/uipment identifi!ation
=3 .MS. temporary identity
Section 3 NSS Topology
Authentication %enter (A1%)
Authentication %enter (A1%)
A'# is always inte"rated with ()* for the purpose of the
authenti!ation3 At subs!ription time4 the Subs!riber
Authenti!ation 5ey (5i) is allo!ated to the subs!riber4 to"ether
with the .MS.3 The 5i is stored in the A'# and used to
pro$ide the triplets4 same 5i is also stored in the S.M3
A'# stores the followin" information for ea!h subs!riber
93 The .MS. number4
;3 The indi$idual authenti!ation key 5i4
<3 A $ersion of A< and AC al"orithm3
#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

Authenti!ation is re/uired at ea!h re"istration4 at ea!h !all setup
attempt (mobile ori"inated or terminated)4 at the time of lo!ation
updatin"4 before supplementary ser$i!e a!ti$ation4 de-
a!ti$ation 4 re"istration3
()* uses the .MS. to !ommuni!ate with A'#4 triplets are
re/uested in sets of fi$e3
#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

.n A'# followin" steps are used to produ!e one triplet:
93 A non- predi!table random number4 *A%24 is produ!ed
;3 *A%2 : 5i are used to !al!ulate the Si"ned *esponse
(S*-S) and the #ipherin" 5ey (5!)
<3 *A%24 S*-S and 5! are deli$ered to"ether to ()* as one
triplet3
()* deli$ers these triplets to MS#6+)* on re/uest in su!h a way
that +)* always has at least one triplet3
Section 3 NSS Topology

Authenti!ation 1ro!edure:
The MS#6+)* transmits the *A%2 (9;C bits) to the mobile3 The MS
!omputes the S*-S (<; bits) usin" *A%24 subs!riber authenti!ation
key 5i (9;C bits) and al"orithm A<3 MS sends ba!k this S-*S to A'#
and is tested for $alidity3
Section 3 NSS Topology
MS BTS MSC,VLR 4LR AUC -MC
A8
A8
IMSI
9i
A: A;
T#ip!"s
G!n!#a"i+n
9i
RAND
RAND
S7RS
9&
A2
T#ip!"s
Cip*!#in1
(un&"i+n
A<
9&
RAND
=>
S7RS
IMSI
9i
A:
A;
Cip*!#in1
(un&"i+n
A<
9&
SIM Ca#2
Section 3 NSS Topology
%i(herin
%i(herin
The user data and si"nalin" data passes o$er the radio interfa!e are !iphered to
pre$ent intrusion3 The !iphered key (5!) pre$iously !omputed by the A'# is
sent from the +)* to the BSS after the mobile has been authenti!ated3 The
5! is also !omputed in the MS and in the way both ends of the radio link (MS
and BSS) possess the same key3
Section 3 NSS Topology

1ro!edure:
7or the authenti!ation pro!edure4 when S*-S is bein" !al!ulated4 the
#ipherin" 5ey (5!)4 is !al!ulatin" too4 usin" the al"orithm AC3
The 5! is used by the MS and the BTS in order to !ipher and de!ipher the
bit stream that is sent on the radio path3
Section 3 NSS Topology
AUC
9i
A:
A;
A;
Cip*!#in1,D!&ip*!#in1
Sp!!&*, 2a"a,si1
A<
9&
A:
C*+i&! +/ #an2+m n+
RAND (12; bi"s)
=>
-9
SIM
9i
A:
A;
A<
Sp!!&*, 2a"a,si1
A;
9& (?8
bi"s)
A:
S7RS
RAND
S7RS
Cip*!#in1 C+mman2
Cip*!#!2 Da"a
Section 3 NSS Topology
Subscriber %on!identiality
Subscriber %on!identiality
The subs!riber identity (.MS.)4 sin!e is !onsidered sensiti$e
information4 is not normally transmitted on the radio !hannel3 A
lo!al4 temporary identity is used for all inter!han"es3 The identity
(TMS.) is assi"ned after ea!h !han"e of authenti!ated lo!ation3
7or other !ases:
#all set-up
'se of supplementary ser$i!es
'se of SMS
#ontinuedL33

Section 3 NSS Topology

A TMS. is allo!ated when the one supplied by the MS is !onsidered out of
date or when the MS does not pro$ide the TMS.3
Transmission of the TMS. o$er the traffi! !hannel is !iphered3
Section 3 NSS Topology
"2ui(ment Identi!ication ,eister ("I,)
"2ui(ment Identi!ication ,eister ("I,)
1urpose of this feature is to make sure that no stolen or unauthori>ed
mobile e/uipment is used in the network3
-.* is a database that stores a uni/ue .nternational Mobile -/uipment
.dentity (.M-.) number for ea!h item of mobile e/uipment3
Section 3 NSS Topology

1ro!edure:
The MS#6+)* re/uests the .M-. from the MS and sends it to a
-.*3
0n re/uest of .M-.4 the -.* makes use of three possible defined
lists:
- A white list: !ontainin" all number of all e/uipment identities
that ha$e been allo!ated in the different parti!ipatin" !ountries3
- A bla!k list: !ontainin" all e/uipment identities that are
!onsidered to be barred3
- A "rey list: !ontainin" (operatorJs de!ision) faulty or non-
appro$ed mobile e/uipment3
*esult is sent to MS#6+)* and influen!es the de!ision about
a!!ess to the system3
Section 3 NSS Topology
7IR MSC,VLR
MS
S"+#a1! +/ a numb!#
s!#i!s m+bi! !@uipm!n"
"*a" *a%! b!!n a+&a"!2
in "*! 2i//!#!n" GSM
6&+un"#i!s
S"+#a1! +/ a 1#!$,ba&.
A is"!2 m+bi! !@uipm!n"
S"+#a1! +/ "*!
!@uipm!n"
i2!n"i"$ IM7I
Ca S!"up
IM7I R!@u!s"
S!n2s IM7I
C*!&. IM7I
A&&!ss, ba##in1 in/+
C+n"inu!s,S"+ps
&a s!"up
p#+&!2u#!
Section 3 NSS Topology
"cho %anceller
"cho %anceller
.n order to eliminate e!ho effe!ts (noti!eable by the mobile
subs!ribers while in !on$ersation with 1ST% subs!ribers)
!aused by the time delay due to !odin" and de!odin" of si"nal
pro!essin"4 "roup of e!ho !an!ellers are installed e$en for lo!al
!alls3

This is rarely a problem when !ommuni!atin" between two MSs3
(owe$er4 when !onne!tin" to a 1ST% telephone4 the si"nal
must pass throu"h a =-wire to ;-wire hybrid transformer3
#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

The fun!tion of this transformer is - some of the ener"y at the =-
wire re!ei$e side from the mobile is !oupled ba!k to the =-wire
transmit side and thus spee!h is retransmitted ba!k to the
mobile3
As a result4 all !alls on to the 1ST% must pass throu"h an e!ho
!an!eller to remo$e what would otherwise be a noti!eable and
annoyin" e!ho3
#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

The pro!ess of !an!elin" e!ho in$ol$es two steps:
7irst4 as the !all is set up4 the e!ho !an!eller employs a di"ital
adapti$e filter to set up a model or !hara!teri>ation of the $oi!e
si"nal and e!ho passin" throu"h the e!ho !an!eller3 As a $oi!e
path passes ba!k throu"h the !an!ellation system4 the e!ho
!an!eller !ompares the si"nal and the model to dynami!ally
!an!el e@istin" e!ho3 .t remo$es more than CB to NB per!ent of
the e!ho a!ross the network3
The se!ond pro!ess utili>es a non-linear pro!essor (%)1) to
eliminate the remainin" residual e!ho by attenuatin" the si"nal
below the noise floor3
Section 3 NSS Topology
)ranscoder and ,ate Ada(tor 1nit (),A1)
)ranscoder and ,ate Ada(tor 1nit (),A1)
The primary fun!tion of the T*A' is to !on$ert 9Akps (in!
si"nalin") GSM spee!h !hannels to A=kbps 1#M !hannels in
the uplink dire!tion and the re$erse in the downlink dire!tion3
The reason this pro!ess is ne!essary is be!ause MS#s only
swit!h at the A=kbps !hannel le$el3
Section 3 NSS Topology
),A1 'ocations ),A1 'ocations
T*A' !an be physi!ally lo!ated in the BTS4 BS# or MS# and hen!e leads
to a $ariety of installation !onfi"urations3
Section 3 NSS Topology
Advantaes o! &i!!erent %on!iurations Advantaes o! &i!!erent %on!iurations
#ase 94 T*A' at BTS: .f the T*A' is installed at the BTS4 ea!h
9Akbps GSM !hannel would need to be mapped to its own
A=kbps 1#M !hannel3 This results in G?O of the transmission
bandwidth bein" wasted a!ross both the Abis (BTS-BS#) and A
(BS#-MS#) interfa!e3
#ase ;4 T*A' at BS#: .f the T*A' is installed at the BS#4 9Akbps
GSM !hannel mapped to A=kbps at the A (BS#-MS#) interfa!e4
whi!h in!reases the re/uirement of the Transmission trunks3
Section 3 NSS Topology

#ase <4 T*A' at MS#: .f the T*A' is pla!ed at the MS#4 as is "enerally
the !ase in !urrent networks4 a multiple@er !an be pla!ed at the BTS
whi!h enables = @ 9Akbps GSM !hannels to be multiple@ed onto one
A=kbps 1#M !hannel4 usin" = @ 9Akbps .S2% 2-!hannels3 .n this
!onfi"uration4 only at arri$al at the MS# is the 9A-A=kbps !hannel
!on$ersion ne!essary4 thereby ma@imi>in" the effi!ient usa"e of the
transmission medium by in!reasin" the GSM !hannel throu"hput per
1#M ;B=C bearer from <B to 9;B !hannels3
Section 3 NSS Topology
O(eration And Maintenance %enter (OM%)
O(eration And Maintenance %enter (OM%)
The 0M# !entrali>es all operations and maintenan!e a!ti$ities for the MS#s and
BSSs usin" remote software !ontrol3 .t pro$ides remote testin"4 operations4
and maintenan!e !apabilities for the entire system from one !entral lo!ation3
-a!h BSS4 MS#4 ()*4 +)*4 -.*4 and A'# !an be monitored and !ontrolled
from the 0M#3
Section 3 NSS Topology
OM% 0unctional Architecture
OM% 0unctional Architecture
-p!#a"in1
S$s"!m
C+mmuni&a"i+ns
4an2!#
Da"abas!
MMI
7%!n", Aa#m
Mana1!m!n"
S!&u#i"$
Mana1!m!n"
(au"
Mana1!m!n"
P!#/+#man&!
Mana1!m!n"
C+n/i1u#a"i+n
Mana1!m!n"
Section 3 NSS Topology

The 0M# supports the followin" network mana"ement fun!tions:

-$ent Mana"ement - General fun!tions of the 0M# in!lude operator


input and output messa"es4 appli!ation input !ommands4 and
appli!ation output reports3

7ault Mana"ement - The 0M# pro$ides fault mana"ement su!h as


dia"nosti!s and alarms for the MS# and BSS3 .t pro$ides the means to
isolate and minimi>e the effe!ts of faults in the network thereby
enablin" the network to operate in effi!ient manner3
#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

Se!urity Mana"ement .t pro$ides an e@tensi$e ran"e of features to ensure


that a!!ess to the 0M# fun!tions is restri!ted to rele$ant personnel3
The se!urity features are as follows:
1assword Authenti!ation of 0M# operator
)o""in" of 0M# a!!ess attempt
#onfi"urable user a!!ess restri!tions
Automati! lo"off
Section 3 NSS Topology

#onfi"uration Mana"ement - #onfi"uration mana"ement for the
BSS !onsists of "eneri! download4 non-$olatile memory
download4 database administration4 and translations download3
7or the MS#4 software release updates4 database administration
(route analysis4 .MS. analysis table)4 and subs!riber
administration (!onne!t6dis!onne!t) are supported3
1erforman!e Mana"ement - 1erforman!e mana"ement supports
data !olle!tion (su!h as traffi! data4 hando$ers4 statisti!s4 plant
measurements4 and $olume data) and basi! reportin"3
Section 3 NSS Topology
Billin %enter
Billin %enter
#har"in" analysis is the pro!ess of analysin" the #har"in" #ase and then
ultimately "eneratin" the TT (Toll Ti!ketin") re!ord so that an itemised bill !an
be produ!ed and then sent on to the !ustomer3
The tariff stru!ture !onsists of two parts:
The network a!!ess !omponent
The network utili>ation !omponent
Section 3 NSS Topology

The network utili>ation !omponent is re"istered on a per !all basis3
#har"in" starts at the moment the subs!riber answers4 or on !onne!tion
to an answerin" ma!hine internally in the network3
The main elements are:
'se of GSM 1)M%s
'se of national 6 international 1ST%s
'se of !onne!tion between different networks
'se of the si"nalin" system no3G
Section 3 NSS Topology

2ependin" on the type of !all4 one or more !all ti!kets !an be "enerated:
0ut"oin" !all to fi@ed network: a !all ti!kets is "enerated by the
ori"inatin" MS#3
.n!omin" !all from the fi@ed network: two !all ti!kets are !reated: one in
the GMS# and another in the destination MS#3 .f a !all forwardin"
supplementary ser$i!e is in operation4 other !all ti!kets are "enerated in
the MS# and the GMS#3
#ontinuedL33
Section 3 NSS Topology

0ut"oin" !all from a mobile subs!riber to another mobile
subs!riber belon"in" to same 1)M%: three !all ti!kets are
!reated: one in the ori"inatin" MS#4 one in the GMS# (whi!h
is in this !ase is the ori"inatin" MS#) and another in the
destination MS#3
#all ti!kets mainly re"ister the followin" information:
93 .MS.
;3 .dentity (MS.S2%) and type (MS# or GMS#)
<3 Mobile subs!riber lo!ation identity
Section 3 NSS Topology

=3 0ther partyJs identity
?3 #all type (in!omin"4 out"oin"4 forwarded et!)
A3 #all status
G3 Teleser$i!es and bearer ser$i!e
C3 2ate and time
N3 #all duration
Section 3 NSS Topology
%all &etail ,ecord (%&,s)
%all &etail ,ecord (%&,s)

-a!h !all within the 1)M% !reates one or more !all re!ords

These re!ords is "enerated by the MS#6GMS# ori"inatin" the !all

The re!ords are known as a K#all 2etail *e!ordsJ (#2*s)

#2*s !ontain the followin" information:


- Subs!riber .dentity
- %umber !alled
- #all )en"th
- *oute of !all

0ften referred to as KToll Ti!ketsJ


Section 3 NSS Topology
%all %hare -rocedure %all %hare -rocedure

%etwork supplies ori"inatin" MS with #A. details

MS !al!ulates A0# re!ord usin" #A. details

This re!ord a!ts as a Ktoll ti!ketJ whi!h tra!ks the !all on its route throu"h $arious networks

-a!h !all !omponent !an "enerate a separate #2*

The re!ord passes alon" the ba!kbone to the home network

Billin" !omputer "enerates bills based on !umulati$e #2*s

(1)M% !olle!ts the !har"es

(1)M reimburses +1)M% usin" TA1s in a!!ordan!e with roamin" a"reement


Section 3 NSS Topology

Section 3 NSS Topology

The Transferred A!!ount 1ro!edure (TA1) is the me!hanism by whi!h
operators e@!han"e roamin" billin" information3 This is how roamin"
partners are able to bill ea!h other for the use of networks and ser$i!es
throu"h a standard pro!ess3
Section 3 NSS Topology
Gateway MS% (GMS%)
Gateway MS% (GMS%)
Gateway MS# (GMS#) !onne!ts the 1)M% with other networks and the
entry point for the mobile subs!riber !alls ha$in" the interro"ation
fa!ility3 .t has the fun!tion to obtain the information from the ()*
about the subs!riberJs !urrent lo!ation and reroute the !alls
a!!ordin"ly3
.n !ase of the network ha$in" only on MS#4 the same MS# work as the
GMS#4 while in the !ase ha$in" more than one MS#4 one dedi!ated
MS# works as GMS#3
Section 3 NSS Topology

Section 3 NSS Topology
,oamin Number
,oamin Number
A MS*% is used durin" the !all setup phase for mobile terminatin" !alls3 -a!h
mobile terminatin" !all enters the GMS# in the 1)M%3 The !all is then re-
routed by the GMS#4 to the MS# where the !alled mobile subs!riber is
lo!ated3 7or this purpose4 a uni/ue number (MS*%) is allo!ated by the MS#
and pro$ided to the GMS#3
Section 3 NSS Topology
%all Setu(
%all Setu(
Section 3 NSS Topology

93 GMS# re!ei$es a si"nalin" messa"e Q.nitial Address Messa"eQ for the
in!omin" !all (MS.S2%)3
;3 GMS# sends a si"nalin" messa"e to the ()* where the subs!riber data
is stored (MS.S2%)3
<3 The +)* address that !orresponds to the subs!riber lo!ation and the
.MS. are retrie$ed3 ()* sends a si"nalin" messa"e usin" the +)*
address as the destination (.MS.)3
=3 +)* ha$in" re!ei$ed the messa"e4 re/uests MS# to sei>e an idle MS*%
and to asso!iate it with the .MS. re!ei$ed3 +)* sends ba!k the result to
the ()* (MS*%)3
Section 3 NSS Topology

?3 ()* sends ba!k the result to the GMS# (MS*%)3
A3 GMS# uses MS*% to re-route the !all to the MS#3 MS# performs
di"it analysis on the re!ei$ed MS*% and find the asso!iation with
.MS.3 The MS*% is released and the .MS. is used for the final
establishment of the !all3
Section 3 NSS Topology
)ransit Switch
)ransit Switch
Ehen plannin" the trunk network ar!hite!ture4 it is important to take
into !onsideration the future e@pansion of the network3
Some fa!tors that influen!e the trunk network !onfi"uration are:

%umber of MS#s

Transmission !osts

Traffi! distribution

Traffi! $olume

1ST% tariffs
Section 3 NSS Topology

.n !ase of a medium networks (ha$in" ? - 9B MS#s)4 some of the
MS#s are used as transits for the others and the number of
dire!t links between the MS#s are restri!ted3
.n !ase of lar"e networks (ha$in" more than 9B MS#s)4 separate
transit e@!han"es are used3 These are !onne!ted to all MS#s
and are workin" with load sharin"3

Transit fun!tionality is used for passin" on !alls to another node3
This pro$ides a hierar!hi!al stru!tured network3
Section 3 NSS Topology

4i1* Usa1! "#un.
Section 3 NSS Topology

Traffi! between MS#s and from MS#s to other networks is routed o$er two
MS#s in a similar way as is used for the small network3 The TGMS#s
are used as inter!onne!tin" e@!han"es4 sin!e they ha$e trunks to all
MS#s in the operators 1)M%3
MS#s lo!ated in the same !ity area or in !lose !ities are likely to be
inter!onne!ted by hi"h usa"e routes4 while traffi! between distant MS#s
is likely more e!onomi!ally routed o$er the TMS#s3
Section 3 NSS Topology
A&.AN)AG"S O0 1SING ),ANSI) "3%/ANG"S A&.AN)AG"S O0 1SING ),ANSI) "3%/ANG"S
The use of transit e@!han"es implies a more stable network stru!ture and some
of the most important benefits are:
in!reased fle@ibility
enhan!ed reliability
easily e@pandable network
platform for fun!tional de$elopment
lower handlin" !osts
impro$ed si"nalin" network
Section 3 NSS Topology
.alue Added Services
.alue Added Services
+alue Added Ser$i!es in!ludes the followin":
1oint-to-1oint Short Messa"e Ser$i!es
#ell Broad!ast Short Messa"e Ser$i!e
The produ!ts asso!iated with ea!h of these ser$i!es as +oi!e67a@ Mail
1re-1aid S.M
well as the re/uired interfa!es into the !ore network elements are defined as:
Section 3 NSS Topology

Section 3 NSS Topology
Short Messae Services (SMS)
Short Messae Services (SMS)
The 1oint-to-1oint and #ell Broad!ast Short Messa"e Ser$i!es are implemented
usin" the Short Messa"e Ser$i!e #enter (SMS#) and #ell Broad!ast #enter
(#B#)3
SMS# is built around pro$en 0pen Systems 1latforms from the '%., based
!omputer platform to the MS#6()*6+)* interfa!es utili>in" SSG3
Section 3 NSS Topology

7ollowin" are the ser$i!es and fun!tions for whi!h SMS# is !apable
of:
Alertin" ser$i!es to indi!ate !all or messa"e waitin"
1a"in" interfa!es pro$idin" full industry standard TA1
interworkin"
.nformation ser$i!es - subs!ription to finan!ial4 weather4 traffi!4
et!3 ser$i!es
2TM7 messa"e entry $ia intera!ti$e $oi!e prompts
--mail
%etwork administration in!ludin" bill reminders4 statements on
demand4 network
ser$i!e information and handset repro"rammin"3
Section 3 NSS Topology

The #B# produ!t is based on the same 0pen Systems 1latforms with an ,3;?
interfa!e to BS# !omponents3 .t offers a wide ran"e of appli!ations4 whi!h
in!lude ad$ertisin"4 "eneral and spe!ialist information distribution ser$i!es
alon" with other non-mobile terminal appli!ations3 The ser$i!es and
fun!tionality that the #B# !an pro$ide in!ludes:

#ustomer !are information

Eeather and traffi! reports

7ree ad$ertisin"

+ariable re-transmission rates

2istributed network interfa!e units to handle $aryin" network loads

)o!al and remote messa"e submission fa!ility3



Section 3 NSS Topology
SMS Network %om(onents
SMS Network %om(onents
Section 3 NSS Topology

#allers whi!h !annot rea!h the MS are "i$en the option (by the +MS) to
lea$e either a short messae or a voice mail messae3 Messa"e
waitin" notifi!ation will be deli$ered to the MS when the MS is
rea!hable3 The +MS ($oi!e mail system) !ommuni!ates with the SMS
S# $ia T#16.1 or ,3;?3
The +MS has a trunk and si"nalin" interfa!e to the 1ST% (e3"34 *;4 .S'1
si"nalin")3 The +MS has a trunk and si"nalin" interfa!e to the MS# for
mobile subs!riber to a!!ess his6her $oi!e mail3
Section 3 NSS Topology
SMS A((lications SMS A((lications

SMS up to 9AB alphanumeri! !hara!ters3

Alert ser$i!es (MT-SMS)


P +oi!e Messa"e Alert
P 7A,6Tele@ Messa"e Alert
P --mail System Alert
P 1a"in" Bureau -mulation Ser$i!es3

.nformation Ser$i!es
P 7inan!ial Ser$i!es (sto!k market /ueries and alerts)
P Eeather or traffi! information (e3"34 from T+6radio station data feeds)
Section 3 NSS Topology

%etwork Administration
P Bill reminders (MT-SMS)4 bill payment
P Statements on demand (M0 and MT-SMS)
P (andset re-pro"rammin" and mu!h more3
Section 3 NSS Topology
.MS
.MS
.t supports a wide ran"e of inno$ati$e appli!ations in!ludin":

#all answerin"

+oi!e and fa@ bulletin boards

.nformation on demand

0ne number ser$i!es

+oi!e and fa@ messa"in"

.ntera!ti$e $oi!e response

1repaid !allin" !ards

+oi!e a!ti$ated dialin"


Section 3 NSS Topology
-re -aid SIM
-re -aid SIM
The fun!tionality of the 1re-1aid S.M feature in!ludes:

1ro$ision of pre-defined limits based on air time or talk time

Ser$i!e pro$isionin" in!ludin" $arious pro$isionin" options (point of


sale4 ser$i!e pro$iders4 et!3) and definitions of pre-paid !ate"ories
(throw away4 top up4 et!3)

Ser$i!e e@e!ution for air and talk time !redit usa"e

GSM MA1 ser$i!es4 teleser$i!e4 bearer ser$i!es and supplementary


ser$i!es will all be a$ailable to the 1re-1aid S.M subs!riber4 with
possible limitations4 as re/uired by the network operator3
Section 3 NSS Topology
Su((lementary Services
Su((lementary Services
Eide ran"e a$ailable in GSM standard and 0perators !an also define their own
.n GSM it is possible for the subs!ribers to !he!k and modify
the parameters and status of their Supplementary Ser$i!es
Section 3 NSS Topology

Some of the Supplementary Ser$i!es are:
#allin" )ine .dentifi!ation6*estri!tion
#onne!ted )ine .dentifi!ation6*estri!tion
#all 7orwardin"
#all Eaitin"
#all (old
#onferen!e #allin"
#onferen!e #allin"
Ad$i!e of !har"e
#all barrin"
Section 3 NSS Topology
"#ercise
"#ercise
893 Erite a full form of followin" : .M-.4 TMS.4 MS*%4 )A.4 ST4
ST14 SS1
8;3 (ow many !ir!uit "roups are re/uired for < BS#s and 9B
1ST%D
8<3 )ist down the three fun!tions of ea!h ()* : +)*3
8=3 7ill in the followin":
- interfa!e is used between ------
( interfa!e is used between-------
Section 3 NSS Topology

Al"orithm AC is used for ----------
Al"orithm A< is used for ----------
Transit e@!han"es are used to redu!e the ---------
8?3 )ist down the different lo!ations of T*A' and e@plain the best
position3
8A3 Ehat information is !ontained in the #2*sD
8G3 ; ad$anta"es of transit swit!h3
8C3 %ame some of supplementary ser$i!es3
Section 3 NSS Topology
GSM Sinalin
GSM Sinalin

Section 4 GSM Signaling
Ob$ective
Ob$ective
The Trainee will be able to understand:
si"nalin" between MS#6+)* and BSS
#on!ept of 2TA1
#on!ept of BSSMA1
si"nalin" between BS# and BTS
7un!tions of )A12m
7un!tions of )A12
7rame stru!ture of )A12m And )A12
Section 4 GSM Signaling
Introduction
Introduction
There are two different types of !ommuni!ation !hannels:
Traffi! !hannel at A= 5bps4 !arryin" spee!h or data for radio
!hannels3
si"nalin" !hannels at A=5bps4 !arryin" si"nalin" information3
.n 1#M one time slot is reser$ed for si"nalin" and remainin" are
used for transmittin" spee!h or data3 As the entire si"anllin" is
done on A=5bps 4 there should be spe!ial fun!tion !on$ertin"
the information to A=5bps format and ba!k at the re!ei$in" end3
Section 4 GSM Signaling
-rotocols in GSM Networks
-rotocols in GSM Networks
VLR
VLR
MSC
AUC
4LR 7IR
BSC
BTS
BSSAP
LAPD
MAP MAP
MAP
MAP
MAP
ISDN
GMSC
MSC
PSTN
ISUP
ISUP
MAP
TUP
MS
LAPDm
S)i"&*in1 S$s"!m
Bas!
S"a"i+n
S$s"!m
Section 4 GSM Signaling
GSM Sinalin Matri# GSM Sinalin Matri#
LAPDm
MS
BTS MSC
DTAP
RR
RIL:
RIL: RSM
LAPDm LAPD
BSC
RSM
BSSMAP
BSSAP
LAPD
SCCP
MTP2 B:
MTP1
MTP1
MTP2 B :
SCCP
BSSAP
DTAP
BSS
MAP
MAP
TCAP
ISUP
Da"abas!
Section 4 GSM Signaling

MS# uses .S'16T'1 proto!ols for 1ST% si"nalin"3
MA1 si"anllin" for database appli!ations like ()*4 +)*4 -.*4
A'#4 SMS-S#4 GMS#3
GSM spe!ifi! proto!ol as BSSA14 whi!h !omprises of 2TA1 and
BSSMA13
The BS# on layer ; uses )A12 proto!ol4 whi!h is an .S2%3
BTS has )A12m as layer ; proto!ol3
Mobile has 2TA1 for MS# and ** for *adio *esour!e
si"nalin"3
Section 4 GSM Signaling
MA- (Mobile A((lication -art)
MA- (Mobile A((lication -art)
MA1 is a proto!ol spe!ially desi"ned for GSM re/uirement3 .t is installed
in MS#4 +)*4 ()*4 -.* and !ommuni!ates in !ase of:
)o!ation re"istration
)o!ation !an!ellation
(andlin"6mana"ement6 retrie$al of subs!riber data3
(ando$er
Transfer of se!urity6 authenti!ation data3
Section 4 GSM Signaling
BSS A((lication -art (BSSA-)
BSS A((lication -art (BSSA-)
BSSA1 is used for si"nalin" between MS#6+)* and BSS3 Three "roups of
si"nals belon" to BSSA1
93 2TA1
;3 BSSMA1
<3 .nitial MS messa"es
Section 4 GSM Signaling
M
S
C
M
S
BSC,BTS
DTAP
Ini"ia MS M!ssa1!
BSSMAP
LAPDm
T#anspa#!n" "+ BSS
Section 4 GSM Signaling
&irect )rans!er A((lication -art (&)A-)
&irect )rans!er A((lication -art (&)A-)
2TA1 is a messa"es between the MS# and MS4 passes throu"h the BSS
transparently3 These are !all !ontrol and mobility mana"ement
messa"es dire!ted towards a spe!ifi! mobile3
< main type of 2TA1 messa"es are:
Messa"es for mobility mana"ement like lo!ation update4 authenti!ation4
identity re/uest
Messa"es for !ir!uit mode !onne!tions !all !ontrol
Messa"es for supplementary ser$i!es
Section 4 GSM Signaling
BSSMA-
BSSMA-
BSS mana"ement messa"es (BSSMA1) between MS# and BSS (BS#6 BTS)4
whi!h are ne!essary for resour!e mana"ement4 hando$er !ontrol4 pa"in"
order et!3 The BSSMA1 messa"es !an either be !onne!tion less or
!onne!tion oriented3
Section 4 GSM Signaling
Initial MS Messaes
Initial MS Messaes
These messa"es are passed un!han"ed throu"h BSS4 but BSS
analyses part of the messa"es and is not transparent like 2TA1
messa"es3
Between BSS and MS#4 the initial MS messa"e is transferred in the
layer < information in the BSSMA13
The .nitial MS messa"es are:
#M *e/uest
)o!ation update re/uest
1a"in" response
Section 4 GSM Signaling
'A-&m
'A-&m
)ink A!!ess 1ro!edures on the 2m !hannel ()A12m) is the layer ; proto!ol
used to !on$ey si"nalin" information between layer < entities a!ross the
radio interfa!e3 2m !hannel refers to the !ontrol !hannels4 independent of
the type in!ludin" broad!ast4 !ommon or dedi!ated !ontrol !hannels3
)A12m is based on the .S2% proto!ol )A124 used on the Abis interfa!e3
2ue to the radio en$ironment4 the )A12 proto!ol !an not be used in its
ori"inal form3 Therefore4 )A12m se"ments the messa"e into a number of
shorter messa"es3
Section 4 GSM Signaling

2ata e@!han"ed between the data link layer and the physi!al layer is ;< o!tets for
B##(4 ###(4 S2##( and 7A##(3 7or SA##( only4 ;9o!tets are sent from
layer ; to layer 93
)A12m fun!tions in!lude:

)A12m pro$ides one or more data link !onne!tions on a


2m !hannel3 2ata )ink #onne!tion .dentifier (2)#.) is used for dis!riminatin"
between data link !onne!tions3

.t allows layer < messa"e units be deli$ered transparently between layer < entities3

.t pro$ides se/uen!e !ontrol to maintain the se/uential order of frames a!ross the
data link !onne!tions3
Section 4 GSM Signaling
'A-&m 0rame Structure
'A-&m 0rame Structure
info len"th !ommand address
%(*) 167 %(S) B
B B 9 SA1. #* 9
Section 4 GSM Signaling

Se/uen!e %umber: %(S) send se/uen!e number of the transmitted frame3
%(*) is re!ei$e se/uen!e number3
167 : All frames !ontain the 1oll67inal bit3 .n !ommand frames4 the 167 bit is
referred to as the 1 bit3 .n response frames4 the 167 bit is referred to as the
7 bit3
Ser$i!e A!!ess 1oint .dentifier: Ser$i!e A!!ess 1oints (SA1s) of a layer are
defined as "ates throu"h whi!h ser$i!es are offered to an adFa!ent hi"her
layer3SA1 is identified with the Ser$i!e A!!ess 1oint .dentifier (SA1.)3
SA1. H B for normal si"nalin" of 2TA1 : **
SA1. H < for short messa"e ser$i!es
Section 4 GSM Signaling

)A12m has no error dete!tion and !orre!tion3 .t is used in two modes:
A!knowled"e :
'na!knowled"ed
and ha$in" a different stru!ture for both3
Section 4 GSM Signaling
'A-&
'A-&
All si"nalin" messa"es on the Abis interfa!e use the )ink A!!ess
1ro!edures on the 2-!hannel3 ()A12 proto!ol)3 )A12 pro$ides two
kinds of si"nalin":
una!knowled"ed information
a!knowled"ed information
)A12 link handlin" is a basi! fun!tion to pro$ide data links on the A= kbps
physi!al !onne!tions between BS# and BTS3
Section 4 GSM Signaling

)inks are pro$ided for operation and maintenan!e (0:M) of the
links4 for 0:M of the BTS e/uipment and for transmission of
layer < Abis messa"es3
-a!h physi!al !onne!tion !an support a number of data links
(lo"i!al !onne!tions)3 0n ea!h physi!al !onne!tion ea!h data
link is identified by a uni/ue T-.6SA1.
Section 4 GSM Signaling

)A12 has three sub si"nalin" !hannels
93 *S) (*adio si"nalin" )ink)4 deals with traffi! mana"ement4
T*, si"nalin"3
;3 0M) (0peration : Maintenan!e )ink)4 ser$es for
maintenan!e related info and transmission of traffi! statisti!s3
<3 );M ()ayer ; Mana"ement)4 used for mana"ement of the
different si"nalin" on the same time slot3
Section 4 GSM Signaling
'A-& 0rame Structure
'A-& 0rame Structure
7la" 7#S info len"th !ommand address 7la"
%(* ) 167 %(S) B T-. 9 SA1. #* B
Section 4 GSM Signaling

)A12 7rame stru!ture is made up of:
7la": .ndi!ates the be"innin" and end of ea!h frame unit3 7la" has
a pattern of B999999B3
7#S: 7rame #he!k Se/uen!e4 pro$ides the error !he!kin" for the
frame3 .f error is found frame will be retransmitted3
#ommand: .t has two types of stru!ture4 in a!knowled"e mode it
has %(S) and %(* )3 %(S) is a se/uen!e number of frame sent
and %(* ) is the se/uen!e number of the frame e@pe!ted to
re!ei$e ne@t3

Section 4 GSM Signaling

#6*: This bit indi!ates whether it is !ommand or response3
167: .n !ommand frames4 the 167 bit is referred to as the 1 bit and
the other end transmits the response by settin" this bit to 73
T-.: Terminal -ndpoint .dentifier4 is a uni/ue identifi!ation of ea!h
physi!al entity on either side like ea!h T*, within a BTS ha$e a
uni/ue T-.3
Section 4 GSM Signaling

SA1.: Ser$i!e A!!ess 1oint .dentifier4 used to identify the type of link3
SA1. H B for *S)
SA1. H A; for 0M)
SA1. H A< for );M)
-a!h )A12 link is identify by SA1.6T-. pair3
Section 4 GSM Signaling
"#ercise
"#ercise
893 %ame the proto!ol whi!h is transparent to BSS and what information is
used to transfer on this proto!olD
8;3 %ame the proto!ols used between
Mobile and BTS
BTS and BS#
BS# to MS#
MS# to 1ST%
Section 4 GSM Signaling
%all /andlin
%all /andlin

Section !all "an#ling
Ob$ective
Ob$ective
The Trainee will be able to understand:
Basi! !all !on!epts
)o!ation Area !on!epts
#all setup in different s!enarios
SMS routin"
.ntra and .nter MS# hando$ers
Section !all "an#ling
Introduction
Introduction
#all setup is re/uired to establish !ommuni!ation between a Mobile Station
and %etwork Subsystem (%SS)3 The %SS is responsible for establishin"
a !onne!tion with the !orresponded3 2ifferent types of !alls re/uire
different teleser$i!es3
7or the optimum utili>ation of the network4 different lo!ation areas will be
defined to redu!e the pa"in" load on the system3
Section !all "an#ling
Basic )y(es o! %alls
Basic )y(es o! %alls
There are three basi! types of !all:
93 Mobility Mana"ement !alls: Su!h as )o!ation update3 These
are used to !olle!t information about the MS and only
si"nalin" !hannels are used3
;3 Ser$i!e !alls: Su!h as SMS3 These !alls passes $ery small
information4 therefore si"nalin" !hannels are used3
<3 'ser traffi! !alls: Su!h as spee!h or data3 )ar"e amount of
data is e@!han"ed hen!e traffi! !hannels are used3
Section !all "an#ling
Basic %all Setu(
Basic %all Setu(
Section !all "an#ling

Subs!riber on swit!h A pla!es a !all to a Subs!riber on swit!h B:
93 Swit!h A analy>es the dialed di"its and determines that it needs to send the !all to swit!h B3
;3 Swit!h A sele!ts an idle trunk between itself and swit!h B
and formulate .AM
<3 ST1 E re!ei$es a messa"e4 inspe!ts its routin" label4 and determines that it is to be routed to swit!h
B3
=3 Swit!h B re!ei$es the messa"e3 0n analy>in" the messa"e4 it determines that it ser$es the !alled
number and that the !alled number is idle3
?3 Swit!h B formulates an address !omplete messa"e (A#M)4 whi!h indi!ates that the .AM has rea!hed
its proper destination3

Section !all "an#ling

A3 Swit!h B pi!ks one of its links and transmits the A#M o$er the link for routin" to swit!h A3
G3 ST1 , re!ei$es the messa"e4 inspe!ts its routin" label4 and determines that it is to be routed to swit!h A3
C3 0n re!ei$in" the A#M4 swit!h A !onne!ts the !allin" subs!riber
N3 Ehen and6or if the !alled subs!riber pi!ks up the phone4 swit!h B formulates an answer messa"e (A%M)4
9B3 Swit!h B sele!ts the same link it used to transmit the A#M
993 ST1 , re!o"ni>es that the A%M is addressed to swit!h A and forwards it o$er link
Section !all "an#ling

9;3 Swit!h A ensures that the !allin" subs!riber is !onne!ted and !on$ersation !an take pla!e3
9<3 .f the !allin" subs!riber han"s up first swit!h A will "enerate a release messa"e (*-)) addressed to swit!h B3
9=3 ST1 E re!ei$es the *-)
9?3 Swit!h B re!ei$es the *-)4 dis!onne!ts the trunk from the subs!riber line4 returns the trunk to idle status3
9A3 ST1 , re!ei$es the *)#4 determines that it is addressed to swit!h A3
9G3 0n re!ei$in" the *)#4 swit!h A idles the identified trunk3
Section !all "an#ling
'ocation ,eistration
'ocation ,eistration
Ehen the mobile is turned on first time in the network4 it has no indi!ations
in its data about an old )o!ation Area .dentity3 MS immediately inform
the network and re/uest for the )o!ation 'pdate to the MS#6 +)*3
After re"istration MS#6 +)* will !onsider the MS as a!ti$e and marked
the MS as Ratta!hedS3
Section !all "an#ling
'ocation 1(date
'ocation 1(date
Ehen the MS mo$es from one )A to another4 it has to re"ister3 This
re"istration is performed when the MS dete!ts another )A. than the
one stored3 This is !alled lo!ation updatin"3 This fun!tion pro$ides
mobile subs!ribers with uninterrupted ser$i!e throu"hout the GSM
!o$era"e area so that they !an:
Be !alled on a permanent dire!tory number irrespe!ti$e of their
lo!ation at the time of !all3
A!!ess the network whate$er their position
Section !all "an#ling

There are four different types of lo!ation updatin":
%ormal
.MS. deta!h
.MS. atta!h
1eriodi! re"istration
Section !all "an#ling
Normal 1(date
Normal 1(date
The Base Trans!ei$er Station (BTS) of e$ery !ell !ontinually
transmits the )o!ation Area .dentity ()A.) on B##(3
.f MS dete!ts )A. is different from the one stored in the S.M-
!ard4 it is for!ed to do a lo!ation update3
.f the mobile subs!riber is unknown in the MS#6+)* (new
subs!riber) then the new MS#6+)* must be updated4 from the
()*4 with subs!riber information3
.t also !onsider the !ase of the lo!ation update timer runs out3
Section !all "an#ling

Section !all "an#ling

93 The MS re/uests a lo!ation update to be !arried out in the new
MS#6+)*3 The .MS. is used to identify the MS3
;3 .n the new MS#6+)*4 an analysis of the .MS. number is !arried out3
The result of this analysis is a modifi!ation of the .MS. to a Mobile
Global Title (MGT)
<3 The new MS#6+)* re/uests the subs!riber information for the MS
from the ()*3
=3 The ()* stores the address of the new MS#6+)* and sends the
subs!riber data to the new MS#6+)*3
Section !all "an#ling

?3 The ()* also orders the old ser$in" MS#6+)* to !an!el all
information about the subs!riber sin!e the MS is now ser$ed by
another MS#6+)*3
A3 Ehen the new MS#6+)* re!ei$es the information from the ()*4 it
will send a lo!ation updatin" !onfirmation messa"e to the MS3
Section !all "an#ling
IMSI &etach
IMSI &etach
The MS must inform the network when it is enterin" an
ina!ti$e state (deta!h)3
93 At power off or when the S.M !ard is taken out4 the MS asks for a si"nalin"
!hannel
;3 The MS uses this si"nalin" !hannel to send the .MS. deta!h messa"e to the
MS#6+)*3
<3 .n the +)*4 an .MS. deta!h fla" is set for the subs!riber whi!h is used to reFe!t
in!omin" !alls to the MS3
The deta!h will not be a!knowled"ed3
Section !all "an#ling
Only the .', is u(dated with the 4detached5 in!ormation6 Only the .', is u(dated with the 4detached5 in!ormation6
Section !all "an#ling
IMSI Attach
IMSI Attach
The atta!h pro!edure is performed only when the MS is turned on and is in the same )A as it
was when it sent the deta!h messa"e3 .f the MS !han"es lo!ation area while bein"
swit!hed off4 it is for!ed to do a normal lo!ation update3 The pro!edure is as follows
93 The MS re/uestin" a si"nalin" !hannel3
;3 The MS#6+)* re!ei$es the .MS. atta!h messa"e from the MS3
<3 The MS#6+)* sets the .MS. atta!h in the +)*4 that is4 the mobile is ready for normal
!all handlin"3
=3 The +)* returns an a!knowled"ment to the MS3
Section !all "an#ling

Section !all "an#ling
-eriodic 'ocation 1(date
-eriodic 'ocation 1(date
To a$oid unne!essary pa"in" of the MS in !ase the MS# ne$er "ot
the .MS. deta!h messa"e4 there is another type of lo!ation
updatin" !alled periodi! re"istration3
The pro!edure is !ontrolled by timers both in the MS and in the
MS#3
.f the MS does not re"ister within the determined inter$al plus a
"uard time4 then the s!annin" fun!tion in the MS# dete!ts this
and the MS will be marked deta!hed3
Section !all "an#ling
-ain
-ain
A !all to MS is routed to the MS#6 +)* and send a pa"in" messa"e to
the MS3 This messa"e is broad!ast all o$er the )o!ation Area ()A)4
whi!h means that all BTSs with in the )A will send a pa"in" messa"e
to the mobile3 The MS4 mo$in" in the )A and listenin" to the ###(
information4 will hear the pa"in" messa"e and answer it immediately3
Section !all "an#ling
-ain %a(acity -ain %a(acity
1a"in" !apa!ity is the number of
mobiles that !an be pa"ed per
se!ond
This depends on:
###( !onfi"uration
AG#( blo!ks reser$ation
Type of pa"in" messa"e used
1a"in" messa"e takes = bursts
(9 ###( blo!k)
This !an pa"e up to = mobiles
dependin" on the messa"e type
used
Section !all "an#ling
-ain Messae )y(es -ain Messae )y(es
Type 9: !an address up to two mobiles usin" either .MS. or TMS.
Type ;: !an address up to < mobiles4 one by .MS. and other ;
by TMS.3
Type <: !an address up to = mobiles usin" the TMS. only3
.f the network does not use TMS. then only type 9 is used in the
network3
Section !all "an#ling
%alculation O! -ain %a(acity %alculation O! -ain %a(acity
X = numb!# +/ m+bi!s pa1!2 p!# pa1in1 m!ssa1! (1 "+ 8)
C = numb!# +/ p+ssib! pa1in1 m!ssa1!s p!# mu"i/#am!
Du#a"i+n +/ &*ann! mu"i/#am! = D32:< s!&+n2s (2:< ms)
0 X 2!p!n2s +n pa1in1 m!ssa1! "$p!
0 C 2!p!n2s +n CCC4 &+n/i1u#a"i+n in "*! mu"i/#am! (!313
: +# E) an2 "*! numb!# +/ AGC4 b+&.s #!s!#%!2
Section !all "an#ling
-%/ &imensionin -%/ &imensionin
1a"in" !hannel re/uirement in blo!ks per multiframe is "i$en by:
Cas = Numb!# +/ &as p#!2i&"!2 /+# "*! +&a"i+n a#!a 2u#in1
bus$ *+u#
MT = (#a&"i+n +/ &as )*i&* a#! m+bi! "!#mina"!2
P( = Pa1in1 (a&"+# = numb!# +/ pa1!s #!@ui#!2 p!# &a
M = sa/!"$ ma#1in
PM( = Pa1in1 M!ssa1! (a&"+# = numb!# +/ pa1!s p!#
m!ssa1!
Numb!# +/ &+n"#+ &*ann! mu"i/#am!s p!# s!&+n2 = 832<
Section !all "an#ling
"#am(le "#am(le
A parti!ular lo!ation area !ontains ?B BBB subs!ribers3 .t is predi!ted that
<BO of these will re!ei$e a !all durin" the busy hour3 0n a$era"e ;
pa"es are needed per !all and only type < pa"in" messa"es (TMS.) are
used3
T*is 1i%!s "*! /++)in1 2a"aF
Cas = <D DDD
MT = D3:
P( = 2
PM( = 8
Section !all "an#ling

A typi!al safety mar"in for peak $ariations in number of !alls is 93;
0 1 PC4 b+&. p!# mu"i/#am! )i b! a2!@ua"!
Section !all "an#ling
-ain %ontrol
-ain %ontrol
The MS# has to initiate the pa"in" pro!edure4 as it holds the information
on the last MS lo!ation update3
MS# sends a pa"in" messa"e to BS# and sets a timer for response from
the MS4 whi!h is send as a part of ser$i!e re/uest messa"e3 The pa"in"
messa"e from the MS# !ontains a !ell list identifier4 identifyin" the !ells
in whi!h pa"in" messa"e is to be transmitted3
Section !all "an#ling
%all 0rom MS (Mobile to -S)N)
%all 0rom MS (Mobile to -S)N)
!b
VLR
MSC
7x&*
PSTN
PLMN
Section !all "an#ling
%all 0rom MS Overview %all 0rom MS Overview
Mobile is a!ti$e and idle4 wants to set up a !all
'ser dial the number and press send4 at first moment it sends on
*A#(
MS#6+)* assi"ns a dedi!ated !hannel
.f the !allin" MS is allowed to make a !all MS#6+)*
a!knowled"es the a!!ess re/uest
2ependin" on whether a fi@ed or a mobile subs!riber is !alled4
number is analy>ed dire!tly in the MS#6+)*3
#all setup messa"e is a!knowled"ed as soon as the link is
ready3
MS is also assi"ned to mo$e to a dedi!ated traffi! !hannel T#(3
Section !all "an#ling
Sinalin Inter!aces
Sinalin Inter!aces
BSC
VLR
MSC
LAPDm
LAPD
DTAP
BSSMAP
PLMN ISDN,
PSTN
ISUP,TUP
Section !all "an#ling
-oint O! Interconnect (-OI) 'ocation -oint O! Interconnect (-OI) 'ocation
.n !ase of lon" distan!e mobile to 1ST% !all4 !ir!uits define to route a !all in the
swit!h should be su!h that4 !all !an tra$el ma@imum distan!e on the airtime
and minimum on the land line to enhan!e the re$enue3
#all should hando$er to the 10. as near as possible to the subs!riber lo!ation3
Section !all "an#ling
%all to MS (-S)N to Mobile)
%all to MS (-S)N to Mobile)
GMSC
GSM,PLMN
PSTN
MSISDN
Lin. is s!"up /#+m +&a
!x&*an1! "+ "*! GMSC
Section !all "an#ling

GMSC
GSM,PLMN
PSTN
4LR
si1nain1 N+3GF In"!##+1a"i+n
/un&"i+n us!2 b$ GMSC
MSISDN H
MSRN #!@u!s"
Section !all "an#ling

GMSC
GSM,PLMN
PSTN
4LR
VLR
MSC
si1nain1 N+GF R!@u!s"
/+# MSRN "+ VLR
IMSI
Section !all "an#ling

GMSC
GSM,PLMN
PSTN
4LR
VLR
MSC
IMSI
MSRN in VLR3
si1nain1 N+ GF MSRN
s!n2 "+ GMSC
MSRN #!@u!s" H IMSI MSRN
Section !all "an#ling

GSM,PLMN
PSTN
VLR
MSC
GMSC
Lin. is s!"up /#+m GMSC "+
MSC,VLR
4LR
Section !all "an#ling

GSM,PLMN
PSTN
VLR
MSC
GMSC 4LR
BSC
si1nain1 N+GF Pa1in1
m!ssa1! is s!n" "+ "*! BSS
Section !all "an#ling

GSM,PLMN
PSTN
VLR
MSC
GMSC
4LR
BSC
Ai# pa"* si1nain1F
Pa1in1 m!ssa1! is
s!n" +%!# "*! ai#
pa"* "+ MS3 T*! MS
ans)!#s3
Section !all "an#ling

GSM,PLMN
PSTN
VLR
MSC
GMSC
4LR
BSC
T*! in. is s!"up /#+m
"*! MSC,VLR "+ "*!
MS, &+mp!"in1 "*!
&+nn!&"i+n /#+m
subs&#ib!# "+
subs&#ib!#
Section !all "an#ling
Sinalin Inter!aces
Sinalin Inter!aces
BSC
VLR
MSC
LAPDm
LAPD
DTAP
BSSMAP
PLMN
ISDN,
PSTN
ISUP,TUP
4LR
GMSC
MAP
ISUP,TUP
Section !all "an#ling
Mobile to Mobile (Mobile Oriinated) Mobile to Mobile (Mobile Oriinated)
MS
BTS BSC MSC
C*ann! R!@u!s"
#n C*ann! R!@u!s"
#nH/nHTA
SDDC4 A+&a"i+n
TAHSDDC4Hp+)!#
C*ann! A&"i%a"i+n
SCCP C+nn!&"i+n R!@
Imm!2ia"! assi1n (AGC4)
Imm!2ia"! assi1n &+mm2
S)i"&* "+
SDDC4
#nH/nHTAH SDCC4
C*ann! A&"i%a"i+n A&.
SABM
7s"abis* In2i&a"i+n
SCCP C+nn!&"i+n
C+n/i#m
S!#%i&! R!@u!s"
S!#%i&! R!@u!s"
UA
CmHS!#%i&! R!@u!s"
Section !all "an#ling
MS
BTS BSC
MSC
S!"up (SDCC4)
T!!,b!a#!# s!#%i&!
&a!2 pa#"$ n+3
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
Ca p#+&!!2in1
Assi1nm!n" #!@u!s"
C*ann! "$p!H&m
TC4 a+&a"i+n
P*$si&a &+n"!x" #!@u!s"
P*$si&a &+n"!x" &+n/i#m
P+)!#HTA
C*ann! a&"i%a"i+n
TC4HTAH&ip*!#HDTX
Hp+)!#
SACC4
TAHp+)!# up2a"!s
C*ann! a&"i%a"i+n a&.
Assi1nm!n" &+mman2 (SDCC4)
R!!as!
SDCC4
Section !all "an#ling
MS
BTS BSC
MSC
SABM ((ACC4)
7s"abis* in2i&a"i+n
UA ((ACC4)
S!"
"#ans&+2!#
Assi1nm!n" &+mp!"! ((ACC4)
S!" s)i"&*in1
pa"*
a!#"in1
&+nn!&"
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
C+nn!&" a&.
Ini"ia"! SDCC4 #!!as!
Section !all "an#ling
Mobile to Mobile (Mobile )erminated) Mobile to Mobile (Mobile )erminated)
MS BTS BSC MSC
Pa1in1
TMSI,IMSIH&! is"
Pa1in1 &+mman2
TMSI,IMSI pa1in1
1#+upH &*ann! n+
TMSI,IMSI
Pa1in1 #!@u!s" (PC4)
Pa1in1 #!@u!s" (RAC4)
C*ann! #!@ui#!2
Ra2i+ an2 Lin. 7s"abis*m!n" P#+&!2u#!
Section !all "an#ling
MS
BTS BSC
MSC
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
S!"up
T!!,b!a#!# s!#%i&!
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
Ca &+n/i#m!2 (SDCC4)
b!a#!# s!#%i&!
N+#ma Assi1nm!n" P#+&!2u#! /+# TC4
a!#"in1
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
&+nn!&"
La$!# :CC
La$!# :CC
C+nn!&" a&.n+)!21!
Rin1 "+n!
Us!# ans)!#
Section !all "an#ling
SMS -oint to -oint
SMS -oint to -oint
The Short Messa"e Ser$i!e4 SMS4 pro$ides means of sendin" te@t
messa"es4 to and from GSM mobile station3 SMS makes use of ser$i!e
!entre4 whi!h a!ts a store and forward !enter for short messa"es3
Section !all "an#ling
Mobile )erminated SMS
Mobile )erminated SMS
SMS 6 C SMS 6 GMSC MSC,VLR
4LR
Section !all "an#ling

SMS # has the !apability to transfer the short messa"es and also
pro$ides the information about the deli$ery3
93 A user sends a messa"e to an SMS #
;3 SMS # sends the messa"e to the SMS GMS#
<3 SMS GMS# interro"ates the ()* for routin" information
=3 ()* interro"ates MS#6+)* for a roamin" number
?3 MS#6+)* returns a MS*% to the SMS GMS# $ia ()*
A3 SMS GMS# reroutes the messa"e to MS#6+)*
#ontinuedL33
Section !all "an#ling

G3 MS is pa"ed and a !onne!tion is setup between MS and the
network3
C3 .f authenti!ation was su!!essful the MS#6+)* deli$ers the
messa"e to the MS3 .t is transmitted on the allo!ated S2##(
N3 .f the deli$ery was su!!essful a deli$ery report is sent from
MS#6+)* to the SMS #3
.n the !ase of an unsu!!essful deli$ery the ser$i!e messa"es
waitin" will pro$ide the ()* and +)* with the information that
there is a messa"e in the ori"inatin" SMS # waitin" to be
deli$ered to the MS3
Section !all "an#ling
Mobile Oriinated SMS
Mobile Oriinated SMS
MSC,VLR SMS 6 C
Section !all "an#ling


93 MS establishes a !onne!tion to the network4 as in the !ase of normal
!all setup3 (This step is not performed if the MS is in busy mode4
sin!e there already e@ists a !onne!tion)
;3 .f the authenti!ation was su!!essful MS sends the short messa"e to
the SMS # $ia MS#6+)*3 The SMS # in turn forward the short
messa"e to its destination3 This !ould be MS or a terminal in the
fi@ed network3
Section !all "an#ling
/andover
/andover
#han"in" to a new traffi! !hannel durin" !all setup or busy state is !alled
(ando$er3 The network makes the de!ision about the !han"e3 After
re!ei$in" the information about the si"nal stren"th and /uality the BS#
ranks the nei"hborin" BTSs usin" the information3
After a e$aluation of the situation and the de!ision to start the hando$er
pro!edure4 the network is responsible for the setup of a link to the new
BTS3
Section !all "an#ling
Intra MS% /andover
Intra MS% /andover
BSC
BSC
VLR
MSC
N!) in.
-2 in.
Section !all "an#ling

.ntra MS# hando$er: (ando$er within the same MS#6+)* ser$i!e
area but different BS#s3
The BS# re/uest for a hando$er from MS#6+)*
%ew link (MS#6+)* to new BS# to new BTS) is setup and if a
free T#( is a$ailable4 it must be reser$ed3
MS re!ei$es the order to !han"e to the new fre/uen!y and the
new T#(3
.f the BTS !han"e has also !han"e of lo!ation area4 the MS
sends a re/uest for lo!ation update after the !all3
Section !all "an#ling
0lowchart
0lowchart
BSC2 MSC BSC1 MS
43-3 R!@u!s"
43-3 R!@ui#!2
43-3 R!@u!s" A&.
43-3 C+mman2
43-3 C+mman2
M!asu#!m!n" R!p+#"
43-3 C+mp!"!2
43-3 C+mp!"!2
C!a# C+mman2
C!a# C+mp!"!2
Section !all "an#ling
Inter MS% /andover
Inter MS% /andover
BSC
VLR
MSC
VLR
MSC
BSC
N!) in.
-2 in.
Section !all "an#ling

.nter MS# hando$er: hando$er between the two BS#s !ontrolled by two
different MS!s3 )ot of si"nals e@!han"es are re/uired before the
hando$er !an take pla!e3
The ser$in" e@!han"e sends a hando$er re/uest to the tar"et e@!han"e
Tar"et e@!han"e will take o$er the responsibility for preparin" the
!onne!tion to the new BTS3
After the setup of a link between the two e@!han"es4 the ser$in"
e@!han"e will send a hando$er !ommand to the MS3
Section !all "an#ling
0lowchart
0lowchart
VLR
(MSC6B)
BSC2 MSC6B MSC6A BSC1 MS
M!asu#!m!n"
R!p+#"
43-3
R!@ui#!2
P!#/+#m 43-3
A+&a"! 43-3Numb!#
S!n2 43-3 R!p+#"
43-3 R!@u!s"
43-3 R!@u!s"
A&.
RAD C4 A&.
I AM (ISUP)
ACM (ISUP)
43-3 C+mman2
43-3 C+mman2
43-3 C+mp!"!
43-3
C+mp!"!
S!n2 7n2
Si1na
C!a# C+mman2
C!a# C+mp!"!
ANS (ISUP)
Section !all "an#ling
"#ercise
"#ercise
893 %ame the types of the lo!ation updates e@ists in the
mobile networkD
8;3 2es!ribe the different kinds of pa"in" messa"esD
8<3 #al!ulate the pa"in" !apa!ity (mobiles pa"ed per se!ond) for
the followin" operator settin":
pa"in" messa"e type H <
blo!ks reser$ed for ###( and AG#( H <
Section !all "an#ling

8=3 #al!ulate the 1#( re/uirement for followin":
%umber of subs!riber H G?4BBB
Busy hour !alls H =BO
Assume on a$era"e ; pa"es re/uired per !all
Safety mar"in for peak $ariation in number of !alls H93;
1a"in" messa"e of type ;
8?3 Ehi!h part of the network allo!ates the MS*% to the !allD
Section !all "an#ling
SS7
SS7

Section $ SS%
%ON)"N)S
%ON)"N)S
.ntrodu!tion
Si"nalin" Modes
##S G +s3 #AS
##S G )ink Types
##S G Si"nalin" %etwork
Si"nalin" %etwork #omponents
##S G Ar!hite!ture
##S G 7un!tional Blo!ks
MT1
Si"nalin" 2ata link ()e$el 9)
Si"nalin" )ink 7un!tions ()e$el ;)
Si"nalin" %etwork 7un!tions ()e$el <)
MT1 'ser 7un!tions ()e$el =)
Section $ SS%

7un!tions of Si"nalin" )ink ()e$el ;)
0r"ani>ation of si"nalin" .nformation
Si"nal 'nits
Si"nal 'nit 2elimitation6 7la" .mitation 1re$ention
-rror 2ete!tion
-rror #orre!tion
Basi! Method
1ositi$e A!k
%e"ati$e A!k
1re$enti$e #y!li! *e-Transmission
-rror *ate Monitorin"
Si"nal 'nit -rror *ate Monitor
Ali"nment -rror *ate Monitor
Section $ SS%

Si"nalin" %etwork 7un!tions (le$el <)
Ser$i!e .nformation 0!tet
*outin" )abel
Si"nalin" Messa"e (andlin"
Messa"e 2is!rimination
Messa"e 2istribution
Messa"e *outin"

Si"nalin" link Mana"ement


)ink a!ti$ation
)ink restoration

7low #ontrol
Section $ SS%
Introduction
Introduction
%ommon %hannel Sinalin System No6 7 (i3e34 SS7 or %7 ) is
a "lobal standard for tele!ommuni!ations defined by the
.nternational Tele!ommuni!ation 'nion (.T')Tele!ommuni!ation
Standardi>ation Se!tor (.T'-T)3 The standard defines the
pro!edures and proto!ol by whi!h network elements in the publi!
swit!hed telephone network (1ST%) e@!han"e information o$er
a di"ital si"nalin" network to effe!t wireless (!ellular) and wire
line !all setup4 routin" and !ontrol3

Section $ SS%


The SSG network and proto!ol are used for:
basi! !all setup4 mana"ement4 and tear down
wireless ser$i!es su!h as personal !ommuni!ations ser$i!es
(1#S)4 wireless roamin"4 and mobile subs!riber authenti!ation
lo!al number portability ()%1)
toll-free (CBB6CCC) and toll (NBB) wireline ser$i!es
enhan!ed !all features su!h as !all forwardin"4 !allin" party
name6number display4 and three-way !allin"
effi!ient and se!ure worldwide tele!ommuni!ations
Section $ SS%
Sinalin )y(es
Sinalin )y(es
There are two types of Si"nalin" :
93 #hannel Asso!iated Si"nalin" (#AS)
;3 #ommon #hannel Si"nalin" (##SG)
#hannel Asso!iated Si"nalin": si"nalin" is always sent on the same
!onne!tion as that of spee!h3The Si"nalin" is asso!iated with spee!h3

Section $ SS%

#ommon #hannel Si"nalin": si"nalin" network is separated from the
spee!h network3-$ery si"nalin" information will ha$e a label whi!h
indi!ates to whi!h spee!h !onne!tion this si"nalin" information belon"s
to3The si"nalin" !hannel has no spe!ifi! position (timeslot)3The same
si"nalin" !hannel !arries information for all spee!h !ir!uits as and when
re/uired basis3
Section $ SS%
Advantae O! %%S7 Over %AS
Advantae O! %%S7 Over %AS
A dedi!ated si"nalin" link re/uired for ea!h spee!h !hannel in
#AS e3"3 < !hannels in < 1#Ms : ##S G uses only 9 !hannel for
a number of 1#Ms
#AS is slow4 so lon"er !all setup times : ##S G - A=kbps fast :
effi!ient3
.n #AS4 no possibility of si"nalin" durin" the Rtalkin" phaseS :
##S G si"nalin" is independent of spee!h3
#AS supports limited set of si"nals : ##S G supports si"nal units
of $ariable len"th ma@3 ;GN o!tets - so mu!h more si"nalin" info
!an be e@!han"ed than is possible with #AS3
Section $ SS%

'sa"e of messa"es instead of pre-defined bit patterns enables to
transfer !all related si"nalin" info (!all establishment) as well as non !all
related !all info ( lo!ation update 4 hando$er 4 short messa"es et!3)
##S G - modular M easy introdu!tion of new : ad$an!ed ser$i!es3
Section $ SS%
SS7 Sinalin 'ink )y(es
SS7 Sinalin 'ink )y(es
Section $ SS%
Section $ SS%
%7 Sinalin Network %7 Sinalin Network

SP
(SPC)
SP
(SPC)
1 2 3 4 5 1
6
3
1
3
0
STP
SL(SLC)
SL(SLC)
SLS CIC
0SP: Si1nain1 P+in"
0SPC: Si1nain1 P+in" C+2!
0STP: Si1nain1 T#ans/!#
P+in"
0SL: Si1nain1 Lin.
0SLC: Si1nain1 Lin. C+2!
0SLS: Si1nain1 Lin. S!"
0CIC: Ci#&ui" I2!n"i"$ &+2!
Section $ SS%
sinalin Network %om(onents
sinalin Network %om(onents
Si"nalin" 1oints

lo"i!ally separate entities from a si"nalin" network point of


$iew3
0ri"ination 1oint #ode

A si"nalin" point at whi!h a messa"e is "enerated4 i3e3 the


lo!ation of the sour!e 'ser 1art fun!tion4 is the ori"inatin"
point of that messa"e3
Section $ SS%
2estination 1oint #ode

A si"nalin" point to whi!h a messa"e is destined4 i3e3 the


lo!ation of the re!ei$in" 'ser 1art fun!tion4 is the destination
point of that messa"e3
Si"nal Transfer 1oint

A si"nalin" point at whi!h a messa"e is re!ei$ed on one


si"nalin" link and is transferred to another link4 i3e3 neither
the lo!ation of the sour!e nor the re!ei$in" 'ser 1art
fun!tion4 is a Si"nal Transfer 1oint (ST1)3
For a particular signaling relation, the two signaling points thus function as
originating and destination points for the messages exchanged in the
two directions between them.
Section $ SS%
Si"nalin" )inks

The !ommon !hannel !arryin" si"nalin" information is !alled


Si"nalin" link3
)ink Set

A number of si"nalin" links that dire!tly inter!onne!t two


si"nalin" points !onstitute a si"nalin" link-set3
Si"nalin" *outes

The pre-determined path4 !onsistin" of a su!!ession of


S1s6ST1s and the inter!onne!tin" si"nalin" links4 that a
messa"e takes throu"h the si"nalin" network between the
ori"ination point and the destination point is the si"nalin"
route for that si"nalin" relation
Section $ SS%

Si"nalin" Modes

The term Rsi"nalin" modeS refers to the asso!iation between the


path taken by a si"nalin" messa"e and the si"nalin" relation to
whi!h the messa"e refers3
Section $ SS%
T+*& IS9& T9&
S++&
Si)nalin) $etwork
Si)nalin) link
Si)nalin) data link
MT&
'evel 1
'evel :
'evel ;
'evel < : 9ser &arts
'ayer ;
'ayer 1
'ayer :
'ayers < to .
%%S 7 Architecture
%%S 7 Architecture
9
Section $ SS%
Messae )rans!er -art (M)-)
Messae )rans!er -art (M)-)
7un!tion:

to pro$ide a reliable transfer and deli$ery of si"nalin"


information a!ross the si"nalin" network and to ha$e the
ability to rea!t and take ne!essary a!tions in response to
system and network failures to ensure that reliable transfer is
maintained3
.n!ludes the fun!tions of layers 9 to < of the 0S. referen!e
model3
'ser fun!tions in ##S G MT1 terms are:
the .S2% 'ser 1art (.S'1)
the Telephone 'ser 1art (T'1)
Section $ SS%

the si"nalin" #onne!tion #ontrol 1art (S##1)
the 2ata 'ser 1art (2'1)
The S##1 also has 'sers3 These are:
the .S2% 'ser 1art (.S'1)
Transa!tion #apabilities (T#)
0perations Maintenan!e and Administration 1art (0MA1)
Section $ SS%
0unctions o! M)-
0unctions o! M)-
Messa)e
handlin)
si)nalin) link
si)nalin) data
link
$etwork
mana)ement
'evel 1
'evel :
'evel ;
f
Section $ SS%
Sinalin &ata 'ink (M)- 'evel 8 )
Sinalin &ata 'ink (M)- 'evel 8 )
2efines the physi!al4 ele!tri!al and fun!tional !hara!teristi!s and the
physi!al interfa!e towards the transmission medium (1#M<B)
si"nalin" 2ata )ink is a bi-dire!tional transmission path for si"nalin"
!onsistin" of two data !hannels operatin" to"ether in opposite
dire!tions at the same data rate3
2i"ital : A= kbps !hannels3 7or 1#M<B (2B< !odin" is used
- Minimum allowed bit rate for telephone call control application :
4.8kbps
Section $ SS%
Sinalin 'ink 0unctions (M)- 'evel 9) Sinalin 'ink 0unctions (M)- 'evel 9)
To"ether with si"nalin" data link4 the si"nalin" link fun!tions pro$ide a
si"nalin" link for the reliable transfer of si"nalin" messa"es between
two adFa!ent si"nalin" points3
Messa"es are transferred o$er si"nalin" link in $ariable len"th
messa"es !alled signal Units whi!h !ontain additional information to
"uarantee a se!ure transmission3
Section $ SS%

7un!tions:

2elimitation of si"nalin" units by means of 7la"s3

7la" limitation pre$ention by bit stuffin"3

-rror dete!tion by means of #he!k bits in!luded in ea!h


si"nalin" unit3

-rror !ontrol by re-transmission and si"nalin" unit se/uen!e


!ontrol by means of se/uen!e numbers and !ontinuous
A#5s

Si"nalin" link failure dete!tion by si"nalin" unit error rate


monitorin" and si"nalin" link re!o$ery by spe!ial pro!edures3
Section $ SS%
Sinalin Network 0unctions (M)- 'evel :) Sinalin Network 0unctions (M)- 'evel :)

)e$el < in prin!iple defines those transport fun!tions and pro!edures


that are !ommon to and independent of the operation of indi$idual
si"nalin" links3
These fun!tions fall into two maFor !ate"ories:
ignaling message handling functions These transfer the messa"e to
the proper si"nalin" link or 'ser 1art3The main fun!tions are:-

Messa"e dis!rimination fun!tion

Messa"e distribution fun!tion

Messa"e routin" fun!tion


Section $ SS%

signaling network management functions These !ontrol the !urrent
messa"e routin" and !onfi"uration of the si"nalin" network fa!ilities
and in the !ase of si"nalin" network failures4 !ontrol the
re!onfi"urations and other a!tions to preser$e or restore the normal
messa"e transfer !apability3 #ontains si"nalin" link mana"ement4
traffi! mana"ement and route mana"ement3The main fun!tions are:-

Si"nalin" link mana"ement

Si"nalin" traffi! mana"ement

Si"nalin" route mana"ement


Section $ SS%
M)- 1ser !unctions ('evel ;)
M)- 1ser !unctions ('evel ;)
'ser 1arts defines the fun!tions and pro!edures of the si"nalin"
system that are parti!ular to a !ertain type of user of the system3
The followin" entities are defined as 'ser 1arts in ##S G3
Telephone 'ser 1art (T'1)

The T'1 *e!ommendations define the international


telephone !all !ontrol si"nalin" fun!tions for use o$er ##S G3
2ata 'ser 1art (2'1)

The 2ata 'ser 1art defines the proto!ol to !ontrol


intere@!han"e !ir!uits used on data !alls4 and data !all
fa!ility re"istration and !an!ellation3
Section $ SS%

.S2% 'ser 1art (.S'1)

The .S'1 en!ompasses si"nalin" fun!tions re/uired to


pro$ide swit!hed ser$i!es and user fa!ilities for $oi!e and
non-$oi!e appli!ations in the .S2%3
Si"nalin" #onne!tion #ontrol 1art (S##1)

The S##1 pro$ides additional fun!tions to the Messa"e


Transfer 1art to pro$ide !onne!tionless and !onne!tion-
oriented network ser$i!es to transfer !ir!uit-related4 and non-
!ir!uit-related si"nalin" information3
5ey -nhan!ements by S##1
Section $ SS%

-nhan!ed Addressin" #apability


upto ;?? users !an be addressed by the use of Subsystem
%umbers (SS%)
S##1 pro$ides a routin" fun!tion whi!h allows si"nalin"
messa"es to be routed to a si"nalin" point based on4 for
e@ample4 dialled di"its3 This !apability in$ol$es a translation
fun!tion whi!h translates the "lobal title (e3"3 dialled di"its)
into a si"nalin" point !ode and a sub-system number3

#onne!tionless and #onne!tion-0riented Ser$i!es


#lass B : basi! !onne!tionless ser$i!e
#lass 9 : se/uen!ed !onne!tionless ser$i!e
#lass ; : basi! !onne!tion-oriented ser$i!e
#lass < : flow !ontrol !onne!tion-oriented ser$i!e
Section $ SS%
)%A-
)%A-
T#A1 pro$ides ser$i!es for non-!ir!uit related ser$i!es3T#A1
re!ei$es messa"es from S##1 and routes it to the user3T#A1
makes it possible to ha$e se$eral transa!tions runnin"
simultaneously3
T#A1 !onsists of !omponent sub-layer and the transa!tion sub-
layer3The !omponent layer pro$ides information e@!han"e
between two layers by the means of dialo"ues3 A dialo"ue will
!ontain se$eral !omponents like a!tion 4 response et!3The
transa!tion identifier "i$es ea!h transa!tion a uni/ue identity
whi!h is also known as transa!tion identifier3
Section $ SS%

T#A1 a!ts as a se!retary to a mana"er who has se$eral en"ineers
reportin" to it3 The se!retary handles all the transa!tions from the
mana"er and sends it a!ross the appropriate en"ineer and also keeps
tra!k of ea!h transa!tions by ha$in" identified files for ea!h en"ineers
transa!tion3
Section $ SS%
Global )itle
Global )itle
Global title is the address of the Si"nalin" 1oint whi!h does not !learly
mention the destination address for routin"3 .t is translated by S##1 to
"et the destination address3e3"3 the dialled di"its30n an in!omin"
!all4GMS# uses the Global title to determine the destination3
A MA1 messa"e enterin" or ori"inatin" from an e@!han"e must either be a
terminatin" messa"e or a messa"e to be routed to another e@!han"e3
Section $ SS%

By analy>in" the "lobal title(GT) of the !alled address4the S##1 will either
route the messa"e to another node with the help of "lobal title routin"
!ase (GT*#) or terminate the messa"e in the node3
.n the terminatin" node the messa"e will be distributed to the !orre!t user
with the help of the subsystem number (SS%)3
Section $ SS%
Orani<ation o! Sinalin In!ormation Orani<ation o! Sinalin In!ormation
Si"nal 'nit : - A "roup of bits formin" a separately transferable entity
used to !on$ey information on a si"nalin" link3
Are of $ariable len"thM ma@imum len"th : ;CB bytes (in!ludin" ;G;
si"nalin" information bytes)
Three types of si"nal units4 differentiated by the len"th indi!ator field
!ontained in ea!h3
Section $ SS%

Tlen"th limitation is imposed to !ontrol the delays one messa"e !an
!ause to others due to their emission timeU
7ill-in si"nal unit (7.S') M ). H B
)ink status si"nal unit ()SS') M ). H 9or ;
Messa"e si"nal unit (MS') M ). H < to A<
Section $ SS%
Sinal 1nits
Sinal 1nits

MS':

!on$ey the si"nalin" information between the user parts (le$el =)


of the adFa!ent si"nalin" points3 -3"3 .AM 4 A#M 4 *-)3

)SS':

a si"nal unit whi!h !ontains status information about the


si"nalin" link3

7.S' :

a si"nal unit !ontainin" only error !ontrol and delimitation


information whi!h is transmitted when there are no MS's or
)SS's to be transmitted3
This is done to allow for a !onsistent error monitorin" so that
faulty links !an be /ui!kly dete!ted and remo$ed from
ser$i!e e$en when traffi! is low3
Section $ SS%
Sinal 1nits
Sinal 1nits
7
=
+>
12
SI7
=n(n?0:
SI@
=
'I
2
7I#
1
7S$
.
#I#
1
#S$
.
7
=
7
=
+>
12
'I
2
7I#
1
7S$
.
#I#
1
#S$
.
7
=
7IS9
7
=
+>
12
S7
= or 12
'I
2
7I#
1
7S$
.
#I#
1
#S$
.
7
=
'SS9
MS9
:
:
:
9
Section $ SS%
S1 &elimitation = 0la imitation -revention S1 &elimitation = 0la imitation -revention
Si"nal 'nit 2elimitation :

A uni/ue pattern on the si"nalin" data link is used to delimit a si"nal


unit :- B999 999B3
D111111D D111111D Main pa#" +/ M!ssa1!
0
(a1 imi"a"i+n P#!%!n"i+n F
II "+ !nsu#! "*a" n+ /as! /a1s a#! p#+2u&!2 in "*!
si1na uni"s, +n$ /i%! &+ns!&u"i%! +n!Js a#! a+)!2 insi2!
"*! si1na uni"3 I/ m+#! "*an /i%! +n!Js +&&u# &+ns!&u"i%!$,
a K!#+ is ins!#"!2 a/"!# "*! /i/"* +n! an2 is #!m+%!2 a1ain in
"*! #!&!i%in1 si1na "!#mina3 T*is is &a!2 Lbi" s"u//in1M3

Section $ SS%
"rror &etection
"rror &etection

-rror 2ete!tion :
-ea!h si"nal unit has standard ##.TT 9A bit !y!li! redundan!y !he!k
(#*#) !he!ksum to enable the re!ei$in" terminal to !he!k that all bits
ha$e been re!ei$ed !orre!tly3

#5 "enerated by transmittin" S1 on all fields e@!ept the 7la"3

*e!ei$in" S1 !al!ulates #5 and !ompares with #5 in the si"nal


unit3

Mismat!h interpreted as error in re!ei$ed si"nal unit : error


!orre!tion pro!edures are in$oked3
Section $ SS%
"rror %orrection
"rror %orrection
Two forms of error !orre!tion methods are used :

Basi! method

1re$enti$e !y!li! re-transmission (1#*)


Basi! Method:

re-transmission o!!urs only when transmittin" S1 is informed by


re!ei$in" S1 about the si"nal units re!ei$ed in error

is a positi$e 6 ne"ati$e A#5 re-transmission error !orre!tion system


Section $ SS%

7or se/uen!e !ontrol4 ea!h si"nalin" unit is assi"ned forward :


ba!kward se/uen!e numbers and forward : ba!kward indi!ator bits3

Se/uen!e %umberin" is performed independently at the two S1s


inter!onne!tin" the link3
The se/uen!e numbers are G bits lon"4 meanin" that at most 9;G
messa"es !an be transmitted without re!ei$in" a positi$e A#53
Section $ SS%
-ositive Acknowledment
-ositive Acknowledment
7S$01:A(7I#0#I#01
7S$01:2(7I#0#I#01
#S$01:2(7I#0#I#01
7S$0;A(7I#0#I#01
MS9 saved in 4T#
MS9 saved in 4T#
#oth MS9 deleted fm
4T#
+orrectly received
MS9 with positive ack(7S$0;<
MS9(#S$ remains 1:2
+orrectly received
9
Section $ SS%
Neative Acknowledment
Neative Acknowledment

-rrored MS' is dis!arded and not deli$ered to le$el < of MT1

S1 sends a ne"ati$e a!k in the ne@t S'

BS% retains the 7S% of last !orre!tly re!ei$ed MS'

B.B is in$erted

All messa"es with 7S% V re!ei$ed BS% sent one by one by fet!hin" from
*TB

7.B $alue in$erted in all retransmitted messa"es

'ntil all messa"es in the *TB are retransmitted4 no fresh MS's are sent3
Section $ SS%
-reventive %yclic ,e*transmission
-reventive %yclic ,e*transmission
1re$enti$e #y!li! *etransmission:

*etransmission takes pla!e for si"nal units whose !orre!t re!eption


is not !onfirmed by the re!ei$in" S1

is a positi$e A#5 !y!li! re-transmission forward error !orre!tion


system3

A !opy of the transmitted MS' is retained at the transmittin"


terminal unit until a positi$e A#5 for that MS' is re!ei$ed3
Section $ SS%

*e transmission *ules :

when there are no new MS's to be sent4 all MS's not


positi$ely a!knowled"ed are retransmitted !y!li!ally3

.f new si"nal units are a$ailable4 the retransmission !y!le (if


any) is interrupted and the si"nal units transmitted with first
priority3

'nder normal !onditions4 with no MS's to be transmitted or


!y!li!ally re-transmitted4 7.S's are sent !ontinuously3
Section $ SS%
Basic .ersus -%,
Basic .ersus -%,
.n both methods4 only errored MS's and )SS's are !orre!ted3

-rrors in 7.S's are dete!ted but not !orre!ted


Both methods are desi"ned to a$oid out of se/uen!e and dupli!ated
messa"es when error !orre!tion takes pla!e3
1#* method is used when the propa"ation delay is lar"e (satellite
transmission)3
Section $ SS%

Eith lar"e propa"ation delays4 the basi! method be!omes


inappropriate be!ause %A#5 system !auses messa"e delays to be
too lon" for the erroneous MS's
##.TT re!ommendations : 1#* should be used when one
way propa"ation delay e@!eeds 9?ms3
2rawba!k of 1#* : ineffi!ient bandwidth utili>ation
.3e3 the ma@imum load le$el a link !an be en"ineered for is
mu!h less with 1#*3
Section $ SS%
"rror ,ate Monitorin
"rror ,ate Monitorin

)e$el ; fun!tions dete!t a failure in the followin" !ir!umstan!es:


(i"h error rate on the si"nalin" units3
-@!essi$e re-ali"nment period3
-@!essi$e A#5 delay3
Si"nalin" terminal failure3
*e!eption of !ontinuous 7.S's3

Two types of si"nalin" error rate monitor is pro$ided


si"nalin" 'nit -rror *ate Monitor (S'-*M)3
Ali"nment -rror *ate Monitor(A-*M)3
Section $ SS%
Sinalin 1nit "rror ,ate Monitor
Sinalin 1nit "rror ,ate Monitor
.s used while a si"nalin" link is !n er"ice3 .t pro$ides the !riteria for takin" a
si"nalin" link 00S due to e@!essi$e error rate3
.s based on a si"nalin" unit error !ount (in!ludin" 7.S's) 4 in!remented :
de!remented usin" the Rleaky bu!ketS al"orithm3
Section $ SS%

7or ea!h errored si"nalin" unit 4 the !ount is in!remented by


one and for ea!h ;?A si"nalin" units re!ei$ed (whether
errored or not)4 a positi$e !ount is de!remented by one (a
>ero !ount is left at >ero)3 Ehen the !ount rea!hes A=4 an
e@!essi$e error rate indi!ation is sent to )e$el < and the
si"nalin" link is put 00S3

The error rate on si"nalin" units should not e@!eed

A= !onse!uti$e erroneous si"nalin" units or

9 erroneous si"nalin" unit out of e$ery ;?A on an


a$era"e3
Section $ SS%
Alinment "rror ,ate Monitor
Alinment "rror ,ate Monitor
.s used while a si"nalin" link is in the pro$in" state of the initial
ali"nment pro!edure3
1ro$ides a !riteria for reFe!tin" a si"nalin" link for ser$i!e durin" the
initial ali"nment due to an e@!essi$e error rate3
Section $ SS%

The Ali"nment error rate monitor is a linear !ounter whi!h is started


at >ero at the start of the pro$in" period and the !ount is
in!remented by one for ea!h )SS' unit re!ei$ed in error3 A pro$in"
period is aborted if the threshold for the ali"nment error rate monitor
!ount is e@!eeded before the pro$in" period timer e@pires3
1arameter +alue
Tin ?
Tie 9
M ?
Section $ SS%
Messae 'abel ty(es (SI0)
Messae 'abel ty(es (SI0)
T 9 9 ? A 9 9 B - N < 6 d B A
S ) #
S ) S
S ) S
S ) S
# i r ! u i t . 2 ! o d e
# i r ! u i t
. 2 ! o d e
0 r i " i n a t i n "
p o i n t ! o d e
0 r i " i n a t i n "
p o i n t ! o d e
0 r i " i n a t i n "
p o i n t ! o d e
0 r i " i n a t i n "
p o i n t ! o d e
2 e s t i n a t i o n
p o i n t ! o d e
2 e s t i n a t i o n
p o i n t ! o d e
2 e s t i n a t i o n
p o i n t ! o d e
2 e s t i n a t i o n
p o i n t ! o d e
M a n a " e m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n
S i " n a l l i n " i n f o r m a t i o n
S i " n a l l i n " i n f o r m a t i o n
S i " n a l l i n " i n f o r m a t i o n
M T 1 m a n a " e m e n t m e s s a " e s : ) a b e l t y p e A
T ' 1 m e s s a " e s : ) a b e l t y p e B
. S ' 1 m e s s a " e s : ) a b e l t y p e #
S # # 1 m e s s a " e s : ) a b e l t y p e 2
* o u t i n " l a b e l
( I G U R 7 G , N 3 G D D
S S N o . 7 m e s s a g e l a b e l t y p e s
Section $ SS%
Messae 'abel
Messae 'abel
#.#

identity of the physi!al !ir!uit that !arries the !all for whi!h the
si"nalin" information is meant3
S)S

si"nalin" link sele!tion is used for load sharin" between


si"nalin" links3
S)#

si"nalin" link !ode identifies the si"nalin" link !onne!tin" the


ori"ination and destination S1s
For implementation of le"el # functions, the re$uired
fields are :
Ser$i!e .nformation 0!tet (S.0)
*outin" )abel
Section $ SS%
Service In!ormation Octet
Service In!ormation Octet
.n!ludes :-

ser$i!e indi!ator (S.- =-bits)

sub ser$i!e indi!ator or network indi!ator (%.- ;-bits)


The S. will determine the R'serS4 e3"3 T'14 S##14 .S'1 and the %. will determine whi!h network is
!on!erned4 e3"3 international or national3
Subser$i!e 7ield #odes (%.)
2 # B A Spare
B B .nternational network
B 9 Spare (for international use only)
9 B %ational network
9 9 *eser$ed for national use
Section $ SS%
Service Indicator %odes
Service Indicator %odes
2 # B A
B B B B Si"nalin" network mana"ement messa"es
B B B 9 Si"nalin" network testin" and maintenan!e messa"es
B B 9 B Spare
B B 9 9 S##1
B 9 B B Telephone 'ser 1art
B 9 B 9 .S2% 'ser 1art
B 9 9 B 2ata 'ser 1art (!all and !ir!uit-related messa"es)
B 9 9 9 2ata 'ser 1art(fa!ility re"istration : !an!ellation messa"es)
9 B B B *eser$ed for MT1 Testin" 'ser 1art
9 B B 9 Broadband .S2% 'ser 1art
9 B 9 B Satellite .S2% 'ser 1art
9 B 9 9 )
to
9 9 9 9 ) Spare
Section $ SS%
,outin 'abel
,outin 'abel

<; bits 4 !onsists of :

0ri"ination 1oint #ode - 9= bits

2estination 1oint #ode - 9= bits

Si"nalin" link sele!tion - = bits

The %.4 to"ether with 9=-bit point !ode4 allows for four si"nalin"
networks ea!h with up to 9A4<C= point !odes3
SLS -#i1ina"in1 P+in" C+2! D!s"ina"i+n P+in" C+2!
Section $ SS%
Sinalin Messae /andlin
Sinalin Messae /andlin
2is!rimination :

dis!rimination fun!tion !ompares the 21# in the routin" label with


the point !ode of own S1
.f 21# H own S1 M messa"e meant for this S1
.f 21# WV own S1 M further pro!essin" performed by routin"
fun!tion
2istribution :

distribution fun!tion e@amines Ser$i!e .ndi!ator to deli$er the


messa"e to the desired user part
Section $ SS%

*outin" :

routin" fun!tion determines the si"nalin" link on whi!h the messa"e


is to be sent

!on!erned with 0G si"nalin" messa"es

routin" table is e@amined alon" with 21# in the messa"e to


determine the 0G S)S a$ailable to route the messa"e3
Section $ SS%
Sinalin 'ink Manaement
Sinalin 'ink Manaement
#ontrols the links !onne!ted to the S1 to maintain !ertain minimum
!apability of !arryin" si"nalin" traffi! under normal operation : in the
e$ent of failures
X
)ink a!ti$ation
pro!ess of makin" a si"nalin" link ready to !arry si"nalin"
traffi!
X
)ink restoration

pro!edure to brin" a pre$iously failed link ba!k into ser$i!e


Section $ SS%
0low %ontrol
0low %ontrol
##S G4 in !ommon with other transport me!hanisms4 needs to
limit the input of data when !on"estion onset is dete!ted3 The
nature of ##S G will lead to S16ST1 o$erload !on"estion bein"
spread throu"h the si"nalin" network if no a!tion is taken3 This
will result in impaired si"nalin" performan!e and messa"e loss3
.n addition to si"nalin" network !on"estion within a node4
!on"estion will also re/uire a!tion to pre$ent si"nalin"
performan!e from deterioratin"3 There is thus a need for flow
!ontrol within the si"nalin" system to maintain the re/uired
si"nalin" performan!e3
Section $ SS%
"#ercise
"#ercise
893 %ame the two different kind of si"nalin" types and !ompare the two3
8;3 %ame the users of the T#A13
8<3 (ow many types of !onne!tions o!!ur in S##1D
8=3 0ut of followin"4 whi!h is used for monitorin" the status of link MS'4
)SS'4 7.S'
Section $ SS%

8?3 (ow many !onse!uti$e 9s are allowed in si"nalin" units and whyD
Section $ SS%
&imensionin
&imensionin

Section % &i'ensioning
Ob$ective
Ob$ective
The Trainee will be able to understand:

Mappin" on the air interfa!e

Mi!rowa$e plannin" !on!epts

si"nalin" link dimensionin" and load sharin"

*outin" strate"ies

-rlan" B4 -rlan" #

%umberin" plan used in mobile networks

G1*S !on!epts
Section % &i'ensioning
Introduction
Introduction
.n a traditional telephony - si"nalin" means the passin" of
information from one point to another for settin" up and
super$ision of telephone !alls3
subs!riber e@!han"e si"nalin" (si"nalin" between subs!riber
and the lo!al e@!han"e)
inter-e@!han"e si"nalin" (si"nalin" between e@!han"es)3
Eith the de$elopment of the ##.TT Si"nalin" System %o3 G the
!apabilities ha$e been enhan!ed to be able to handle non-!all
related data3 -nd user data !an be transferred4 as with the Short
Messa"e Ser$i!e3
Section % &i'ensioning
Abis Ma((in
Abis Ma((in
Besides the traffi! !hannels4 the Abis interfa!e also !arries the re/uired
si"nalin" information in A= 5bit6s !hannels3 0ne si"nalin" !hannel is
normally pro$ided for ea!h trans!ei$er within a BTS for !ontrollin" upto
C subs!ribers per !arrier fre/uen!y3
Section % &i'ensioning

Si" T*, ;
Si" T*, 9
TS B
BSC
TRX 1
TRX 2
1 2 :
8 < ? G
D
1 2 :
8 < ? G
D
Section % &i'ensioning

TS Arran"ement on 1#M )ink :
9 Se!tor o!!upies ;TS for T#( (A= 5bps)
9TS for si"nalin"
Total number of Time slot in one 1#M <;
0ut of whi!h 9 is used as 7AS and other for internal si"nalin"3
TS a$ailable for !arryin" the information <B
Therefore total number of T*,s that !an be !ater on one 1#M
H <B6< H 9B
Section % &i'ensioning

-@ample:
Assumin" that network has BTSs of ; T*, in ea!h se!tor4 then ma@
number of BTSs that !an share the 91#m link is:
9 Se!tor o!!upy ?TS
Therefore4 one BTS o!!upy 9?TS
(en!e4 totoal number of BTSs are H <B69?
H ;
Section % &i'ensioning
Section % &i'ensioning
TS BTS 1 BTS 2
D PCM Mana1!m!n" In/+#ma"i+n
1 TRX 1
2 TRX 1
: TRX1
8 TRX1
< TRX 2
? TRX 2
G TRX 2
; TRX 2
E TRX :
1D TRX :
11 TRX :
12 TRX :
1: TRX 8
18 TRX 8
1< TRX 8
1? TRX 8
1G TRX <
1; TRX <
1E TRX <
2D TRX <
21 TRX ?
22 TRX ?
2: TRX ?
28 TRX ?
2< Si1nain1 BTS1, S!&"+#1
2? Si1nain1 BTS1, S!&"+#2
2G Si1nain1 BTS1, S!&"+#:
2; Si1nain1 BTS2, S!&"+#1
2E Si1nain1 BTS2, S!&"+#2
:D Si1nain1 BTS2, S!&"+#:
:1 C+n"#+ Rin1

Microwave 'inks
Microwave 'inks
A Tele!om %etwork has two main !onstituent
93 A!!ess %etwork and
;3 #onne!ti$ity whi!h is the ba!kbone !onne!ti$ity3
0pti!al fiber is most popular for hi"h!apa!ity routes in %etwork
howe$er mi!rowa$e radio used in lower !apa!ity routes4 in
diffi!ult terrain4 in pri$ate and military !ommuni!ation where
the ad$anta"e of fle@ibility4 se!urity and speed of installation
offered by radio are parti!ularly $aluable3
Section % &i'ensioning
%ellular Network A((lication %ellular Network A((lication
MSC
BSC
BTS
BTS
Section % &i'ensioning

Mi!rowa$e (op: .t is a bi-dire!tional transmission system
!ontainin" ; 2M* one at ea!h end of !onne!tin" elements3
The information !ould be on ;MB or hi"her interfa!e3 The
mi!rowa$e fre/uen!y bands and the radio !hannel spa!in" in
these bands ha$e been all standardi>ed by ##.*3
Some typi!al fre/uen!y bands are ;4 =4 A4G4C4 99 : 9= G(>3 Abo$e
99G(> rain attenuation be!omes a "reater problem and hen!e
restri!t to short haul (shorter hop len"th)3 -a!h band is further
di$ided into se$eral blo!ks of !hannels whi!h is a pair of
fre/uen!ies4 f : fJ for transmission and re!eption3
Section % &i'ensioning
-ro(aation
-ro(aation
Mi!rowa$e beam passes throu"h the part of the atmosphere4 whi!h
is in !lose pro@imity of surfa!e of the earth3 *adio wa$es4 like
li"ht wa$es are also ele!troma"neti! wa$es4 thou"h of lesser
fre/uen!y4 also ha$e the properties of li"ht wa$es like
attenuation4 refra!tion4 diffra!tion4 s!atterin" and polari>ation3
Ehile desi"nin" the system and en"ineerin" link4 the effe!t of all
these are to be taken into !onsideration3
The loss between the transmittin" and re!ei$in" antenna with
Section % &i'ensioning

transmission medium as $a!uum is termed as 7ree Spa!e )oss3
)fs H N;3= I ;B lo" d I ;B lo" f
d H distan!e in 5ms
f H fre/uen!y in Gh>
Section % &i'ensioning
,e!raction >*!actor ,e!raction >*!actor
.t is the s!alin" fa!tor that helps to /uantify the !ur$ature of the
radio beam
5 H effe!ti$e earth radius 6 true earth radius
True earth radius H A<GB km
The an"le of !ur$ature by refra!tion is denoted by the k-fa!tor4
defined as the ratio of the effe!ti$e earth radius (radius of earth
whi!h allow the beam to draw as a strai"ht line) to the true earth
radius3
Section % &i'ensioning
-ath %learance -rocess
-ath %learance -rocess
Mi!rowa$e )ink is based on )0S
Mi!rowa$e 1ath !ur$ature is based on *efra!tion (5)
Mi!rowa$e 1ath should also ha$e 7resnel Yone !learan!e to
a$oid diffra!tion
7resnel Yone: The area around the line of si"ht path whi!h results
into a refle!tion of 9CBZ (half wa$e len"th) at the re!ei$er is
termed as 7irst 7resnel Yone3 The area whi!h results in ; and <
half wa$e len"ths are Se!ond 7resnel Yone3
Section % &i'ensioning

7n H 9G3< S/rt ( nd9d;6f 2)
7n H *adius of 7resnel Yone (!enter point at path)
d9 H distan!e from one end of path to refle!tion point (km)
d; H distan!e from other end of path to refle!tion point (km)
2 H d9 I d;
f H fre/uen!y (G(>)
n H number of 7resnel Yone
Section % &i'ensioning
-ath -ro!ile
-ath -ro!ile
)inear Method
Mi!rowa$e beam is drawn as a strai"ht line
The effe!ti$e earth !ur$ature hei"ht (h) is !al!ulated for a
desired k-fa!tor
hH (d9d;) 6 9;3G? k

7resnel Yone !learan!e is then !al!ulated for the same k $alue


-arth Bul"e H -ffe!ti$e earth !ur$ature hei"ht I 7resnel Yone
!learan!e
Section % &i'ensioning
%ountermeasures
%ountermeasures
7lat 7adin":

)ink 0$erbuildin" (Antenna "ains4 impro$ed re!ei$er performan!e4 power)

Shorten distan!e between sites

1ath di$ersity
Sele!ti$e 7adin":

Spa!e di$ersity

7re/uen!y di$ersity
-/uipment *eliability:
(ot- Standby arran"ement
Section % &i'ensioning
S(ace &iversity
S(ace &iversity
Section % &i'ensioning
0re2uency &iversity
0re2uency &iversity
Tx 1
Tx 2
Rx 1
Rx 2
Section % &i'ensioning
Over ,each Inter!erence
Over ,each Inter!erence
/1
/1J
/2
/2J
/1
/1J
Section % &i'ensioning
Sinalin -lannin Ob$ective
Sinalin -lannin Ob$ective
The main plannin" obFe!ti$es are:

*eliability - disturban!es in the si"nalin" should be a$oided3

*obustness - a fault in one part of the network should not affe!t other parts3

Simple %etwork Ar!hite!ture - the stru!ture of the network should be easy to


understand3

Short 2elay Times - to !ater for hi"h /uality of ser$i!e3


Section % &i'ensioning

1urpose: to dimension the !orre!t amount of hardware to meet
the re/uirements3
0$er dimension V ineffi!ien!y
'nder dimension V !on"estion
.nput data: - subs!riber data
- network data
- GoS
- e/uipment limitations
Si1nain1 Lin. Dim!nsi+nin1
Section % &i'ensioning

Simpli!ity is a!hie$ed by introdu!in" hierar!hi!al le$els3 (ierar!hi!al
networks are fle@ible and allow fast e@pansion of the 1)M%3 (ierar!hi!al
networks are also easy to operate and mana"e3
MaFor part of si"nalin" network delay is indu!ed in intermediate nodes and
not so mu!h on the links (in a properly dimensioned network)3
(ierar!hi!al network stru!tures are therefore also to be preferred from
his point of $iew3
Section % &i'ensioning

&e!inition o! )ra!!ic
A =
B(#A @ M(T
<ABB
'*!#!F A is "*! "#a//i& !xp#!ss!2 in 7#an1 (7)
B4CA = Bus$ 4+u# Ca A""!mp"s
M4T is "*! a%!#a1! *+2in1 "im! (s)
:?DD is "*! numb!# +/ s!&+n2s p!# *+u#
Section % &i'ensioning

Ehen desi"nin" the network4 redundan!y is of maFor importan!e3 There
are !ases thou"h when separation of the !onne!tions on different routes
is not plausible3 0ne should then at least !onsider hardware
redundan!y3
Section % &i'ensioning
)ra!!ic 'ink ,edundancy
)ra!!ic 'ink ,edundancy
CBO of the traffi! sa$ed if one link "oes down
; separated routes < separated routes
T*! #!2un2an&$ /a&"+# b!&+m!s 13? an2 132 #!sp!&"i%!$
!1 1D7 p!# in. "*!nF
;DO(1DH1D)=1?7
;DO(1DH1DH1D),2=1?7
Section % &i'ensioning
%7 Sinalin %once(t in the GSM Network %7 Sinalin %once(t in the GSM Network
Ma@imum si"nalin" load per si"nalin" link
<B O under normal !onditions
AB O under o$erload !onditions
A= kbit6s H CBBB o!tets6s (9 o!tet H C bits)
%ormal load H B3< @ A= H 9N3; kbit6s or
B3< @ CBBB H ;=BB o!tets6s
0$erload H B3A @ A= H <C3= kbit6s or
B3A @ CBBB H =CBB o!tets6s
Section % &i'ensioning
A widely used dimension rule4 based on %o3 G si"nalin" link
dimensionin" for plain 1ST% with T'14 is to allow <BO load on
links in normal operation and ABO in failure situations3
.n GSM networks ;BO load in normal operation is often used3 Eith
MA1 MS's instead of T'1 the same si"nalin" $olume is
"enerated by fewer and lon"er MS's that implies a more bursty
load re/uirin" more mar"in to a!hie$e the same /uality3

Section % &i'ensioning
Sinalin .olumes
Sinalin .olumes
Si"nalin" is re/uired not only for settin" up of !all !onne!tions4 but also for
findin" and up"radin" the present lo!ation of the subs!riber3 -nhan!ed
se!urity in!ludin" both authenti!ation and e/uipment identity !ontrol re/uire
%o3 G si"nalin"3
-stimates of the si"nalin" "enerated by different e$ents in the network !an be
used to !al!ulate the appro@imate si"nalin" load3
Section % &i'ensioning

Si"nalin" #al!ulation Model:
The main input parameters are:

Traffi! per subs!riber

Mean #all holdin" Time

1er!enta"e MT traffi!

)o!ation 'pdates per subs!riber and hour

.nter MS# hando$ers per !all

.MS. atta!h per subs!riber and hour

%umber of authenti!ation triplets fet!hed at a time

short messa"es per subs!riber and hour


Section % &i'ensioning
sinalin .olume "#am(le
sinalin .olume "#am(le
Model 9 Model ;
T#a//i& p!# sub D3D:D7 D3D2<7
M!an *+2in1 "im! 1DDs 12Ds
MT P!#&!n"a1! ::P 2<P
L+&a"i+n Up2a"!s n!) VLR , 131 D38<
subB*+u#
In"!# MSC 4+,&a D31D D3D<
SM , subB*+u# D3< D31
MSC 6 4LR .b,s p!# .sub 13<< D3?<
MSC 6 MSC .b,s p!# .sub D3:< D31<
MSC 67IR .b,s p!# .sub D32D D31D
Section % &i'ensioning

There is a different possibilities for the operator to influen!e the si"nalin"
$olumes per subs!riber:
1la!in" of MS# borders as well as )A borders impa!t the mobility
e@perien!ed in the network3 (it redu!es the )o!ation Area update si"nalin")
1arameter settin"s in the A'# for use of sele!ti$e authenti!ation
1arameter settin"s in the -.* for .M-. !he!k
Section % &i'ensioning
Section % &i'ensioning
%7 ,outin Strateies
%7 ,outin Strateies
.n order to meet the need for e@tended ser$i!es4 i3e3
!ommuni!ation with databases without spee!h !onne!tions4 the
S##1 is used3 S##1 maintains !onne!tion oriented (#0)4
!onne!tionless (#)) network ser$i!es4 !ir!uit related and non-
!ir!uit related si"nalin"3
#onne!tion-oriented si"nalin": used when many messa"es to
transfer between two si"nalin" points (S1) and when messa"es
are so lon" that se"mentin" is needed3
Section % &i'ensioning

#onne!tionless si"nalin" is used for MA13 .n !onne!tionless si"nalin" all messa"e


si"nalin" units !ontain all information re/uired to route ea!h messa"e unit to the
!orre!t destination3

#ir!uit related si"nalin" is si"nalin" related to a spe!ifi! spee!h or data !onne!tion

%on !ir!uit related si"nalin" is si"nalin" not !onne!ted to any spee!h or data
!onne!tion4 i3e3 roamin" si"nalin" in mobile appli!ation3
S##1 make possible routin" of the messa"e on a hi"her le$el (Global Title
Translation (GTT)4 S##1 reroutin")4 i3e3 handle the lo"i!al si"nalin" !onne!tion4
and MT1 is responsible for transportin" the messa"e throu"h the network in a
reliable manner3

Section % &i'ensioning
S%%- ,outin
S%%- ,outin
Section % &i'ensioning

Section % &i'ensioning

The SS% indi!ates the subsystem so the messa"e is distributed to the ri"ht
software in the terminatin" node3 SS% points out MA1 ()*4 MA1 +)*4
MA1 MS#6GMS#4 BSSA14 MA1 -.*4 MA1 A'#4 MA1 S#4 and .S'13
Section % &i'ensioning
M)- ,outin
M)- ,outin
The routin" pro!edure as well as the load sharin" between link sets and within link sets is done
usin":

%etwork .ndi!ator (%.)4

2estination 1oint #ode4

an 0ri"inatin" 1oint #ode (01#) and

a four bit si"nalin" )ink Sele!tion !ode (S)S)3


%. identifies a %o3G %etwork3 21# and 01# are the si"nalin" 1oint #ode (S1#) that uni/uely
defines a si"nalin" 1oint (S1) in the %o3G si"nalin" network3
Section % &i'ensioning

MT1 si"nalin" route !ould either be one si"nalin" link set or load sharin"
o$er si"nalin" link sets3
Section % &i'ensioning

Si"nalin" route alternati$es with different priorities !an be defined
and the routin" alternati$e with lower priority will not be set into
a!tion until the alternati$e with the hi"her priority is totally
blo!ked3
Si"nalin" routin" in the GSM !an be understand by the e@ample of
the network ha$in" three ()*s in three different >ones alon"
with ST1s3

Section % &i'ensioning

Section % &i'ensioning

*outin" prin!iples for %o3 G si"nalin":

Eestern MS# load-share si"nalin" to ()*s o$er Eestern ST1 to -ast


()* and -ast ST1 to -ast ()*3 Se!ond !hoi!e4 if both link sets are out
of order4 si"nalin" is routed o$er #entral ST1 to -ast ()*3

Similar is the !ase for other two ()*s3

()*s are !onne!ted to all three ST13 *outin" of si"nalin" depends on


destined MS# "roup:

si"nalin" towards western MS#s is routed in load-share o$er E - and -


-3 Se!ond !hoi!e4 if both link sets are out of order4 si"nalin" is routed
o$er # -3
Section % &i'ensioning

si"nalin" towards !entral MS#s routed in load-share o$er E - and # -3
Se!ond !hoi!e4 if both link sets are out of order4 si"nalin" is routed o$er
- Tr3
si"nalin" towards eastern MS#s routed in load-share o$er # - and - -3
Se!ond !hoi!e4 if both link sets are out of order4 si"nalin" is routed o$er
# -3
Section % &i'ensioning
Sinalin 'oad Sharin
Sinalin 'oad Sharin
7or load sharin" both between link-sets and between the links on the
link-sets the si"nalin" )ink Sele!tion !ode is used3 This is a four-bit
!ode that is set by the MT1 user3 Ehi!h bit to be used as the load
sharin" bit for load sharin" between the link sets is set by the
)S(B-parameter ()oad sharin" Bit) in the e@!han"e data3
.f all links "et the same number of S)S !odes they will all !arry the
same load4 i3e3 the load is e$enly distributed3 .f all the links do not
"et the same number of S)S !odes then the load will not be e$enly
distributed3

Section % &i'ensioning

The ma@imum load on the link set is limited by the si"nalin" links !arryin"
most of the si"nalin" load
Section % &i'ensioning

Section % &i'ensioning

# is the ma@imum load in normal operation for one link3 7or e@ample4 if we
allow <BO ma@imum load on ea!h A=kb6s link and we ha$e C si"nalin"
links in a link-set3 Then4 assumin" that we do not load share with
another link-set (i3e3 four bit load share within the link-set) the !apa!ity
of link set is C[<BO[A=kb6sH9?<3A 5bps3
Section % &i'ensioning
M)- %haneover in case o! link !ailure M)- %haneover in case o! link !ailure
Section % &i'ensioning

Section % &i'ensioning
)ra!!ic Models
)ra!!ic Models
Two !ommonly used models are -rlan" B and -rlan" #:
Section % &i'ensioning
"rlan B "rlan B
This is a loss model4 in that blo!ked !alls are simply lost rather than bein" held
in some form of /ueuin" system3
.t assumes that !all arri$als follow a 1oisson pro!ess4 that the number of users
is mu!h "reater than the number of !hannels3
7rom the -rlan"-B table4 G !hannels and a GoS of B3B; (;O) !orresponds to
AH ;3N<?= -rl of offered traffi!3
Section % &i'ensioning

Therefore4 !arried traffi! H A (9- GoS)
H ;3N<?= (9- B3B;)
H ;3CGAAN-rl
#hannel 'tili>ation: This is the ratio of !arried traffi! to
number of !hannels

Therefore4
#hannel 'tili>ation H ;3CGAAN6G
H B3=9 or =9O
Section % &i'ensioning
#alls that !annot be handled are put in a /ueue until a !hannel be!omes
a$ailable3 The /ueuin" delay is a fun!tion of the offered pa!ket traffi!4
the ma@imum number of links a$ailable and the mean holdin" time of
ea!h !all3 The -rlan" # formulas are used to determine the probability
of a delay o!!urrin"4 the probability of su!h a delay bein" lar"er than a
!ertain time and also the mean delay3
"rlan % "rlan %
Section % &i'ensioning

-@ample: As !ompared with !ir!uit swit!hed traffi! with a blo!kin"
probability of ;O 9G3? -rlan"s !orresponds to ;; -rlan" in #
table3
This su""ests that there is a "ain in trunkin" effi!ien!y offered by
toleratin" a 9B ms delay in transmission3
Mean delay depends on the mean holdin" time4 whi!h in turn is
proportional to the pa!ket si>e3 1a!ket si>e !an be redu!e in
order to redu!e the holdin" time but it in!rease the si"nalin"
o$erheads3
Section % &i'ensioning
-rocessor 'oad
-rocessor 'oad
Section % &i'ensioning
&e!initions
&e!initions
The pro!essor load is the proportion of time that the pro!essor e@e!utes instru!tions
ha$in" real time re/uirements3 .t is normally e@pressed in per!enta"e of its full
!apa!ity3
.t has followin" !omponents:
.dle load: This !omponent depends on the fun!tionality and to some e@tent on the
si>e of the e@!han"e3 The idle load is not dependent on the traffi! or other e@ternal
a!ti$ities but $aries from pro!essor to pro!essor3
#ontinuedL33
Section % &i'ensioning

'sa"e load: This !omponent is !aused by operation and maintenan!e
a!ti$ities su!h as data dumps4 !ommands4 traffi! measurements and
printout of statisti!s3
Traffi! load: This !omponent is used for traffi! handlin"3
)oadability: The loadability is the upper limit for the allowed pro!essor
load3 .t depends on the pro!essor but also on the Fob len"ths and delay
re/uirements3
#ontinuedL33
Section % &i'ensioning

)oad per !all: This is the amount of e@e!ution time that the
pro!essor has to spend in settin" up and dis!onne!tin" a !all3
)oad per !all is normally e@pressed in millise!onds (ms)4 but is
sometimes e@pressed as the number of ASA (assembler)
instru!tions ne!essary to fulfill the task3
Traffi! peak mar"in: .s sometimes referred to as Safety mar"in3
The traffi! peak mar"in is normally ;B-<?O of the a$ailable
traffi! load3 This is needed to allow for unpredi!table traffi!
peaks3
Section % &i'ensioning

Section % &i'ensioning
%a(acity
%a(acity
)ra!!ic ca(acity4 (e " ;4?BB -rlan")4 tells how many simultaneous
!alls a unit !an handle3 0ne -rlan" !orresponds to one busy
line3 .f a subs!riber !alls ;? m-rlan" durin" busy hour4 he is in
a$era"e !allin" ;?69BBB of the hour (H;?[AB[AB69BBB H NB
se!onds)3
-rlan" !an be limited by for e@ample the "roup swit!h4 a$ailable
spee!h trunks4 trans!oders et!3 But this does not "i$e any idea
about the pro!essor loadin" as well as nor about non !all
a!ti$ities3
#ontinuedL33
Section % &i'ensioning

%all ca(acity4 (e " 9BB4BBB B(#A)4 tells how many !all attempts a
unit !an handle durin" busy hour3 This fi"ure is a better measure
of pro!essor !apa!ity but still4 this measure does not take into
a!!ount non-!all related a!ti$ities3
Subscriber ca(acity4 (e " AB4BBB subs!ribers)4 tells how many
subs!ribers that !an be ser$ed by a unit3 This fi"ure is stron"ly
dependin" on subs!riber beha$ior3
#ontinuedL33
Section % &i'ensioning

Addressin ca(acity4 (e " 9B;B T*,s)4 tells how many (E or SE
de$i!es that !an be !onne!ted 6 defined3 This is also known as system
limits3 (ere4 no !onsiderations to real-time pro!essin" needs or amount
of traffi! are made3
Section % &i'ensioning
)ra!!ic 'oad &istribution
)ra!!ic 'oad &istribution
Section % &i'ensioning

.n the default traffi! load distribution for a GMS#6MS#6()* the !all part
takes about GBO of the !apa!ity of the traffi! load4 the lo!ation updatin"
part about ;?O4 the SMS part <O and supplementary ser$i!es
appro@imately ;O3
.f one look into the traffi! part (GBO of traffi! load) the a!tual basi! load part
is ?<O of the usa"e load4 a "ate way load part is G3?O4 a !har"in" part
?O4 a hando$er part <O and a part used for authenti!ation about 9O
Section % &i'ensioning

Section % &i'ensioning
Numberin -lan
Numberin -lan
The MS.S2% is a number whi!h uni/uely identifies a mobile telephone
subs!ription in the publi! swit!hed telephone network numberin" plan3 These
are the di"its dialed when !allin" a mobile subs!riber3
.n GSM NBB6GSM 9CBB4 the MS.S2% !onsists of the followin":
MS.S2% H ## I %2# I S%
Section % &i'ensioning

## H #ountry #ode
%2# H %ational 2estination #ode
S% H Subs!riber %umber
Section % &i'ensioning
In"!#na"i+na
P#!/ix
C+un"#$
C+2!
Na"i+na
D!s"ina"i+n C+2!
Subs&#ib!#
Numb!#
DDE1 E; 11: 2:88;
T*! 2i1i"s Q11:J i2!n"i/$ "*! GSM EDD,GSM 1;DD PLMN a#!a
&+2!3
T*! 2i1i"s Q2:88;J 2!/in! "*! /i%! 2i1i"s, )*i&* i2!n"i/$ "*!
m+bi! subs&#ib!#3
Section % &i'ensioning

A %2# is allo!ated to ea!h 1)M%3 .n some !ountries4 more than one
%2# may be re/uired for ea!h 1)M%3
The international MS.S2% number may be of $ariable len"th3The
ma@imum len"th is 9? di"its4 prefi@es not in!luded3
-@ample: Sin"apore 1ST% subs!riber is !allin" to an .ndian GSM
1)M% subs!riber
#ontinuedL33
Section % &i'ensioning
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
The .MS. is the information whi!h uni/uely identifies a sub in a GSM
1)M%3 .t is used in all the si"nalin" in the 1)M%3
.t will be stored in the in the Subs!riber .dentity Module (S.M)4 as well as in
the ()* and in the ser$in" +)*3
.t !onsists of three different parts
Section % &i'ensioning

.MS. H M## I M%# I MS.%
M## H Mobile #ountry #ode (< di"its)
M%# H Mobile %etwork #ode (; di"its)
MS.%H Mobile Station .dentifi!ation %umber
All network related subs!riber information is !onne!ted to the .MS.3
Section % &i'ensioning

.n GSM 9NBB4 the MS.S2% !onsists of the followin":
MS.S2% H ## I %1A I S%
## H #ountry #ode
%1A H %umber 1lannin" Area
S% H Subs!riber %umber
Section % &i'ensioning

The %1A is allo!ated to ea!h GSM 9NBB 1)M%3 The len"th of MS.S2%
depends on the stru!ture and operatin" plan of ea!h operator3 The
ma@imum len"th is 9? di"its4 prefi@es not in!luded3
Section % &i'ensioning

-@amples:
@y> H operator !ode
ab!de H Subs!riber number
ST2 !ode H 1ST% area !ode (99 for delhi)
#all from 1ST% to 1)M%
)o!al #all NC @y> ab!de
0utside area !all B NC @y> ab!de
#all from 1)M% to 1ST%
)o!al #all BIST2 !odeIS%
0utside area !all BIST2 !odeIS%
Section % &i'ensioning
G-,S %ore Network -lannin
G-,S %ore Network -lannin

Section % &i'ensioning
%ircuit .s -acket &ata
%ircuit .s -acket &ata
#ir!uit Swit!hed Ser$i!e:
;G system (primarily $oi!e and data on !ir!uit swit!hed air interfa!e)
#all !har"in" based on !hannel holdin" time3
Ma@imum number of users per T2MA !hannel is C
Suitable for !onstant bit rate appli!ations
*esour!e allo!ation is done su!h that ') and 2) are paired3
Section % &i'ensioning

1a!ket Swit!hed Ser$i!e:
Se$eral users !an share the same !hannel3
#har"es based on !hannel usa"e (a!tual usa"e of byte
transferred)3
Eell suited for bursty traffi!3
*esour!e allo!ation done independently on ') and 2) ("ood for
appli!ations with asymmetri!al bit rate)
2ynami! allo!ation of resour!es
#an multiple@ traffi! ($oi!e4 data4 $ideo)3
Section % &i'ensioning
:
0ffered G1*S Traffi!
?
8
9
:
;
@
A
7
B
C
8?
)%/
#ir!uit Swit!hed Traffi!
?
9
;
A
B
8?
89
8;
)%/
GSM
!apa!ity
A
B
8?
89
8;
?
9
;
Speech traffic leaves some capacity for
packet data
Section % &i'ensioning
G-,S System !eature
G-,S System !eature

+ariable /uality of ser$i!e3

.ndependent pa!ket routin"3

1roto!ol transparent (en!apsulation : tunnelin")

Slotted A)0(A for random a!!ess pro!edure

1ro$ides .1 !onne!ti$ity to mobile subs!riber3

Build on e@istin" GSM infrastru!ture with added nodes for supportin" pa!kets3
Ser$in" G1*S Support %ode (SGS%)
Gateway G1*S Support %ode (GGS%)
Section % &i'ensioning
%once(tual .iew on G-,S
%once(tual .iew on G-,S
Shared GSM and G-,S
In!rastructure
Internet
%or(orate Intranet
Internet
%or(orate Intranet
G-,S %ore
G-,S %ore
BS%
BS%
B)S
B)S
GSM .oice
Access
-oint
G-,S In!rastructure I- Dorld
Section % &i'ensioning
Air Inter!ace * Mobile )erminal
Air Inter!ace * Mobile )erminal
0
Type C GPRS +n$
(+# manua$ s)i"&*!2 b!")!!n GPRS an2 sp!!&* m+2!s)
0
Type B GPRS an2 Sp!!&* (n+" a" sam! "im!)
(Au"+ma"i&a$ s)i"&*!s b!")!!n GPRS an2 sp!!&* m+2!s)
0
Type A GPRS an2 Sp!!&* a" "*! sam! "im!
BSC
BTS
Section % &i'ensioning
G-,S Attach = &etach
G-,S Attach = &etach
Atta!h
1erformed when the MS indi!ates its presen!e to 1)M% for the purpose
of usin" G1*S ser$i!e
#arried out between MS and SGS%
MS identifies itself with its GSM identity
G1*S subs!ription ne!essary for su!!essful atta!h
2eta!h
1erformed when the MS indi!ates to the 1)M% that it no lon"er be
usin" G1*S ser$i!es
MS identifies itself with its GSM identity
Section % &i'ensioning
Section % &i'ensioning
System Architecture
System Architecture
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC SGSN GGSN
Da"a
N!")+#.s
Um
Abis
4LR
Gb Gn
G#
G&
Gi
Section % &i'ensioning
SGSN
SGSN
*esponsible for deli$ery of pa!kets to mobile subs!ribers in its
ser$i!e area3
Mobility Mana"ement
)o"i!al link mana"ement4 authenti!ation
G1*S user- related data needed by SGS% to perform routin"
and transfer fun!tionality stored in G1*S *e"ister e" !urrent
!ell4 !urrent +)*4 user profile in!ludin" .MS. and its address in
12%3
.nterfa!e point between !ore and *adio networks
Section % &i'ensioning
A!ts as an interfa!e between G1*S network and e@ternal 12%s
Mainly responsible for pa!ket routin"4 transfer and mobility
mana"ement
#on$erts pa!kets from SGS% into appropriate 121 format and
sends them out to !orrespondin" 12%
121 addresses of in!omin" data pa!kets from 12% are
!on$erted to .MS. of the destination user and sent to the
responsible SGS%3
Tunnelin"
GGSN
GGSN
Section % &i'ensioning
#ir!uit Swit!hed traffi! has priority
.n ea!h !ell #ir!uit Swit!hed : 1a!ket Swit!hed territories are defined
Territories !onsist of !onse!uti$e timeslots
),3 8
),3 9
###( TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
#ir!uit
Swit!hed
Territory
1a!ket
Swit!hed
Territory
Territory border mo$es
2ynami!allybased on #ir!uit
Swit!hed traffi! load
&e!ault
G-,S
%a(acity
&edicated
G-,S
%a(acity
TS TS
Additional
G-,S
%a(acity
TS TS
GPRS and GSM Resource sharin
Section % &i'ensioning
%a(acity Manaement
%a(acity Manaement
2edi!ated G1*S #apa!ity
T#(s reser$ed e@!lusi$ely for G1*S use3
2efault G1*S #apa!ity
T#(s always allo!ated to the G1*S when !ir!uit swit!hed load
permits3
5eeps G1*S timeslots !onse!uti$e (important for multislot
operation)
Section % &i'ensioning
-&- %onte#t Activation * 8 -&- %onte#t Activation * 8
Accessin the /', Accessin the /',
BTS BS#
SGS%
GGS%
.ntranet
G1*S
Ba!kbone
.1 %etwork
SSG
()*
2%S
0 A&&!ss P+in" Nam! = R!/!#!n&! "+ an
!x"!#na pa&.!" 2a"a n!")+#. "*! us!#
)an"s "+ &+nn!&" "+
.nternet
A1%H
Q.ntranet3)td3!omQ
93
;3
A!!ess
1oint
0 1! MS s!n2s RA&"i%a"! PDP
C+n"!x" R!@u!s"R "+ SGSN
A A&&!ss P+in" Nam!
A PDP T$p! (IP)
A PDP A22#!ss (!mp"$ ==
2$nami&)
A N+S B +"*!# +p"i+ns
2! SGSN &*!&.s a1ains" 4LR
A&&!ss P+in" Nam!
D$nami& , s"a"i& IP a22#!ss
N+S
Section % &i'ensioning
-&- %onte#t Activation * 9 -&- %onte#t Activation * 9
0indin the GGSN 0indin the GGSN
BTS BS#
SGS%
GGS%
G1*S
Ba!kbone
.1 %etwork
2%S
0 DNS = D+main Nam! S$s"!m = m!&*anism "+
map +1i&a nam!s "+ IP a22#!ss!s
.ntranet
93
;3
A!!ess
1oint
0 1! SGSN 1!"s "*! GGSN IP a22#!ss
/#+m DNS
A APN maps "+ "*! GGSN IP
a22#!ss
2! SGSN s!n2s RC#!a"! PDP C+n"!x"
R!@u!s"R "+ GGSN
PDP T$p! (IP)
PDP A22#!ss (i/ !mp"$=I 2$nami&
a22#!ss)
A&&!ss P+in" Nam!
N+S
Section % &i'ensioning
-&- %onte#t Activation * : -&- %onte#t Activation * :
Access -oint Selection Access -oint Selection
BTS BS#
SGS%
GGS%
G1*S
Ba!kbone
.1 %etwork
2%S
.ntranet
.nternet
A1%HQ.ntranet3)td3!omQ
0 A&&!ss P+in" Nam! #!/!#s "+ "*!
!x"!#na n!")+#. "*! subs&#ib!#
)an"s "+ us!
AP*$si&a,+1i&a in"!#/a&! in
GGSN
0 A&&!ss P+in" &+n/i1u#a"i+n in
GGSN 2!/in!s )*!#! "+ &+nn!&"
"*! us!#
0 I/ 2$nami& a22#!ss, a+&a"!2 b$
GGSN
Section % &i'ensioning
-&- %onte#t Activation * ; -&- %onte#t Activation * ;
%onte#t Activated %onte#t Activated
BTS BS#
SGS%
GGS%
G1*S
Ba!kbone
.1 %etwork
.ntranet
.nternet
93
;3
0 1! GGSN s!n2s RC#!a"! PDP
C+n"!x" R!sp+ns!R ba&. "+ SGSN
0 2! SGSN s!n2s RA&"i%a"! PDP
C+n"!x" A&&!p"R "+ "*! MS
0 SGSN n+) #!a2$ "+ #+u"! us!#
"#a//i& b!")!!n MS an2 GGSN
Section % &i'ensioning
"#ercise
"#ercise
893 (ow many 1#Ms are re/uired for one BTS with ;494; and
other with <4;49 !onfi"urationD
8;3 #al!ulate the free spa!e loss for ;B5m distan!e at 9?G(>
fre/uen!yD
8<3 #al!ulate the ;
nd
7resnel Yone for total distan!e of ;B5m at a
distan!e of 9B5m from one end3 7re/uen!y used is 9?G(>3
8=3 Ehat pre!aution has to be taken to a$oid the o$er rea!h
problem in the mi!rowa$e linksD
Section % &i'ensioning
O(timisation
O(timisation

Section ( Opti'isation
Ob$ective
Ob$ective
The Trainee will be able to understand:
si"nalin" delay in the network
-ffe!t on the network while introdu!in" the new releases
.mpa!ts of subs!riber beha$ior
T#16.1 !on!epts
Section ( Opti'isation
Introduction
Introduction
The "oal of optimi>ation is to ensure the network is operatin" at
optimum effi!ien!y and within the defined /uality of ser$i!e
!onstraints3 This is a!hie$ed by implementin" !orre!ti$e a!tion
and pro!edures to re!tify network problems identified thou"h
analysis of performan!e mana"ement monitorin" parameters3
+endors are !ontinually seekin" ways of ma@imi>in" re$enue
"eneration with minimum additional in$estment3 0ne way of
a!hie$in" this is to identify areas where the network is not
operatin" at peek effi!ien!y and makin" adFustments for
impro$ement3
Section ( Opti'isation
O(timi<ation is a %yclic -rocess O(timi<ation is a %yclic -rocess
Section ( Opti'isation
Sinalin &elay
Sinalin &elay
The si"nalin" network delay depends on a $ariety of parameters4
amon" others: bit error rate4 si"nalin" link propa"ation and
pro!essin" time4 a$era"e link load4 mean MS' len"th on link4
mean MS' len"th of transmitted si"nal4 number of si"nalin"
links in si"nalin" path4 number of ST1s in si"nalin" link path4
bufferin" and /ueuin" times in ST1 et!3
5ey parameters that are $aried are mean MS'-len"th4 mean
si"nalin" link load4 and number of ST1s and si"nalin" links in
path3
Section ( Opti'isation

Typi!al $alues used for !al!ulatin" the delay:
Bit -rror *ate on link C3<@9B-=
Mean MS' len"ths a) ;< o!t
b) G= o!t
ST1 delay ;Bms
Si"nalin" link propa"ation 9Bms
and pro!essin"
Section ( Opti'isation

7or a !onstant bit error rate of C3<@9B-= and basi! error !orre!tion4 the
waitin" times (Tw) on the out"oin" side are shown in table below for
mean MS' len"th ;< o!tets and for mean MS' len"ths of G= o!tets3
Section ( Opti'isation

ST1 2elay (TST1): .n ##.TT Blue Book4 a !ross ST1 delay of ;Bms is
estimated for B3; link load3
1ropa"ation and 1ro!essin" Time (T)): This in!ludes transmission
time on link and pro!essin" time of messa"e3 The o$erall main part of T)
is the transmission time3 7or "round-installed links for whi!h basi! error
!orre!tion is used4 T) should be less than 9?ms3
Section ( Opti'isation

Si"nalin" %etwork 2elay -@ample: #onsider two !ases
93 the si"nal passes one intermediate ST1 before rea!hin" its
destination
;3 the si"nal passes two intermediate ST1s before rea!hin" its
destination
Section ( Opti'isation


Si"nalin" %etwork 2elay with one intermediate ST13
The si"nalin" link delay4 S)2 is deri$ed from:
S)2 H ;@(TE I T)) I TST1
Si1nain1 N!")+#. D!a$ )i"* ")+ in"!#m!2ia"! STPs3
T*! si1nain1 in. 2!a$, SLD is 2!#i%!2 /#+mF
SLD = :x(T' H TL) H 2xTSTP
Section ( Opti'isation

.t is to be mentioned that dependen!e between the MS' len"ths and the
delay times is not ne!essarily linear3
Section ( Opti'isation
Im(acts On %a(acity
Im(acts On %a(acity
Ehen introdu!in" a new release
%ew releases typi!ally mean a drop of 9B-9?O of system
!apa!ity3 The BS# de!rease is often less than for MS#3 The
reason is that new BS# releases often !ontain more 0:M
impro$ements than traffi!al ones3
Subs!riber Beha$ior
The !all type affe!ts the !apa!ity re/uired per !all4 e3"34 the load
per !all is different dependin" on type of !all3 )oad per !all is
defined as the e@e!ution time of a !all3 This is the time
ne!essary to e@e!ute the pro"ram !ode for a !all in the #1
(#entral 1ro!essor)3 By a !all is meant a !all setup4 !all release
and information sent in !onne!tion with the !all3
Section ( Opti'isation

#all attempts ha$e the hi"hest impa!t on !apa!ity3 0ne !all setup
plus !lear !onsumes about ;? ms e@e!ution time3 SMS point-to-
point takes about ;6< of !all e@e!ution in the BS# (;6< of ;? ms)3
Most SMS6ptp are mobile terminated4 and need pa"in" as well3
*e"istrations take rou"hly 96< of !all e@e!ution in the BS#3 2ue to
the bi" number of them4 the total #1 load from re"istrations is
often hi"her than for !alls3
Section ( Opti'isation

%etwork #onfi"uration
The number of BS#s per MS# !an ha$e a maFor impa!t on the
system !apa!ity due to the shift of intra-BS# hando$ers to the
inter-BS# hando$ers4 whi!h will in!rease in !ase of a hi"her
number of BS#s3 An in!rease of the number of inter-BS#
hando$ers with a fa!tor of 9B will take GO more of the !apa!ity3
A MS# !onfi"uration with stand alone ()* will in!rease the
!apa!ity of the MS# with 9?O !ompared to a MS# with
inte"rated ()* (worth mention that this 9?O fi"ure has been
deri$ed from !omparin" the total MS#6()* !apa!ity with the
ma@imum !apa!ity of a MS# without ()*)3
Section ( Opti'isation

The BS# !o$erin" areas should "enerally be !hosen so that the
boundaries as far as possible are lo!ated in areas with low
hando$er intensity3 The reason is that hi"h hando$er fre/uen!y
de!reases MS# and BS# !apa!ity3 #onse/uently4 boundaries
throu"h !ity kernels and areas !lose to hi"hways should4 if
possible4 be a$oided3
The $alue that the periodi! lo!ation update is set to affe!ts the
!apa!ity3 The period !an be set between A and 9?<B minutes in
steps of A minutes3 The minimum period sustainable by the
system depends on the number of subs!ribers and their traffi!
beha$ior3
Section ( Opti'isation

The number of periodi! lo!ation updates has a si"nifi!ant impa!t
on the MS# !apa!ity4 therefore it is ad$isable to set the periodi!
lo!ation update timer $ery !arefully3 Most operators !hoose a
short period for the for!ed re"istration4 !aused by the fear of
loosin" tra!k of the subs!ribers3 .n !ase of system re!o$ery after
a lar"e restart the periodi! lo!ation update rate will impa!t the
re!o$ery time se$erely3 Therefore the re!ommendation is to use
9;B minutes for the timer $alue3 .t is worth mention that the
positi$e effe!t on the MS# may impa!t the BS# performan!e
ne"ati$ely due to a hi"her number of pa"in"s3
Section ( Opti'isation

%umber of )o!ation Areas ()As) has impa!t on BS# load3 .f there are
many !ells per area4 the lo!al pa"e attempts will be /uite hea$y3 .f
in!reasin" the number of )As4 the pa"in" load will "o down3 0n the
other hand: .f hi"h mo$ability for mobiles4 the load from lo!ation updates
will in!rease3 Ehen findin" the optimal point4 also load in MS# must be
looked into3
Section ( Opti'isation

Addin" %ew Appli!ations
The followin" table presents the #1 !apa!ity impa!ts on an
a$era"e node
A'# (Authenti!ation #enter) -B3=O
7%* (7le@ible %umberin") -;3?O
S#7 (Ser$i!e #ontrol 7un!tion) -;3BO
(Based on 9BO .% !alls)
SS7 (Ser$i!e Swit!hin" 7un!tion) -9BO
(Based on 9BO .% !alls)
1*A (1rimary *ate A!!ess <BB I 2) -9NO
(Based on 9Bk B(#A 1*A traffi!)
Section ( Opti'isation
%a(acity Gains
%a(acity Gains
.M-. #he!k on )o!ation 'pdate
.t is possible to swit!h off the .M-. !he!k fun!tion for lo!ation
update4 whi!h in!reases the !apa!ity with ;O3
'sa"e of Toll Ti!ket
0utput only those !all data re!ords that are needed4 where
possible a!!ountin" should be used instead3 7or instan!e
swit!hin" off the )and to )and !all data re!ord in!reases the
!apa!ity with <3;O3
Section ( Opti'isation

TMS. *eallo!ation
Swit!hin" off the TMS. reallo!ation at lo!ation update4 !han"e of )A.4 intra-
MS# fun!tion will result in ;O more !apa!ity3
Authenti!ation at )o!ation 'pdate
Swit!hin" off authenti!ation at lo!ation update4 !han"e of )A.4 intra-MS#
will result in an in!rease of the !apa!ity with 9O3
Section ( Opti'isation

Sele!ti$e .M-. #he!k
.t is ad$isable to use the sele!ti$e .M-. !he!k for all a!!ess types4
whi!h results in a "ain of !apa!ity of =O3 To be able to de!rease
the system re!o$ery time it is re!ommended to swit!h off .M-.
!he!kin" for the a!!ess type lo!ation update3
Sele!ti$e Authenti!ation
The usa"e of sele!ti$e authenti!ation for all a!!ess types is stron"ly
re!ommended from a !apa!ity point of $iew3 .n !ase of the
a!ti$ation of sele!ti$e authenti!ation instead of authenti!ation for
ea!h a!!ess4 the in!rease of !apa!ity is e/ual to A3;O3
Section ( Opti'isation
%onclusion
%onclusion
A better network and !ell plannin" will result in some !ases in more
!apa!ity4 when less lo!ation updates and hando$ers are
needed3 Moreo$er the number of small nodes in a network may
de!rease the o$erall network !apa!ity4 sin!e they may introdu!e
more inter-MS# hando$ers4 more new re"istrations and a hi"her
amount of transit traffi! !ompared to a network with se$eral bi"
nodes3 7urthermore the split of GMS# and MS# allows a better
maintainable network and more !apa!ity in the separate entities4
also the usa"e of different pro!essors for ea!h entity will be
possible3 Stand-alone ()* will also in!rease the total !apa!ity in
the network3
Section ( Opti'isation
G-,S )%-=I- Strateies
G-,S )%-=I- Strateies
2ata"ram: .t is a te!hni!al term for a pa!ket of data and !omposed of
many !omponents3 The most basi! is:
B1BBB1B1B1BB1B1B1B1BB1BB1B1111B1B1BB1B1B1BB1B
1B1B1BB1B1B1BB1B1B1BB1B1B1B1B1BB1B1B1B1BB1B11
1BBBB11111B1BB1BB1BBB1B1B1BBB1BBBBBBB1111BB1B
B1B1BB1BBB1B1B1BB1B1B1B1BB1BB1B1111B1B1BB1B1B
1BB1B1B1B1BB1B1B1BB1B1B1BB1B1B1B1B1BB1B1B1B1B
B1B111BBB11111B1BB1BB1BBB1B1B1BBB1BBBBBBB1111
BB1BB1B1BB1BBB1B1B1BB1B1B1B1BB1BB1B1111B1B1BB
1B1B1BB1B1B1B1BB1B1B1BB1B1B1BB1B1B1B1B1BB1B1B
1B1BB1B111BBBB11111B1BB1BB1BBB1B1B1BBB1BBBBBB
B1111BB1BB1B1BB1BBB1BB
!o" #$%.$&.''.#$
(rom" #&).$*.'+.$&
4!a2!#
Da"a
Section ( Opti'isation
I- &ataram %om(onents
I- &ataram %om(onents
Options (and padding)
Data
Destination Address
Source Address
Time to Live Header Checksum Protocol
Identification Flags Fragmentation Offset
Version IHL Type of Service Total Length
Section ( Opti'isation
DhatEs in a &ataram
DhatEs in a &ataram
+ersion: +ersion of .1 (e@ample: .1$=4 .1$A)
.1 (eader )en"th: The data"ramJs header si>e in <; bit words3
Type of Ser$i!e: .ndi!ates RpriorityS of the pa!ket3 This is determined
by the type of data in the pa!ket3 (8oS - 8uality of Ser$i!e)
Total len"th: Si>e of the .1 pa!ket (in bytes)3
.dentifi!ation: An inte"er number identifyin" the data"ram3
Section ( Opti'isation

7la"s: A <-bit field of whi!h the low-order ; bits !ontrol
fra"mentation3 0ne bit spe!ifies whether the pa!ket !an be
fra"mentedM the se!ond bit spe!ifies whether the pa!ket is the
last fra"ment in a series of fra"mented pa!kets3
7ra"mentation 0ffset: A se/uen!e number for the bytes in
this pa!ket when reassemblin"3
Time-to-li$e: A !ounter that dis!ards the data"ram when it
rea!hes a limited3 This pre$ents the pa!ket from loopin"
endlessly on the network3
1roto!ol: .ndi!ates whi!h upper-layer proto!ol re!ei$es
in!omin" pa!kets after .1 pro!essin" is !omplete3
Section ( Opti'isation

(eader #he!ksum: (elps ensure .1 header inte"rity3
Sour!e Address: Spe!ifies the sendin" node3
2estination Address: Spe!ifies the re!ei$in" node3
0ptions: Allows .1 to support $arious options4 su!h as se!urity3
2ata: .nformation payload3
Section ( Opti'isation

0
TCP,IP is "*! Pa&.!" Da"a
"!&*n++1$ us!2 b$ "*! In"!#n!"3
0
GPRS )i as+ b! usin1 "*!
TCP,IP s"an2a#23
Section ( Opti'isation
Physical
Link
Network
Transport
T
C
P
/
I
P

7
-
L
a
y
e
r

S
t
a
c
k

(
O
S
I

R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

M
o
d
e
l
)
TCP
Fiber cable, Microwave link
IP
Network Interface Card
WWW, e-mail, data services
Session
Presentation
Application
Section ( Opti'isation
)%- %haracteristics
)%- %haracteristics
0
C+n&!#n!2 +n$ )i"* "*! +#i1in
an2 2!s"ina"i+n +n "*! n!")+#.3
0
A2ap"s "+ &+n1!s"i+n
0
P#+%i2!s %i#"ua &+nn!&"i+n
Section ( Opti'isation
I- Addressin
I- Addressin
7or e@ample:

8@?698@6876C (0!tets B-;??)

.n binary form4 it looks like:


9BB9B99B399B9B9993BBB9BBB93BBBB9BB9
R.1 numberS is like an address
136.20.2.3
136.20.2.2
136.20.2.1
Section ( Opti'isation

An .1 address !onsists of two parts

.dentifies the network

.dentifies the node or host


These two parts spe!ifies the class where the node belon"s33
Section ( Opti'isation
Address %lasses
Address %lasses
There are ? different address !lasses3
The first byte of the first o!tet determines the !lass of the address3

#lass A addresses start with B3

#lass B addresses start with 9B3

#lass # addresses start with 99B3

#lass 2 addresses start with 999B3

#lass - addresses start with 9999


Section ( Opti'isation
@ %lasses o! I- Address
@ %lasses o! I- Address
9
12<
31
?:
15
15
)uantity o*
&o'ains
+Networks,
in each
!lass
Cass AF 1612?
Cass BF 12;61E1
Cass CF 1E2622:
12GF R!s!#%!2 (++pba&.)
Section ( Opti'isation
0indin an I-Es Network Address
0indin an I-Es Network Address
Ehen a node re!ei$es a pa!ket4 it needs to determine the %etwork
Address of the network where the destination node belon"s3
This is done by usin" the network subnet mask3
Subtra!tin" the subnet mask to an .1 address results in the identifi!ation
of the network and node se!tions of an the .1 address
10010110.11010111.00010001.00001001 150.215.017.009
- 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 255.255.000.000
10010110.11010111.00000000.00000000 150.215.000.000
Section ( Opti'isation
)ransmission Methods
)ransmission Methods
Transmission is the supportin" layer under T#16.13
Types of transmission

7rame *elay

ATM (Asyn!hronous Transfer Mode)


Section ( Opti'isation
A)M
A)M
Asyn!hronous Transfer Mode - A hi"h speed4 low delay4 multiple@in" and
swit!hin" te!hnolo"y that !an support any type of traffi! in!ludin" $oi!e4
data4 and $ideo appli!ations3 ATM is ideally suited to appli!ations that
!annot tolerate time delay4 as well as for transportin" frame relay and .1
traffi! that are !hara!teri>ed as RburstyS3
Section ( Opti'isation
Other -acket*Based Networks
Other -acket*Based Networks
,3;? --- A popular standard for pa!ket-swit!hin" networks3
#)%1 --- (#onne!tion-)ess %etwork 1roto!ol) deri$ed from .13
Section ( Opti'isation