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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Basics of Internetworking Basics of Internetworking
Ethernet Based LAN
2 2
TOPC-E4011E-02-
General Internetworking General Internetworking
LAN
Ethernet
LAN
LAN
LAN
L A N Ethernet
LAN
WAN
File
SVR
File
SVR
Switch
Router
H
U
B
LAN
N
E
N
E
N
E
i.e. Ethernet
over Radio
Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
The LAN Environment
The WAN Environment
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Contents Contents
1. General Description of an Ethernet Based LAN
2. Layer 2 Switching
3. Layer 3 and Routing
4. VLAN Technology
5. Principles of Flow Control and Auto Negotiation
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Chapter 1 Chapter 1
General Description of an Ethernet Based LAN
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LAN based on Hub LAN based on Hub
Fm
A
to
C
MSG
Fm
A
to
C
MSG
Fm
A
to
C
MSG
Ethernet HUB
A
B
C
Hosts connect to a LAN
through their Ethernet Board.
Each board has a unique
address called MAC Address
Ethernet Hub acts as repeater
Any message input through
any hub port is replicated on
all remaining hub ports
All Hosts share the bandwidth
of the Ethernet Network (for
example, 10 Mbps)
Stations cannot send and
receive at the same time (Half
Duplex mode of operation is
mandatory)
: Ethernet Board
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Shared Media: Collisions! Shared Media: Collisions!
Fm
A
to
C
MSG Fm
C
to
B
MSG
Ethernet HUB
A
B
C
Collision: Simultaneous
transmission by multiple
Hosts
Information is lost, and must
be re-transmitted
Possibility of collision
increases with the number of
hosts connected to the same
shared Ethernet segment
(known as the size of the
Collision Domain)
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Unicast Unicast Transmission Transmission
A
B
C
OS OS OS
Ethernet Board
MAC A
Ethernet Board
MAC B
Ethernet Board
MAC C
Fm
A
to
C
Message
1
2
3 4
Message
Message
When a user needs to
deliver a message to
another specific host
(Unicast):
User A requests its
Ethernet Board to send a
message to User C
Ethernet Board A places
frame containing message
on shared medium
(addressed only to User C)
Ethernet Board B receives
frame, but discards it
without interrupting OS of
User B
Ethernet Board C receives
frame, and hands over
message to User C
1
2
3
4
: Operative System, running on PCs CPU OS
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Broadcast Transmission Broadcast Transmission
A
B
C
OS OS OS
Ethernet Board
MAC A
Ethernet Board
MAC B
Ethernet Board
MAC C
Fm
A
to
All
Message
1
2
3 3
Message
Message Message
At times, a user needs to
deliver a message to all
other hosts in the LAN
(Broadcast):
User A requests Ethernet
Board to send a message
to All Hosts.
Ethernet Board A places
frame containing message
on shared medium
(addressed to All Hosts)
Ethernet Boards B and C
receive the frame, and
forward the message to
their respective users.
Interrupts processing of all computers on Local
Network (Broadcast Domain)
Excessive broadcasting can affect performance
of all machines on local network
1
2
3
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
MAC Address MAC Address
48 Bits (6 Octets)
1 2 3 4 5 6
FF FF FF FF FF FF Broadcast Address All 1s
00 01 24 80 4a 7F Example of Unicast Address
Each Ethernet Board has one unique
Unicast Address
01 80 c2 00 00 00 Example of Multicast Address
Set to 1
(LSB of first Octet set to 1)
Allows delivery of information to selected groups of hosts on the LAN
Ethernet Board can belong to several Multicast Groups at a time
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
MAC Frame Format MAC Frame Format
Preamble SFD Frame IFG
7 1 12 (Oct)
Preamble: Alternating 1s and 0s for sync
of receiver
SDF =Start Frame Delimiter =10101011
IFG =Inter Frame Gap
DEST
MAC
FCS (Extension)
6 6
Source
MAC
Length
Type
Client Data
(+PAD)
2 46 ~ 1500 4 (Oct)
Client Data:
Must be padded if shorter than 46 Oct
Must not exceed 1500 Octets
FCS: Frame Check Sequence
For corrupted frame detection
Extension: (when required)
For collision detection of GbE Half Duplex
Appended when required, to guarantee
minimum frame length of 512 Octets
Minimum Frame size: 6+6+2+46+4 =64 Octets
Maximum Frame size: 6+6+2+1500+4 =1518 Octets
MTU of Ethernet: 1518 Octets (Maximum Transfer Unit)
Length/Type:
If 1500: Length of Client Data
If 1536: Type of Client Protocol
ex: Case IP, Type=2048 (0800Hex)
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Minimum Frame Lengths for Collision Detection Minimum Frame Lengths for Collision Detection
By appending Extension at end of frame,
whenever required
4095 bits (512 Oct) 1000 Mbps
By PAD of data field, added whenever
necessary
512 bits (64 Oct) 10/100 Mbps
Method Min. Length Rate
Runt Frame: Frame shorter than 64 bytes. When received, it is
considered a collision fragment, and is automatically discarded
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Chapter Chapter 2 2
Layer 2 Switching
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LAN Based on Switch (Layer 2 SW) LAN Based on Switch (Layer 2 SW)
Fm
A
to
D
MSG
Fm
A
to
D
MSG
1
2
3
4
A
B
C
D
4 D
3 C
2 B
1 A
Port Host MAC
Forwarding Database
Switch Vs Hub:
Switch learns about hosts
connected to its physical ports
Learned information is stored in
FDB (Forwarding Database)
Learning process usually achieved
dynamically (by inspection of source
addresses of incoming frames)
Switch can establish multiple simultaneous
point to point connections, improving the
throughput of the local network
Ethernet Switch functionality (also called
MAC Bridge) is defined by IEEE Standard
802.1D
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Environment Free of Collisions Environment Free of Collisions
Fm
A
to
C
MSG1
1
2
3
4
A
B
C
D
Fm
A
to
C
MSG1
Fm
D
to
A
MSG2
Fm
D
to
A
MSG2
Switch provides dedicated bandwidth to the users connected
to each port
When a port connects to only one user, the user can transmit
and receive frames simultaneously
Ethernet Port may operate in Full Duplex Mode
No risk of frame collision: No Collision Domain
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Switch ports shared through Hub Switch ports shared through Hub
1
2
3
4
A
B
C
D
E
Full Duplex
Full Duplex
Full Duplex
Half Duplex
Half Duplex
Half Duplex
Only directly connected hosts can benefit from Full Duplex mode of
operation
Users sharing a switch port through a hub must make use of Half
Duplex mode of operation
Half/Full duplex settings must be identical on both ends of one link.
The operation mode is typically decided automatically during port
start up, through a feature of Ethernet called Autonegotiation
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Learning process of Switch Learning process of Switch
1
2
3
4
A
B
C
D
Fm
D
to
A
Fm
A
to
D
Fm
D
to
A
Port Host MAC
Forwarding Database
A 1
D 4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
4
ENTRY
ENTRY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
A sends Unicast frame to D
Switch examines Source MAC Address of
frame, and creates entry in FDB: User A is in
Port 1
Switch examines Destination MAC Address of
frame, and attempts to find location of User D
in FDB. When location is unknown, the switch
forwards the frame to all remaining ports
(Unicast Flooding)
Users B and C discard the unnecessarily
received frame
User D receives his frame. Lets assume now
that he sends a reply to User A.
Switch learns location of User D, as in Step 2:
User D is in Port 4)
Switch finds location of Destination User A in
FDB, and forwards the frame to Port 1 only
(Unicast Forwarding)
User A receives his reply
Assume, to begin, that the FDB is empty:
Fm
A
to
D
Fm
A
to
D
Fm
A
to
D
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Aging of FDB Entries Aging of FDB Entries
4
3
2
1
Entry No.
300
27
Age
4 D
1 A
Port Host MAC
Entries of FDB are typically not permanent
If a host becomes silent, his corresponding
entry will be deleted after the expiration of an
Aging Timer
Typical Aging time is 300 seconds
Every second, the age of each FDB entry is
increased by 1.
Every time a frame is received from a known
user, the age of his entry is reset back to 0.
For Example:
If user D stops sending frames, after 300 seconds of silence his FDB entry
will be deleted
After this moment, if User D sends a frame again, the switch learning process
will be repeated.
Forwarding Database
Aged
Entry!!
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Redundancy in the Switched Network Redundancy in the Switched Network
1
2
3
4
A
B
D
E
4 F
4 E
4 D
3 C
2 B
1 A
Port Host MAC
FDB SW1
4 C
4 B
4 A
3 F
2 E
1 D
Port Host MAC
FDB SW2
C F
1
2
3
4
SW1 SW2
A LAN may be composed of
several Switches
A fully learned configuration would
generate FDBs as shown in the
figure
If the Inter-Switch link fails, both
sides of the network would be
isolated
Is it possible to add redundant
Inter-Switch links??
19 19
TOPC-E4011E-02-
Switching Loops 1 Switching Loops 1
1
2
3
4
A
B
D
E
C F
1
2
3
4
SW1 SW2
5 5
Fm
A
to
All
Fm
A
to
All
Fm
A
to
All
Observe the delivery of a Broadcast frame from User A:
SW1 forwards the frame to all other ports. The diagram shows the particular case of
the frame forwarded on port 4.
SW2 receives this frame on port 4 and again forwards to all other ports, including its
port 5.
The frame that returns to SW1 is once again forwarded to all ports, including port 4,
creating thus an endless loop, and a Broadcast Storm of frames affecting all Hosts.
1
2
3
1
2
3
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Switching Loops 2 Switching Loops 2
A
Fm
A
to
All
F
m

A
to

A
l l
F
m

A
t
o

A
l
l F
m

A t
o

A
l
l
A similar situation occurs in a network of 3 or more fully
interconnected switches.
Clearly, not all links can be operational at one same time.
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Loop Prevention: The Spanning Tree Protocol Loop Prevention: The Spanning Tree Protocol
Blocked by STP
Blocked
by STP
STP: Spanning Tree Protocol
provides an automatic method of
detecting and blocking redundant
links
If a working link fails, STP can
reactivate other blocked links in
order to recover loop less
connectivity
The process of deciding which
links become active and which
ones become blocked takes some
time, and is known as the process
of Convergence of STP
22 22
TOPC-E4011E-02-
Convergence of STP Convergence of STP
STP is a language for switches to talk and
discover other switches directly connected
to their links
Switches discover each other by sending
multicast packets to the Well Known
Multicast Address:
01-80-C2-00-00-00
After STP convergence the resulting network becomes like a tree, with
only one possible path between any two switches, and thus without
switching loops.
The detailed analysis procedure for STP convergence is beyond the
scope of this manual.
23 23
TOPC-E4011E-02-
Chapter Chapter 3 3
Layer 3 and Routing
24 24
TOPC-E4011E-02-
Interconnecting LANs through IP Interconnecting LANs through IP
File
SVR
Router
To Other
Networks
MAC A
MAC B
MAC C MAC D
MAC R1
MAC R2
IP A
IP B
IP C IP D
IP R1
IP R2
LANs typically interconnect with each other through routers.
Routers transfer packets between different LANs by examining the destinations IP Address.
Within a LAN, frame delivery is achieved by the use of MAC addresses (Layer 2) only.
But communication between LANs requires a higher layer of network addressing and
functionality (Layer 3), provided generally by the IP Protocol (Internet Protocol).
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
LAN
IP Addressing within a LAN IP Addressing within a LAN
Router
To Other
LANs
IP A
IP B
IP R
Ethernet
Subnet
Mask
Each host of a LAN must be identified by a unique IP Address.
All hosts of a same LAN must share a predetermined set of common
bits (the most significant bits, or MSB) in their IP Addresses.
The number of MSBs in common is indicated by the so called Subnet
Mask.
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Subnet Mask Subnet Mask
i.e. MASK = 255 . 255 . 255 . 0 (Dotted Decimal Notation)
11111111 . 11111111 . 11111111 . 00000000 (Binary Representation)
Bits in 1 indicate location of common bits
of IP Address. All hosts of a LAN with this
mask must have the same first 24 bits in
common (known as Subnetwork ID)
Bits in 0 indicate location of host bits of
IP Address. Each host of a LAN with this
mask must be identified by a unique
value in the last 8 bits (known as Host ID)
27 27
TOPC-E4011E-02-
LAN
IP Addressing Example IP Addressing Example
Router
To Other
LANs
IP A = 10.10.24.1
MASK = 255.255.255.0
IP B = 10.10.24.4
MASK = 255.255.255.0
IP R = 10.10.24.100
MASK = 255.255.255.0
NW = 10.10.24.0
MASK = 255.255.255.0
All LAN members must share the same Subnetwork ID (in this case, with the above mask,
the first three fields of all IP addresses within the LAN or Subnet).
External LANs can be easily recognized because each one should have a unique Subnet ID.
Each LAN member must be assigned with a unique Host ID (in this case, with the above
mask, the last field of any IP address).
The router port connected to this LAN must also follow these same IP addressing rules.
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
The Layered Network The Layered Network
MAC A
IP A
USER A
IP
Layer
MAC
Layer
Fm
MAC A
To
MAC Z
MAC Client
Payload
Fm
IP A
To
IP Z
IP Client
Payload
User
Message
MAC Frame
IP Packet
Running by
software, on
CPU of Host PC
Running by
firmware, inside
controller of
Ethernet Board
The Upper Layers (represented in figure as User A,
for simplicity) rely on the underlying IP Layer (Layer 3)
for any information delivery (Upper Layers are clients
of the IP Layer).
IP Functionality (Layer 3)
relies on underlying MAC
Functionality (Layer 2) for
any information delivery (IP
Layer is a Client of the MAC
Layer).
But to request transmission
services between IP and
MAC Layers, there must be a
method of converting IP
Addresses into MAC
Addresses.
29 29
TOPC-E4011E-02-
Intra LAN Delivery of an IP Packet Intra LAN Delivery of an IP Packet
USER A
IP
Layer
MAC
Layer
Fm
MAC A
To
MAC B
MSG
MAC Frame
Please send this:
To IP DEST =10.10.24.4 (IP B) This Destination is on
my same LAN!
I just need to find out the
MAC address of IP B
Fm
IP A
To
IP B
MSG
Please send this IP Packet:
To MAC DEST =MAC B
I will make Unicast
Delivery to the host with
MAC Address =MAC B
Fm
IP A
To
IP B
MSG
IP Packet
1
2
3
4
5
User Request:
IP Request:
MAC Delivery:
MAC R IP R
MAC B IP B
MAC A IP A
MAC IP
ARP Table (*)
(*) ARP Table: Address Resolution Protocol Table (See next slide)
Rtr
To Other
Networks
IP R = 10.10.24.100
MASK = 255.255.255.0
IP A = 10.10.24.1
MASK = 255.255.255.0
DEF GW = 10.10.24.100
IP B = 10.10.24.4
MASK = 255.255.255.0
DEF GW = 10.10.24.100
A B
Direct Delivery
(Case Intra LAN)
A B
MAC A
MAC B
MAC R
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Converting IP Address Converting IP Address - - MAC Address MAC Address
Relies on a process called ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
1. ARP dynamically builds a table that stores all known IP Addresses (of self LAN)
and their corresponding MAC Addresses.
2. When IP receives a transmission request to an intra LAN IP destination, it consults
first with ARP to find out the corresponding MAC Address of this destination.
3. IF ARP knows about the destination, it returns the MAC Address, and the IP Layer
can proceed immediately with its packet delivery request to the MAC Layer.
4. If ARP does not know about the destination, it must make an ARP inquiry, as
shown on the next slide.
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Process of Address Resolution Process of Address Resolution
A
B
C
IP
ARP A ARP B ARP C
Fm
A
to
All
Where is
IP C?
1 2 2
Address Resolution
Request for IP C
IP IP
Fm
C
to
A
Here I am!
My Add is MAC C
MAC C IP
C
MAC IP
4
5
Address Resolution
Reply for IP C
3
1. ARP asks the MAC Layer to
send a broadcast frame with
an IP Address Inquiry
message: Where is the user
with IP Address IP C?
2. All Ethernet boards on LAN
receive the inquiry and
transfer it to their
corresponding ARP Process.
3. Non matching hosts discard
the received package.
4. Only the matching host
replies to the ARP Request:
Here I am, and my MAC
Address is MAC C.
5. ARP process receives this
reply, stores the information
in its ARP Table for future
use, and returns the
requested MAC address to IP.
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
Default Gateway Default Gateway
LAN
Router
To Other
Networks
IP A = 10.10.24.1
MASK = 255.255.255.0
DEF GW = 10.10.24.100
IP B = 10.10.24.4
MASK = 255.255.255.0
DEF GW = 10.10.24.100
IP R = 10.10.24.100
MASK = 255.255.255.0
NW = 10.10.24.0
MASK = 255.255.255.0
Each host of a LAN must also have knowledge of the IP Address of
its corresponding router (known as the Default Gateway), in order
to be able to send packets to any other external subnetworks.
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TOPC-E4011E-02-
IP Packet Delivery to an External LAN IP Packet Delivery to an External LAN
USER A
IP
Layer
MAC
Layer
Fm
MAC A
To
MAC R
MSG
MAC Frame
Please send this:
To IP DEST =10.10.20.8 (IP Z)
This Destination is on an
external LAN!
I must forward through Router
I just need to find out the MAC
address of my Default Gateway Fm
IP A
To
IP Z
MSG
Please send this IP Packet:
To MAC DEST =MAC R
I will make Unicast
Delivery to the host with
MAC Address =MAC R
Fm
IP A
To
IP Z
MSG
IP Packet
1
2
3
4
5
User Request:
IP Request:
MAC Delivery:
MAC R IP R
MAC B IP B
MAC IP
ARP Table
Rtr
IP R = 10.10.24.100
MASK = 255.255.255.0
IP A = 10.10.24.1
MASK = 255.255.255.0
DEF GW = 10.10.24.100
(IP R)
IP B = 10.10.24.4
MASK = 255.255.255.0
DEF GW = 10.10.24.100
A Z
Indirect Delivery
(Case External LAN)
A B
MAC A
MAC B
MAC R
LAN
Z
IP Z = 10.10.20.8
34 34
TOPC-E4011E-02-
LAN
LAN
IP Forwarding by Routers IP Forwarding by Routers
Rtr
A B
Rtr
Z
Rtr
Rtr
LAN
LAN
LAN
NW = 10.10.24.0
Mask = 255.255.255.0
NW = 10.10.20.0
Mask = 255.255.255.0
NW = 10.10.28.0
Mask = 255.255.255.0
NW = 10.10.21.0
Mask = 255.255.255.0
NW = 10.10.25.0
Mask = 255.255.255.0
Indirect Delivery
I
n
d
i
r
e
c
t

D
e
l
i
v
e
r
y
I
n
d
i
r
e
c
t

D
e
l
i
v
e
r
y
Direct Deli very
Messages addressed to external LANs (i.e. from A to Z) are forwarded through the Default Gateway (Router)
It is a function of a router to discover the location and reachability of all external subnetworks
Routers discover and talk to each other periodically and frequently through the use of Routing Protocols
Through Routing Protocols, routers inform each other the reachability to all the known subnetworks.
With his network knowledge, R1 forwards the IP Packet efficiently through routers R3 and R4.
R1
R2
R3
R4
35 35
TOPC-E4011E-02-
Chapter Chapter 4 4
VLAN Technology
36 36
TOPC-E4011E-02-
Corporate network with multiple LANs Corporate network with multiple LANs
File
SVR
File
SVR
Router
Different company divisions might want to have functionally
separated LANs
Communication between LANs achieved through Router
But administration of physically independent cabling infrastructures
is usually expensive and complicated!
Accounting
Division LAN
Marketing
Division LAN
37 37
TOPC-E4011E-02-
LAN 1
VLAN Switch VLAN Switch
File
SVR
File
SVR
Router
File
SVR
File
SVR
Router
LAN 2
V
L
A
N
1
V
L
A
N
2
VLAN Switch can realize the virtual partitioning of a physical LAN
into multiple independent Virtual LANs
Relationship User VLAN is logical, not physical
Communication between VLANs achieved through Router
SW1
SW2
VLAN
SW
38 38
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VLANs VLANs spanning multiple switches spanning multiple switches
File
SVR
File
SVR
Router
V
L
A
N
1
V
L
A
N
1
V
L
A
N
2
V
L
A
N
2
VLANs can also span
multiple switches
To optimize Switch to Switch
and Switch to Router
connections, actually only
one physical link is required
This link transports the
traffic of two or more VLANs,
and is known as a VLAN
trunk
But how to distinguish the
frames that belong to
different VLANS, when these
go through the same VLAN
trunk?
File
SVR
File
SVR
Router
V
L
A
N
1
V
L
A
N
2
V
L
A
N
2
V
L
A
N
1
VLAN Trunk VLAN Trunk
39 39
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Modification of the Ethernet Frame Modification of the Ethernet Frame
V
L
A
N
1
V
L
A
N
2
V
L
A
N
2
V
L
A
N
1
VLAN Tag
Fm
A
to
C
MSG1
A
B
C
D
Fm
A
to
C
MSG1
VLAN
1
Fm
B
to
D
MSG2
VLAN
2
Fm
A
to
C
MSG1
Fm
B
to
D
MSG2
Switch inserts VLAN tag on Ethernet Frame before forwarding a
packet over a VLAN Trunk
Receiving Switch examines the tag and keeps the frame within the
corresponding VLAN group
Fm
B
to
D
MSG2
40 40
TOPC-E4011E-02-
VLAN Tag (IEEE 802.1Q) VLAN Tag (IEEE 802.1Q)
DEST
MAC
FCS (Extension)
6 6
Source
MAC
Length
Type
Client Data
(+PAD)
2 46 ~ 1500 4 (Oct)
VLAN
Tag
4
Type
Tag Control
Info
PRI
2 2 (Oct)
C
F
I
VLAN ID
3 1 12 (Bits)
Always 8100 (Hex)
for IEEE802.1Q Tag
VLAN Identifier: 0 ~4095
Canonical Form Identifier: 0=Ethernet / 1=Token Ring
User Priority: 8 different Classes of Service (CoS)
are supported, from PRI=0 (lowest) to PRI=7 (highest)
41 41
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Native VLAN Native VLAN
V
L
A
N
1
V
L
A
N
2
V
L
A
N
2
V
L
A
N
1
Tagged Frame
Fm
A
to
C
MSG1
A
B
C
D
Fm
A
to
C
MSG1
Fm
A
to
C
MSG1
Untagged Frame
For compatibility with Ethernet implementations not supporting the VLAN Tag, IEEE802.1Q
allows delivery of untagged frames over VLAN Trunks.
Untagged frames are assumed to belong by default to the Native VLAN.
Assume that VLAN ID=1 has been assigned as Native VLAN on both switches. Untagged
frames can be forwarded between both switches without any risk of inconsistency.
Evidently, untagged frames cannot benefit from CoS distinction.
Native
VLAN
Native
VLAN
Fm
B
to
D
MSG2
Fm
B
to
D
MSG2
Fm
B
to
D
MSG2
VLAN
2
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New Field in Forwarding Database New Field in Forwarding Database
4 Vlan 2 Router
Vlan 1
Vlan 2
Vlan 1
Vlan 2
Vlan 1
Vlan 2
Vlan 2
Vlan 1
Vlan 1
VLAN Id
4 Router
5 SVR2
3 SVR1
6 F
2 E
1 D
1 C
1 B
1 A
Port Host MAC
FDB SW2
File
SVR
File
SVR
Router
V
L
A
N
1
V
L
A
N
2
V
L
A
N
2
V
L
A
N
1
VLAN Trunk VLAN Trunk
A
B
D
C
F
E
SVR1
SVR2
1
2
3
4
5
6
SW2 SW1
The FDB of a VLAN Switch records not only the
MAC Address but also the VLAN Id of each host
connected to each Switch Port
The fully learned configuration of SW2 would
generate an FDB as shown in this figure
The VLAN Id field in the FDB prevents traffic
mixing between separate VLAN groups
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One Spanning Tree per VLAN One Spanning Tree per VLAN
VLAN
1
VLAN
2
VLAN
1
VLAN
2
VLAN
1
VLAN
2
Blocked
by STP
VLAN Trunk
VLAN Trunk
VLAN Trunk
The most recent IEEE standards
support multiple spanning tree
instances on a same VLAN switch
In these independent Spanning
Trees, the operator can control
the STP port blocking process
Ports blocked for one VLAN can
be set as working ports for other
VLANs
This mechanism allows load
sharing over redundant links in
the Layer 2 Network, despite the
STP loop prevention process.
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Chapter Chapter 5 5
Principles of Flow Control and
Auto Negotiation
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Flow Control through Pause Flow Control through Pause
SW
High Traffic
Congestion!!
PAUSE
Full Duplex Ethernet supports the implementation of an
optional Flow Control mechanism.
During congestion on reception, an Ethernet port can
request its connected partner to halt traffic for some time,
through the delivery of a MAC Control Frame called
PAUSE.
If the connected partner honors the requested PAUSE, it
will stop the data flow, thus relieving the congestion.
Some Ethernet implementations have the capability of both sending and receiving pause
frames (Symmetrical Flow Control)
Other implementations can either only send, or will only honor a received PAUSE frame, but
cannot support both directions (Asymmetrical Flow Control)
Other implementations do not provide Flow Control functionality at all.
The flow control capabilities of interconnected partners are typically agreed during link start up,
during a process called Autonegotiation.
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Pause Delivery by Multicasting Pause Delivery by Multicasting
Globally assigned Multicast Address for PAUSE:
01-80-C2-00-00-01
Pause frames may be sent to a specific Unicast Address
Or they may be sent to a globally assigned Multicast Address
that is not forwarded by bridges / switches
Each individual PAUSE request specifies the duration of that
particular pause event.
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Autonegotiation Autonegotiation
Speed
1000 Mbps
100 Mbps
10 Mbps
Mode
Full Duplex
Half Duplex
Flow Control Method
Symmetric
Asymmetric
None
Autonegotiation allows hosts to automatically negotiate link capabilities upon
start-up, such as speed, mode of operation and Flow Control method.
IEEE defines a priority scheme, that ensures selection of the highest common
denominator abilities between negotiating partners.