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Dialysis is primarily used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function (renal
replacement therapy) due to renal failure
Dialysis works on the principles of diffusion of solute through a semipermeable membrane that
separates two solutions.
Direction of diffusion depends on concentration of solute in each solution.
Rate and efficiency depend on concentration gradient, temperature of solution, pore size of
membrane, and molecular size.
The decision to initiate dialysis or hemofiltration in patients with renal failure depends on several factors.
These can be divided into acute or chronic indications.
ndications for dialysis in the patient with acute kidney in!ury are"
#etabolic acidosis in situations where correction with sodium bicarbonate is impractical
or may result in fluid overload.
$lectrolyte abnormality, such as severe hyperkalemia, especially when combined with
nto'ication, that is, acute poisoning with a dialysable drug, such as lithium, or aspirin.
(luid overload not e'pected to respond to treatment with diuretics.
)omplications of uremia, such as pericarditis or encephalopathy.
)hronic indications for dialysis"
*ymptomatic renal failure
+ow glomerular filtration rate (,(R) (RRT often recommended to commence at a ,(R of
less than -./-0 mls1min1-.23m
). n diabetics dialysis is started earlier.
Difficulty in medically controlling fluid overload, serum potassium, and1or serum
phosphorus when the ,(R is very low
Reduce level of nitrogenous waste.
)orrect acidosis, reverse electrolyte imbalances, remove e'cess fluid.
Two main types of dialysis
A. Hemodialysis
5emodialysis removes wastes and water by circulating blood outside the body through an
e'ternal filter, called a dialyzer, that contains a semipermeable membrane
n hemodialysis, the patient6s blood is pumped through the blood compartment of a dialyzer,
e'posing it to a partially permeable membrane.
The dialyzer is composed of thousands of tiny synthetic hollow fibers.
The fiber wall acts as the semipermeable membrane. 7lood flows through the fibers, dialysis
solution flows around the outside the fibers, and water and wastes move between these two solutions.
The cleansed blood is then returned via the circuit back to the body.
8ltrafiltration occurs by increasing the hydrostatic pressure across the dialyzer membrane.
This usually is done by applying a negative pressure to the dialysate compartment of the dialyzer.
This pressure gradient causes water and dissolved solutes to move from blood to dialysate, and
allows the removal of several litres of e'cess fluid during a typical 3 to 0 hour treatment.
*tudies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of dialyzing 0 to 2 times a week, for 9 to : hours.
These fre;uent long treatments are often done at home, while sleeping but home dialysis is a
fle'ible modality and schedules can be changed day to day, week to week.
Types of venos access fo! "emodialysis
-. $'ternal shunt
)annula is placed in a large vein and a large artery that appro'imate each other.
$'ternal shunts, which provide easy and painless access to bloodstream, are prone to
infection and clotting and causes erosion of the skin a round the insertion area.
4. %rteriovenous fistulas or graft
+arge artery and vein are sewn together (anastomosed) below the surface of the skin
(fistula) or subcutaneous graft using the salphenous vein, synthetic prosthesis, or bovine 'enograft
to connect artery and vein.
<urpose is to create one blood vessel for withdrawing and returning blood.
%dvantage is greater activity range than %= shunt and no protective asepsis.
Disadvantage is necessity of two venipunctures with each dialysis.
3. =ein catheterization
(emoral or subclavian vein access is immediate
#ay be short or long term duration.
#omplications d!in$ "emodialysis
-. Dyse;uilibrium syndrome
Rapid removal of urea from blood.
Reverse osmosis, with water moving into brain cells.
)erebral edema
<ossible headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and convulsions> usually occurs with
initial dialysis treatments
*horter dialysis time and slower rate minimizes.
4. 5ypotension
Results from e'cessive ultrafiltration or e'cessive antihypertensive medications.
3. 5ypertension
Results from fluid volume overload (water and1or sodium), causing dise;uilibrium
syndrome or an'iety.
?. %rrhythmias
Due to hypotension and rapid removal of potassium.
%. &e!itoneal dialysis
&e!itoneal dialysis is a treatment for patients with severe chronic kidney failure
@astes and water are removed from the blood inside the body using the peritoneal membrane as
a natural semipermeable membrane.
@astes and e'cess water move from the blood, across the peritoneal membrane, and into a
special dialysis solution, called dialysate, in the abdominal cavity which has a composition similar to
the fluid portion of blood.
n peritoneal dialysis, a sterile solution containing minerals and glucose is run through a tube into
the peritoneal cavity, the abdominal body cavity around the intestine, where the peritoneal membrane
acts as a semipermeable membrane.
The peritoneal membrane or peritoneum is a layer of tissue containing blood vessels that lines
and surrounds the peritoneal, or abdominal, cavity and the internal abdominal organs (stomach,
spleen, liver, and intestines).
The dialysate is left there for a period of time to absorb waste products, and then it is drained out
through the tube and discarded. This cycle or Ae'changeB is normally repeated ?/0 times during the
day, (sometimes more often overnight with an automated system).
8ltrafiltration occurs via osmosis> the dialysis solution used contains a high concentration of
glucose, and the resulting osmotic pressure causes fluid to move from the blood into the dialysate. %s
a result, more fluid is drained than was instilled.
<eritoneal dialysis is less efficient than hemodialysis, but because it is carried out for a longer
period of time the net effect in terms of removal of waste products and of salt and water are similar to
<eritoneal dialysis is carried out at home by the patient.
#omplications of &e!itoneal Dialysis
-. $'cessive loss of fluid can result in hypovolemic shock or hypotension while e'cessive fluid
retention can result in hypertension and edema.
The volume of dialysate removed and weight of the patient are normally monitored> if
more than of fluid are retained or a litre of fluid is lost across three consecutive treatments,
the patient6s physician is generally notified.
4. %lso monitored is the color of the fluid removed" normally it is pink/tinged for the initial four cycles
and clear or pale yellow afterwards. The presence of pink or bloody effluent suggests bleeding inside
the abdomen while feces indicates a .
3. The patient may also e'perience pain or discomfort if the dialysate is too acidic, too cold or
introduced too ;uickly, while diffuse pain with cloudy discharge may indicate an infection. *evere pain
in the rectum or perinium can be the result of an improperly placed catheter. The dwell can also
increase pressure on the diaphragm causing impaired breathing, and constipation can interfere with
the ability of fluid to flow through the catheter.
Cne important step before starting hemodialysis is preparing a vascular access, a site on your body from
which your blood is removed and returned. % vascular access should be prepared weeks or months
before you start dialysis. t will allow easier and more efficient removal and replacement of your blood with
fewer complications. (or more information about the different kinds of vascular accesses and how to care
for them, see the Dational nstitute of Diabetes and Digestive and &idney Diseases (DDD&) fact
sheet =ascular %ccess for 5emodialysis.