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__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 12 | Dec-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 483

NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER FLOW VISUALIZATION

OF PERFORATED FIN ARRAYS BY CFD SIMULATION

Dhanawade Hanamant S

1

, K. N. Vijaykumar

2

, Dhanawade Kavita

3

1

Professor, Smt. Indira Gandhi College of Engineering, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

(Research Scholar JJT University), dhanashri_hd@rediffmail.com

2

Professor and Head of Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, D. J Sanghvi College of Engineering, Mumbai, Maharashtra,

India, kotturvijaykumar@gmail.com

3

Assistant Prof. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lokmanya Tilak College of Engineering, Navi Mumbai,

Maharashtra, India, nikhil_kd@rediffmail.com

Abstract

The present paper reports, the validation of results of modeling and simulation in CFD by experiment on the fluid flow and heat

transfer characteristics of a fin arrays with lateral circular perforation and its external dimensionally equivalent solid fin arrays

equipped on horizontal flat surface a problem of natural convection. The simulation is carried out using the fluid flow (CFX)

workbench of ANSYS 12.0. In this study, results shows that formation of the stagnant layer around the solid fin array which slow-

downs the heat dissipation rate. Increase in the fluid flow movement around the fin results increase in the heat dissipation rate. It can

be achieved by adding perforation to the fins. Natural convection is a buoyancy driven phenomenon; the state of the art of CFX was

used to carry the study of fluid flow separation and velocity field over a fin array. New designed perforated fins have an improvement

in average Nusselt number, over its external dimensionally equivalent solid fin arrays.

Keywords: CFD simulation, perforated fins, Natural convection, Heat sink, Nusselt number, Flow Visualization

----------------------------------------------------------------------***------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. INTRODUCTION

The enhancement of heat transfer is an important subject of

thermal engineering. Removal of excessive heat from system

components is essential to avoid the damaging effects of

burning or overheating. Basically flow is nothing but

circulation of the air around the heated fins surface which

occurs due to the change in density of air after getting heated

when it comes in contact with heated fin. Thus cold air gets

sucked inside from the bottom and heated air goes up causing

the natural convection currents. Mainly three types of the flow

pattern are mentioned in the literature.

i) Single chimney flow pattern: Fig.1 a) this pattern is

observed in lengthwise short arrays. It is formed by the cold

air entering from the two ends of the arrays, traveling

lengthwise and coalescing at the center of the arrays. This

flow pattern is the most favorable from the heat transfer

standpoint.

ii) Sliding Chimney Flow Pattern: Fig. 1 b) as the length of the

arrays is increased keeping the height and spacing unaltered.,

it is observed that beyond a certain value of the length, the air

entering from the ends is not sufficient to cool the entire arrays

and leaves the array before reaching the central zone, and the

resulting flow pattern is sliding chimney flow pattern, which is

unsteady in nature.

a) Single chimney flow pattern

b) Sliding chimney

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 12 | Dec-2013, Available @

c) Down and up

Fig-1: Types of Flow Patterns

iii) Down and Up Flow Pattern: Fig1 c) if the length of the

array is further increased so that the array can be considered

infinite in the longitudinal direction, the resulting flow pattern

has cold air entering at the central portion of

through 180

o

, developing boundary layers along the height of

the fin flats and leaving the array in the upward direction.

It has been reported that the cross component of velocity

(along the direction of the spacing) is negligible in

chimney flow pattern. The down and up flow pattern are

mostly hypothetical situation and hence has little practical

significance.

Abdullah H. AIEssa et al. [1-2] studied the heat dissipation

from a horizontal rectangular fin embedded with square

perforation, rectangular perforations with an aspect ratio of

two, equilateral triangular perforations of bases parallel and

towards its fin tip, by using the finite element technique under

natural convection. They compared the results of the

perforated fin with its external dimensionally equivalent solid

fin. They showed that perforation in the fins enhances heat

dissipation rates and at the same time decreases the

expenditure for the fin material. Sanjeev D. Suryawanshi and

Narayan K. Sane [3] investigated experimentally the heat

dissipation from a fin array with an inverted notch at the

central bottom portion of the fin to modify its

enhancement of heat transfer on normal and inverted notched

fin arrays. Also they observed the single chimney flow pattern

for INFAs. C. B. Sobhan [4] on free convection heat transfer

from fins and fin arrays attached to a heated horizont

applying the differential interferometry technique. They have

calculated the heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number,

considering the fin spacing and the thermal conductivity as

parameters. The correlations are presented concerning the

overall Nusselt number with the relevant parameters. The

optimum fin spacing depends on the thermal conductivity of

the material. They observed the different flow patterns by

using the interfometry technique. Suneeta Sane et.al [5] has

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319

__________________________________________________________________________________________

2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

of Flow Patterns

if the length of the

array is further increased so that the array can be considered

infinite in the longitudinal direction, the resulting flow pattern

has cold air entering at the central portion of the array, turning

, developing boundary layers along the height of

the fin flats and leaving the array in the upward direction.

It has been reported that the cross component of velocity

(along the direction of the spacing) is negligible in single

chimney flow pattern. The down and up flow pattern are

mostly hypothetical situation and hence has little practical

2] studied the heat dissipation

from a horizontal rectangular fin embedded with square

rforation, rectangular perforations with an aspect ratio of

two, equilateral triangular perforations of bases parallel and

towards its fin tip, by using the finite element technique under

natural convection. They compared the results of the

with its external dimensionally equivalent solid

fin. They showed that perforation in the fins enhances heat

dissipation rates and at the same time decreases the

expenditure for the fin material. Sanjeev D. Suryawanshi and

[3] investigated experimentally the heat

dissipation from a fin array with an inverted notch at the

central bottom portion of the fin to modify its geometry for the

and inverted notched

observed the single chimney flow pattern

for INFAs. C. B. Sobhan [4] on free convection heat transfer

from fins and fin arrays attached to a heated horizontal base by

applying the differential interferometry technique. They have

calculated the heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number,

considering the fin spacing and the thermal conductivity as

parameters. The correlations are presented concerning the

Nusselt number with the relevant parameters. The

optimum fin spacing depends on the thermal conductivity of

the material. They observed the different flow patterns by

using the interfometry technique. Suneeta Sane et.al [5] has

performed the studies on t

they observed that total heat flux and the heat transfer

coefficient increase as the notch depth increases. The area

removed due to notch is compensated by the air entry at the

ends of the fin it provides fresh cold air t

with hot fin surfaces. They also carried the flow visualization

of the fluid flow around

technique using the Dhoop

is sucked inside from the bottom of the fin and leav

the central portion of the fin forming the single chimney

pattern. Vinod M. Wankar

investigation of flow pattern on rectangular fin arrays under

natural convection carried

simple smoke technique using the

rectangular fin arrays of varying the fin spacing they

for 2mm, 4mm, 6mm fin spacing,

While for 12mm fin spacing they observed the single c

flow pattern which gives the higher heat transfer coefficient.

The present paper reports,

using ANSYS 12.0 in the workbench of fluid flow (CFX)

the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of a rectangular

fin arrays equipped with circular perf

flat surface and its external dimensionally equivalent solid fin

arrays. The studies were carried

and 12mm) of circular perforations

dimensions of the perforated fin arrays and

dimensionally equivalent non perforated fin arr

and those were H=65mm

simulation results are validated by experimentation

repeated steady state readings

2. EXPERIMENTAL SET

The main requirement of the natural convection heat transfer

experiment is controlled environmental conditions. The

experiment must be away from fans and flow of outside air.

Hence to provide natural convection conditions, the

experiment were conducted

and windows were closed so that readings should not affect by

the outside atmosphere and to provide similar atmospheric

conditions for all experiments.

Fig-2: Photograph of the experimental setup

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

484

performed the studies on the rectangular notched fin arrays;

they observed that total heat flux and the heat transfer

coefficient increase as the notch depth increases. The area

removed due to notch is compensated by the air entry at the

ends of the fin it provides fresh cold air to bring in contact

with hot fin surfaces. They also carried the flow visualization

of the fluid flow around the fin by using the simple smoke

Dhoop stick. They found that the cold air

from the bottom of the fin and leaving from

the central portion of the fin forming the single chimney

pattern. Vinod M. Wankar S.G. Taji [6] in their experimental

investigation of flow pattern on rectangular fin arrays under

carried the flow visualization studies by

e smoke technique using the Dhoop stick on the

varying the fin spacing they obtained

for 2mm, 4mm, 6mm fin spacing, the scattered flow pattern.

hile for 12mm fin spacing they observed the single chimney

the higher heat transfer coefficient.

The present paper reports, CFD modeling and simulation

using ANSYS 12.0 in the workbench of fluid flow (CFX), of

the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of a rectangular

fin arrays equipped with circular perforation on a horizontal

flat surface and its external dimensionally equivalent solid fin

ys. The studies were carried by varying the diameter (8mm

and 12mm) of circular perforations and heat inputs. Geometric

dimensions of the perforated fin arrays and its external

dimensionally equivalent non perforated fin arrays were same

mm, L=100mm, S=30mm. The

simulation results are validated by experimentation by taking

epeated steady state readings.

2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

The main requirement of the natural convection heat transfer

experiment is controlled environmental conditions. The

experiment must be away from fans and flow of outside air.

Hence to provide natural convection conditions, the

were conducted in a room where the fan was off

closed so that readings should not affect by

the outside atmosphere and to provide similar atmospheric

conditions for all experiments.

graph of the experimental setup

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 12 | Dec-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 485

Initially the supply voltage was set to 230V on the stabilizer.

The dimmer-stat was adjusted to get the desired input to the

electric heater which multiple of voltage and current. A total

of 16 Copper constantan k type thermocouple junctions (Fig.2)

were fixed on different points of the fin arrays, on and beneath

of the base plate and in the insulating bricks at some distance,

this was done to note the temperature at various points of the

fin arrays as well as to find out various heat losses to the

surrounding. One thermocouple was suspended to measure the

surrounding temperature. The calibrated digital temperature

indicator having 0

o

C to 600

o

C range was used to measure the

temperature. The heating was continued till the steady state is

reached; it took 4 to 5 hours to reach steady state. Only one set

of reading very carefully taken on one day, after achieving the

steady state all the 16 temperature readings were noted. This

procedure was repeated for all heater inputs of 40, 60, 80 and

100 Watt. Observations were repeated to confirm the validity

and the readings obtained were found to be similar.

3. DATA PROCESSING

Net heat transfer can be calculated as

Q

N

= ha A

C

T (1)

Where,

Q

N

= Q

Input

Q

Cond

(2)

To find heat loss by conduction (heat loss through the base)

thermocouples were inserted through insulating bricks up to

distance dxb from the base plate.

b

b

Cond

dx

T A k

Q

b b

= (3)

Similarly, conduction loss through sides of base plate is also

calculated by noting the temperature of side of the base plate.

Average convective heat transfer coefficient,

( )

a s

T T Ac

N

Q

ha

= (4)

Nusselt number,

k

H

a

h

Nu = (5)

Rayleigh Number is given by

k

H T C g

Ra

P

3 2

) (

= (6)

Where,

Properties of air were taken from the standard table of air

properties at mean Temperature Tm.

4. CFD MODELING AND SIMULATION

The CFD modeling, simulation and post processing are carried

out in an ANSYS 12.0, Workbench environment with an

ANSYS system of fluid flow (CFX) [7]. It has the capability

of solving the convective transport of energy by fluid flow

along with the conjugate heat transfer (CHT) capability to

solve the thermal conduction in solids.

In the any CFD simulation, the steps in performing fluid

analysis are

1) Create or import a geometry

2) Create a mesh

3) Set up the analysis that will be sent to the solver

4) Control and monitor the solver to achieve a solution

5) Visualize the results in a post-processor and create a report.

These steps are briefed below.

4.1. Create a Geometry

Geometry was created using ANSYS Design Modeler

software which is specifically designed for the creation and

preparation of a geometry for simulation. A domain has to be

built around the fin to study mass flow and thus the heat flow

from the fin, because the area of interest is the outside of fin,

which is the interface between the air and fin surface. Thus,

connections are required between the solid fin surface and the

fluid domain consisting of air.

Fig-3: Domains Fluid and Solid and boundary conditions

applied, the12mm perforated fin array

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 12 | Dec-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 486

Initially the domain of fin including base was created and

required domain of fluid of size 172x140x130mm (Fig.3)

created with the help of the Enclosure option around the fin.

The setup was modeled with full geometry so that maximum

physics of experimental analysis can be included. Hence it is

logical to assume that the behavior of the created system

domains is similar to the behavior of the experimental system.

4.2 Create a Mesh for the Geometry

The standard volume Mesher in a CFX-Mesh is the Advancing

Front Volume Mesher. It enables an automatic tetrahedral

mesh generation using efficient mesh generation techniques,

meshes were created with high contact sizing relevance (dense

meshing near the fin surface), inflation growth rate 1.2 and

total number of tetrahedral elements between 3.0 to 3.5

million.

4.3 Setup the Analysis that will be sent to the Solver

Under the set up of CFX of the ANSYS Workbench, selected

Analysis type Steady State. The appropriate boundary

conditions were applied to the domains (refer Fig. 3).

Materials Aluminum and Air were assigned to the created

solid and fluid domain respectively. The interface between

solid fin surface and fluid was created by using the option

Domain Interface, having chosen Fluid Solid interface

under the basic settings. Activated buoyancy in Y direction,

chosen Turbulence model as Laminar.

Through the use of the boundary condition of opening to all

sides of the enclosure faces except the bottom face (set to

adiabatic) the size of the fluid domain can be reduced to a

great extent and it can be assumed to be as the atmospheric

conditions. Under fluid domain a layer adjacent to the bottom

face of fin base was set to adiabatic. Under the domain fin and

base, bottom surface of a base of the fin, set the boundary

condition to Heat Flux. The heat flux was applied equal to

the Q

N

/A

b

of the experimental readings. Other vertical sides of

base plate set to boundary condition as adiabatic.

4.4 Control and Monitor the Solver to Achieve a

Solution (Convergence)

The most important measure of convergence is the residual.

The CFX-Solver will terminate the run when the equation

residuals (Root Mean Square (RMS) type of residual)

calculated are below the residual target value. The target was

set to 1.0x10

-6

. It was observed that most solutions were

getting converged between 240 to 270 iterations. In a few

cases, residuals of the energy equations remain constant (about

4.8x10

-6

). Hence, to optimize the computational time the

maximum number of iterations was set to 300. It took 8 to12

hours to get solutions converged.

4.5 Visualizing the Results in a Post-Processor and

Creating a Report.

When the solver was terminated, the results were examined

which is the post processing step. Temperature distribution

and heat flux along the fin surface as well as parameters like

Nusselt Number, heat transfer coefficient, Rayleigh number

and changes in other parameters can also be predicted by

computational analysis. Fig.4 and Fig.5 shows the temperature

contours over the convective surface area of the non

perforated and perforated fin arrays respectively. It can be

seen that the perforated fin arrays are pumping out the more

heat from the base, as the average fin temperatures are higher

than that of the equivalent solid fin array. The end fins and top

ends of the all fins are cooled faster.

Fig-4: Contours of Temperature Solid Fin array 80W input

Fig-5: Contours of Temperature perforated Fin array 80W

input

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 12 | Dec-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 487

5. FLOW VISUALIZATION

The Fig.6 shows the velocity vectors of the solid fin array at

80 watt heat input. The air has only chance to come in from

the ends of the fin as seen in the interspacing of the fin. The

air entering from the ends is not sufficient to cool the entire

arrays and leaves the array before reaching the central zone,

hence the resulting sliding chimney flow pattern. From the

Fig.7 and Fig.8 it is observed that air is sucked from the ends

of the fin as well as from the sides through the perforation and

goes up through the central portion of fin array.

Fig-6: Vectors of velocity on XY plane at Z=0.02m solid fin

array

Fig-7: Vectors of velocity on XY plane at Z=0.02m

12mm perforated fin array

Fig-8: Vectors of velocity on YZ plane at X=0.06m 12mm

perforated fin array

Fig-9: Contours of temperature on XY plane at Z=0.04m solid

fin array

Fig-10: Contours of temperature on XY plane at Z=0.04m

12mm perforated fin array

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 12 | Dec-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 488

Fig-11: Contours of temperature on YZ plane at X=0.103m

12mm perforated fin array

Showing the single chimney flow pattern, the space between

middle fins showing the negligible down flow but it is better

than solid fin arrays. Yet there is scope to improve the flow

pattern by increasing the size of the perforation. Fig.9 shows

the contours of the temperature around the solid fin, it clearly

shows the formation of the stagnant hot layer. It is eased by

adding the perforation to the fins as it is seen from Fig.10 the

contours of temperature in the fluid domain of the 12mm

perforated fin. Similarly Fig.11 shows the contours of the

temperature 12mm perforated fin array clipped on the YZ

plane at X=0.103m all contour and velocity vectors are

clipped to local range correspond to 80W heat input. The

Fig.12 shows the streamlines of velocity in fluid domain of

12mm perforated fin array. The air entering in the fluid

domain from the bottom sides of the fluid domain which

comes in contact with the heated fin surface then passes

through perforation resulting in an upward flow of air by

natural convection.

Fig-12: Streamlines of flow velocity of 12mm perforated fin

array at 80W heat input

The attempt was made to visualize the flow pattern of the

perforated fin array with simple smoke technique by using the

Dhoop sticks. It was observed that the flow pattern obtained

was a single chimney at the height above the fin, and slight

curling of the smoke at the edge of perforation.

6. GRID INDEPENDENCY AND VALIDATION OF

RESULTS

A Grid independency test was carried out by varying the

number of elements from 2.8 million to 3.5 million. It was

observed that, a very minute variation (< 1

o

c) in various output

temperatures and < 3w/m

2

in conserved heat flux values

existed. Even though, as time was not a constraint and for

accurate results the total number of tetrahedral elements in a

grid were chosen to be approximately 3.0 to 3.5 million.

Comparison among the CFD simulation results and

experimental values of various temperatures, heat transfer

coefficient and Ra and Nu with a maximum variation of 7.5%

was observed. The uncertainty analysis was carried it was

found that uncertainty remains below 5%, during the

experimentation.

7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Experimental analysis and CFD simulation of performance

characteristics of the perforated fin arrays with 12mm

perforation and its external dimensionally equivalent solid fin

arrays is presented.

From the presented Figs.4, 8 and 9 vectors of velocity and

temperature zones around the solid fin array clears that, the air

coming inwards from the bottom, gets heated as it moves

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 12 | Dec-2013, Available @

towards the centre of the fin, rises up due to

density, the central portion of the fin becomes ineffective

because the hot airstream passes over that part and

does not bring about large heat transfer through that portion.

When perforation is added, Figs.7, 8, 10, 11 and 12, vectors

velocity, temperature zones and streamlines of velocity

the perforated fin revels that the area removed by th

perforation from the fin is compensated by the entry of more

fresh cold air through the perforation and also from the ends of

the fin resulting in the enhancement of the heat transfer.

Fig- 13: Performance in Nu Vs Ra of 12 mm Perforated and

corresponding external dimensionally equivalent solid

arrays CFD and Experimental analysis

Fig.13 shows the performance of Nu against Rayleigh number

(Ra) at the same heat input the Nu of the perforated fin array is

higher than the Nu of the solid fin array of the experiment

well as of the simulation and heat dissipation rate increases

with an increase in the size of the perforation

8. CONCLUSION

The experimental analysis as well as the CFD simulation on a

solid and a perforated fin array is carried out.

enhancement in the heat dissipation rate due to

is noted and heat dissipation rate increases with

the size of the perforation because of more free convection

due to the perforation. The flow pattern observed in case

solid fin array was more or less in a sliding chimney

and that of the perforated fin array was of single chimney in

nature, a significance of enhanced heat dissipation rate

perforation.

REFERENCES

[1]. Abdullah H. AIEssa and Fayez M.S. Al

The effect of orientation of square perforations on the

heat transfer enhancement from a fin subjected to natural

convection. Springer-Verlag, Heat and Mass Transfer,

40, pp. 509-515.

28

33

38

43

48

11 16

N

u

Ra

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319

__________________________________________________________________________________________

2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

due to a decrease in

density, the central portion of the fin becomes ineffective

passes over that part and therefore it

does not bring about large heat transfer through that portion.

, 8, 10, 11 and 12, vectors of

and streamlines of velocity around

the perforated fin revels that the area removed by the

perforation from the fin is compensated by the entry of more

fresh cold air through the perforation and also from the ends of

of the heat transfer.

12 mm Perforated and

equivalent solid fin

arrays CFD and Experimental analysis

against Rayleigh number

of the perforated fin array is

higher than the Nu of the solid fin array of the experiment as

well as of the simulation and heat dissipation rate increases

the perforation.

the CFD simulation on a

fin array is carried out. The

dissipation rate due to the perforation

is noted and heat dissipation rate increases with an increase in

because of more free convection

The flow pattern observed in case of

a sliding chimney in nature

was of single chimney in

eat dissipation rate due to

[1]. Abdullah H. AIEssa and Fayez M.S. Al-Hussien, 2004.

The effect of orientation of square perforations on the

heat transfer enhancement from a fin subjected to natural

Heat and Mass Transfer,

[2]. Abdullah H. AIEssa and Mohmmed I. Al

Enhancement of natural convection heat transfer from a

fin by triangular perforations of bases parallel and toward

its tip. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics

University and Springer

[3]. Sanjeev D. Suryawanshi and

Natural convection heat transfer from horizontal

rectangular inverted notched fin arrays, ASME,

Transfer, 131(8).

[4]. C. B. Sobhan, S.P. Venkateshan and K. N. Seetharamu,

(1990),Experimental studies on steady free convection

heat transfer from fins and fin arrays, Wrme

Stoffbertragung, Springer

[5]. Suneeta Sane, Gajanan Parishwad,

Experimentatal Analysis of Natural Convection Heat

Transfer from Horizontal Rectangular Notched Fin

Arrays, International journal of Heat and Technology,

Vol.27, pp11-16

[6]. Vinod M. Wankar, S.G. Taji, 2012, Experimental

Investigation of Flow Pattern on Rectangular Fin Arrays

under Natural Convection, International Journal of

Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), Vol.2, Issue.6,

pp-4572-4576.

[7]. ANSYS CFX-Solver Modeling Guide, April 2009,

Release 12.0 ANSYS, Inc. Southpoint.

BIOGRAPHIES

Dhanawade Hanamant S. is Professor in Smt.

Indira Gandhi College of Engineering, Navi

Mumbai and Research scholar of JJT

University, Rajasthan, has 24 years of

teaching experience and more than eleven

papers in the national, international

conferences and Journals in his credit. Life member of ISTE

and Associate Member of IIIE

Dr. K. N. Vijaykumar is Professor and Head

of the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

D J. Sanghvi College of Engineering,

Mumbai, has 24 years of teaching experience

and more than 21 papers in the national and

international conferences and Journals in his

credit. Life member of ISTE and Associate Member of IIIE

Dhanawade Kavita H. is Assistant

Professor in the Department of Mechanical

Engineering, Lokmanya Tilak College

Engineering, Navi Mumbai, Sixteen years

of teaching experience and she has in credit

more than 12 papers in the national and

international conferences and journals, She is the life member

of the ISTE.

21

x 100000

12PR CFD

12PR EXP

PL CFD

PL EXP

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

489

[2]. Abdullah H. AIEssa and Mohmmed I. Al-Widyan, 2008.

Enhancement of natural convection heat transfer from a

fin by triangular perforations of bases parallel and toward

its tip. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai

University and Springer-Verlag 29 (8), Pp.1033-1044.

[3]. Sanjeev D. Suryawanshi and Narayan K. Sane, 2009.

vection heat transfer from horizontal

rectangular inverted notched fin arrays, ASME, J. Heat

. B. Sobhan, S.P. Venkateshan and K. N. Seetharamu,

1990),Experimental studies on steady free convection

heat transfer from fins and fin arrays, Wrme- and

Stoffbertragung, Springer-Verlag, Vol. 25, pp. 345-352.

[5]. Suneeta Sane, Gajanan Parishwad, Narayan Sane, 2009,

Experimentatal Analysis of Natural Convection Heat

Transfer from Horizontal Rectangular Notched Fin

Arrays, International journal of Heat and Technology,

Vinod M. Wankar, S.G. Taji, 2012, Experimental

of Flow Pattern on Rectangular Fin Arrays

under Natural Convection, International Journal of

Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), Vol.2, Issue.6,

Solver Modeling Guide, April 2009,

Release 12.0 ANSYS, Inc. Southpoint.

Dhanawade Hanamant S. is Professor in Smt.

Indira Gandhi College of Engineering, Navi

Mumbai and Research scholar of JJT

University, Rajasthan, has 24 years of

teaching experience and more than eleven

papers in the national, international

rences and Journals in his credit. Life member of ISTE

and Associate Member of IIIE

Dr. K. N. Vijaykumar is Professor and Head

of the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

D J. Sanghvi College of Engineering,

Mumbai, has 24 years of teaching experience

d more than 21 papers in the national and

international conferences and Journals in his

TE and Associate Member of IIIE

Dhanawade Kavita H. is Assistant

Professor in the Department of Mechanical

Engineering, Lokmanya Tilak College of

Engineering, Navi Mumbai, Sixteen years

of teaching experience and she has in credit

more than 12 papers in the national and

international conferences and journals, She is the life member

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 12 | Dec-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 490

NOMENCLATURE

A

b

Surface area of bottom of the base, m

2

A

c

Convective heat transfer area, m

2

C

P

Specific heat capacity at constant pressure, Ws/kgK

dxb

Distance of thermocouple from base plate in the

brick, mm

g Gravity, m/s

2

H Fin height, mm

h

a

Average heat transfer coefficient, W/m

2

K

k Thermal conductivity of air, W/mK

k

b

Thermal conductivity of insulating brick, W/mK

L Length of fin, m

N

u

Nusselt number, dimensionless

T

a

Ambient temperature, K

T

m

Mean temperature, K

T

s

Average surface temperature of a fin, K

T Difference of average surface temperature and

ambient temperature, K

T

b

Difference of temperatures at bottom of the fin and

temperature in a brick at dx

b

distance,K

Q

Cond

Heat loss by conduction, W

Q

Input

Electrical heat input, W

Q

N

Heat transfer by Convection, W

Ra Rayleigh number, dimensionless

S Fin spacing, mm

Greek Symbols

Coefficient of thermal expansion of air, 1/K

Emissivity

Density of air, kg/m

3

Viscosity of air, kg/ ms

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