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The Ancient City Of Egypt

Sara Mostafa
6X Mrs.Bunden
DUE: March 19,2014

Memphis was part of the Ancient Egyptian civilization and had many qualities of an advanced
city. Memphis had the 6 pyramids and sphinx which is a lion with a persons head. It has a persons
head which shows smartness and a lions body which shows strength. According to Manetho, the
city of Memphis was found by Menes soon after the unification of Egypt. This is supported by the
fact that the oldest known tombs of any important people were built at that period. During the Old
Kingdom, it served as the nation's capital and it held the kings' primary residence. Memphis was
also the principal place of the cult of the god Ptah, who is accepted as a creator-god in the
region. The many temples built for him, his wife Sekhmet and their son Nefertem now lie
in ruins, or have been demolished, destroyed and stripped of their decoration to be
dispersed throughout the world.

Memphis also had a large amount of specialized workers. These jobs were put into a table
from the most important to the least important, which were put from Pharaohs,priests and nobles,
scribes and government officials, craftspeople and merchants,to farmers then laborers and slaves.
The pharaoh was above all the people because he was considered as a god. The priests cared for
the temples and held ceremonies to keep the gods happy.The scribes were trained in the art of
writing and record keeping. Farmers, laborers and slaves were the largest segment of the

Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals
which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians'
interaction with a multitude of deities who were believed to be present in, and in control
of, the forces and elements of nature. The myths about these gods were meant to
explain the origins and behavior of the forces they represented. The practices of
Egyptian religion were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor.Formal
religious practice centered on the pharaoh, the king of Egypt. Although he was a human,
the pharaoh was believed to be descended from the gods. He acted as the intermediary
between his people and the gods, and was obligated to sustain the gods through rituals
and offerings so that they could maintain order in the universe. Therefore, the state
dedicated enormous resources to the performance of these rituals and to the
construction of the temples where they were carried out. Individuals could also interact
with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for their help through prayer or
compelling them to act through magic. These popular religious practices were distinct
from, but closely linked with, the formal rituals and institutions. The popular religious
tradition grew more prominent in the course of Egyptian history as the status of the
pharaoh declined. Another important aspect of the religion was the belief in the afterlife
and funerary practices. The Egyptians made great efforts to ensure the survival of their
souls after death, providing tombs, grave goods, and offerings to preserve the bodies
and spirits of the deceased.

The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to record and communicate
information about religion and government. So, they invented written scripts that could
be used to record this information. The most famous of all ancient Egyptian scripts is
hieroglyphic. However, throughout three thousand years of ancient Egyptian civilization,
at least three other scripts were used for different purposes. Using these scripts, scribes
were able to preserve the beliefs, history and ideas of ancient Egypt in temple and tomb
walls and on papyrus scrolls.

The characteristics of ancient Egyptian technology are indicated by a set of artifacts
and customs that lasted for thousands of years. The Egyptians invented and used many
simple machines, such as the ramp and the lever, to aid construction processes. They
used rope trusses to stiffen the beam of ships. Egyptian paper, made from papyrus, and
pottery were mass-produced and exported throughout the Mediterranean basin. The
wheel, however, did not arrive until foreign influence introduced the chariot in the 16th
century BC. The Egyptians also played an important role in developing Mediterranean
maritime technology including ships and lighthouses.

Ancient Egypt was centered on the Nile Valley in the Sahara, Africa's largest desert.
The climate of this part of the continent, which has varied from time to time, has played a
major role in how humans have moved and interacted through the millennia. This region
was a major route for humans from Africa. It was very hot and fertile. The Nile River
really helped the Egyptians build the Pyramids and only some really specialized workers
can build the Pyramids.

Websites I used:!/entry/what-was-the-environment-like-in-ancient-
I also used a book called: Ancient civilizations

due 4pm 19-3-2014:
3D model
action plan