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International Conference Ozone and UV, April 3

rd
2006
Wasser Berlin 2006 3
Application of Ozone to Municipal Sewage Treatment


Hirofumi Takahara
1
, Shigeki Nakayama
2
and Hiroshi Tsuno
3



1, 2 J apan Ozone Association 1-3-9 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-0052J APAN
3 Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku,
Kyoto-city 6068501 J APAN


Key-word: Ozonation, Sewage treatment, Water reuse, Advance wastewater Treatment, Disinfection


Abstract

In more than 60 sewage treatment plants in J apan, ozonation has been adopted to polish
effluents for the purposes of decolorization, removal of odor, disinfection, removal of organics,
decomposition of micropollutants and so on. In this paper ,the state of arts in ozone application to
municipal sewage treatment to polish effluents is discussed from the viewpoints of the application
purposes , design and operation. In addition, typical examples ozone application are introduced.


Introduction

The population covered with sewage treatment is 86,360,000 out of the total population of
126,687,000 in 2004. The coverage ratio of sewage treatment system is 68% in population, while
adoption ratio of advanced treatment, including biological nutrient removal process, coagulation
and sedimentation, sand filtration, and/or ozonation, is still only 13.2%. Comparison of coverage
ratios of sewage treatment system among countries are shown in Figure1. Coverage ratios are
shown to be comparable among these countries shown in the figure.
Amount of 13,200,000,000 m/year has been discharged to rivers, lakes and coastal seas from
sewage treatment plants. The effluent is now considered to be one of the important and stable
water resources, especially in urban areas. The reuse of the effluent after advanced treatment has
been attracting attention more and more. Ozonation is a promised and key technology for the
advanced treatment for reuse.
In this paper, the state of the arts in ozone application to municipal treatment to polish effluent is
discussed from the viewpoints of application purposes, design and operation. In addition, typical
examples of ozone application are introduced.
International Conference Ozone and UV, April 3
rd
2006

4 Wasser Berlin 2006
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
J APAN SWEDEN HOLLAND GERMANY CANADA USA ENGLAND
Advanced Treatment
Sewage treatment

Figure 1 Comparison of coverage ratio of sewage treatment system among countries
1)


Overview of ozone application to sewage treatment in Japan

Effluent from advanced treatment process with ozonation has been mostly used for toilet flush,
cooling, landscape, amenity and facilities-washing. In 1988, the first ozonation plant for polishing
sewage effluent was constructed in Oita Treatment Plant to supply the water for the castles moat
water in J apan. Then the number of ozonation plants constructed for sewage treatment has been
increased year by year and reached to more than 60 in 2004 as shown in Figure2.
The application points of ozonation are mainly after coagulation and sedimentation, sand
filtration and/or biofiltration of secondary effluent. And the most popular and important parameter
for design and operation is ozone dosage, amount of ozone dosed per unit volume of treated water.
The dosage ratio of ozonation in sewage treatment in J apan is shown in Figure 3. The ozone
dosage ratio is 5-20 mg per litter of water, typically 10-15 mg ozone per litter of water.








Figure 2 Trend of numbers of installed ozonation plants
2)

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
5mg/ l 5- 10mg/ l 10- 15mg/ l 15- 20mg/ l 20mg

Figure 3 Ozone dosage
3)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1988 1990 1992 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004
International Conference Ozone and UV, April 3
rd
2006
Wasser Berlin 2006 5
Examples of ozone application to sewage treatment

1) Tamagawa J oryu Plant, Tokyo

Recently, there have been gradually increased voices calling for water amenity improvement
among local citizens. In response to this, Tokyo Metropolitan Government has been trying to
revitalize streams with aim of improving water-side environment and creating a green network. For
this purpose, the effluent from Tamagawa J oryu Plant supplied to Nobidome Stream firstly with
water after sand filtration. However claim about odor and color problems occurred from the local
citizens. So the ozonation process was introduced after sand filtration to solve these problems and
resulted in success. The outline of the ozonation process and supplied water quality are shown in
Table 1 and Table2, respectively. Ozonation also offers better contribution to security against
pathogenic organisms.


Table 1 Outline of Tamagawa J oryu ozonation process
4)
Item Specification
Capacity 43,200m3/day
flow Secondary effluent +Sand filtration +PAC +ozonation
PAC injection PAC dosage 10-15mg Tank Volume 14m3 2 tanks
Ozonation Ozone dosage 5-10mg/l Ozone generator 10kg/h ,diffuser
Ozone
decomposition
Activated Carbon Volume 4320kg



PAC Ozone generator Ozone decomposer



Second effluent Treated Water
Sand filtration Ozonation Ozonation


Figure 4 Ozonation Plant Flow
4)



Table 2 Water quality of treated sewage (Tamagawa J oryu Treatment Plant)
4)

Odor Color(CU) phosphorus SS COD C-BOD PH Turbidity
Raw water 40 20 1.72 3 15 4 7.0 2
Sand filtration 22 12 0.35 1 10 1 7.0 Below 1
ozonation 18 8 0.41 1 10 2 7.2 Below1

International Conference Ozone and UV, April 3
rd
2006

6 Wasser Berlin 2006

2) Kisshoin Treatment Plant ,Kyoto

Kisshoin sewage treatment plant receives a large amount of wastewater from dyestuff industries
and suffered from color and COD problems. Then ozonation process was introduced after oxygen
activated sludge process for removal of color and reduction of COD concentration as well as
disinfection. The outline of the ozonation process and water quality of the effluent is shown in Table
3 and Table 4, respectively. Ozone treated water quality clears the guideline of discharged water
quality.

Table 3 Outline of ozonation process (Kissoin Treatment Plant)
5)

Capacity 120,000 m3/day ( Line A 40,000 m3/day ,Line B 80,000m3/day
Amount of ozone generation : 22.5kg/h 3 number
Ozone concentration : :110g/Nm3, diffuser ,Contact time: 11.3 min
Ozone dosage : Max 20mg/l
Ozonation
Power consumption : 0.1kw/ m3

Table 4 Water quality of treated sewage (Kisshoin Treatment Plant)
5)
PH BOD C-BOD COD SS T-N NH4-N T-P Color
Raw Water A 7.3 91 63 84 21 2.8 30
Raw Water B 7.6 230 190 204 21 4.0 77
SedimentaionA 7.2 60 49 43 19 12 1.6 31
SedimentaionB 7.3 64 57 52 21 13 1.8 37
Treated WaterA 7.1 3.1 2.0 8 2 5.1 0.3 0.33 16
Treated WaterB 6.5 5.1 2.3 11 3 13 2.6 0.7 20
Discharged 6.8 5.1 3.6 8.3 2 8.4 1.5 0.46 5.9
(2004)




3) Shibaura Water Reclamation Center, Tokyo

Tokyo Metropolitan government has been trying to expand the use of the reclamation water. The
new reclamation plant using microfiltration membrane(MF) together with ozone (see Figure5) was
constructed at Shibaura Water Reclamation Center and began to operate in April, 2004. The
treatment capacity is 4300 m/day. The reclamation water is supplied to redeveloped area in
Shinagawa, Shiodome and Osaki as toilet flashing water and water for environmental
improvement. MF can keep high filtration flux as 5m/(m d) and stable operation without
chemical cleaning by combination with ozonation. The water quality of treated sewage is shown in
Table 5. The reclamation water obtained has a quality without color, odor and suspend matter. And
it is excellent in security against pathogenic microorganisms.
International Conference Ozone and UV, April 3
rd
2006
Wasser Berlin 2006 7
Sewerage secondary effluent water

Pre ozone process

Bio filtration process

Ozone oxidization process

Micro filtration process
dosing disinfectants
Reclamation water
Figure 5 Flow sheet of the developed reclamation of reclamationsystem
6)7)












.
























4) Konantyubu Sewage Treatment Plant

Ultra advanced sewage treatment plant was constructed and has been operated from 2005 in
Konantyubu Sewage Treatment Plant to preserve the quality of Lake Biwa.The treatment process
is composed of biological nutrient removal with coagulation, sand filtration, ozonation and
bio-activated carbon filtration. The treatment capacity is 6,500 m/d. Water quality of effluent
before and after of additional ozonation and bio-activated carbon is shown in Table 6.

Table 5 Water quality treated sewage
6)7)
Treatment process
Item
Raw water
(Secondary
effluent)
Bio-filtration Ozone
MF membrane
Water quality
standard values
for recreation
reuse
T-BOD
(mg/L)
16 4.4 2.3 2.1 <3
COD
(mg/L)
11 8.2 5.9 5.7
Heterotrophes
(CFU/mL)
4.4E+04 2.6E+03 0 0
E-Coli
(CFU/100mL)
1.8E+05 1.5E+04 0 0 <50
Fecal coliform
(CFU/100mL)
6.5E+04 1.2E+03 0 0
NH
3
-N
(mg/L)
10.8 2.97 3.34 3.55
NO
2
-N
(mg/L)
1.66 0.84 0.44 <0.03 <0.03
NO
3
-N
(mg/L)
4.9 14.7 16.3 16.3

Color
(C.U.)
31 17 8 1 <10
1) These numbers are the average value from 30 analytical tests (experiment durations 2000.4 2001.2)
2) Standard values are quoted from the manual of water quality management for landscape irrigation and
International Conference Ozone and UV, April 3
rd
2006

8 Wasser Berlin 2006

Table 6 Water quality of treated sewage (Konantyubu Sewage Treatment Plant)
8)

Before After
COD COD T-N T-P
6.0 6.0 0.05

3.0 3.0 0.02





Conclusion

Up till now more than 60 ozonation plants have been constructed in J apan.
The plants numbers in constriction and planning will be increased in the future, especially where
sewage effluent is to be reused and higher water quality is required.


References

1) Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Current State of Sewerage Treatment in J apan,
2004
2) J OA, Ozone News in J apan Vol 3-Vol 56
3) J apan Ozone Association, The Study of artificial reuse water using ozonation 28-33, 1997
4) H. Akimoto, Ozone Application to municipal treatment in the case of Tamagawa J yoryu treatment
plant, J OA 1st ozone technology seminar 123-143, 1991
5) Kyoto-city sewerage bureau, leaflet of Kisshoin Sewage Treatment Plant, 2004
6) K. Kitamura, Application of ozone and ozone resistance micro filtration membrane for the reuse of
secondary effluent, J OA 22
nd
Ozone technology seminar, 1-5, 2004
7) T.Onitsuka, S Takeda, Application of ozone and ozone resistance micro filtration membrane for the
reuse of secondary effluent, Ozone News Vol33No4, 21-24, 2005
8) H. Kano, Ozone application to municipal sewage treatment- Ultra advanced sewage treatment, the
joint seminar by J apan Ozone Association and J apan Society on water environment, Sep, 2005