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Design for Static Strength

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DESIGN FOR STATIC STRENGTH

Properties and Behavior

STATIC STRENGTH Maximum resistance offered by a material subjected to a gradually applied stress to a final
value with negligible change with time the magnitude, direction or point of application I.e.
acceleration can be neglected.( Static load ).

Decision for specific test failure of parts and human life, extremely large quantity of production
For Material Properties large enough production
small quantity production, time constraint in designing
unsatisfactory finished product
6-3 FAILURE THEORIES
6-4 Maximum-Normal Stress : Failure occurs when,
1
= S
yt
or
3
= -S
yc
.( 6-5/b )
Where, S
yt ,
S
yc
are tensile and compressive yield strengths, respectively
For brittle materials, failure occurs when,
1
= S
ut
or
3
= -S
uc
=> u designates ultimate.




6-5 Maximum- Shear Stress :
max
=
maxstt
,

maxstt
is

the maximum shear in simple tensile test.

That is,
max
S
sy
( = S
y
) ..{ Coulomb, Tresca & Guest }
2


6-6 Maximum Distortion Energy : Strain energy per unit volume
)
2
(
2
1
) 0 (
2
2
0 0
E
E d E d u
o
c c c c o
c c
= = = =
} }


=>
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2
) ( ) ( ) ( 2 o o o o o o + + =
y
S
For biaxial stresses,

2 2
2 2 1
2
1 y
S = + o o o o ( 6-12 ) Ellipse { Huber, von Mises & Hencky }


For pure torsion,
2
= -
1
and =
1
=> S
sy
= 0.577 S
y



6-7 Failure of Ductile Materials: Consider sections 6-4, 6-5 and 6-6.




6-8 Failure of Brittle Materials ( failure by fracture, S
C
S
T,
S
SU
S
T
)
Use Maximum Normal Stress Theory and Coulomb-Mohr Theory or Internal Friction Theory



6-9 Stress Concentration or Stress Raisers Region due to irregularities in considered parts.
Stress concentration factors are determined using Photoelasticity, Finite Element Method or by
experiments.





Design for Static Strength
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Distortion Energy Criteria (Elaboration)


Huber(1904), von Misus1913) and Heckers(1925) Theory: Failure of mechanical components under triaxial or
biaxial stress occurs when the strain energy of distortion per unit volume equals the strain energy of distortion per
unit volume in a standard tensile test.

After considering an element with triaxial stresses ( u ) into components of hydrostatic tension( u
v
) for volume
change and stresses ( u
d
) contributing to angular distortion with volume change.

Distortion energy u
d
=
(

+ + +
2
) ( ) ( ) (
3
1
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
o o o o o o v
E
( 6-9/6-5 )*

For simple tensile test,
1
= S
y
and
2
=
3
( = 0 ). => u
d
=
2
3
1
y
S
E
v +
( 6-10/6-7 )*

Equating (6-9*) and (6-10*) gives, 2S
Y
2
= (
1

2
)
2
+ (
2

3
)
2
+ (
3

1
)
2
( 6-11 )*

For biaxial stresses,
3
=0 .

S
Y
2
=
1
2
-

2
+

2
2
( 6-12 )*.


For pure torsion,
2
= -
1
and t =
1
=> S
SY
= 0.577 S
Y
( 6-13 )*

_______________
von Misus stress for biaxial condition,

=
1
2
-

2
+

2
2
. ( 6-14/6-9 )*



For triaxial stresses,

=
2 / 1
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2
) ( ) ( ) (
(

+ + o o o o o o


For 3-D Cartesian coordinates: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
2
1
2 2 2 2 2 2
6
2
1
'
zx yz xy x z z y y x
t t t o o o o o o o + + + + + =

__________
For combined torsion and bending, t
xy
and
x
,

=
x
2
+ 3 t
xy
2



Design for Static Strength
3
Exercise in failure of Ductile Materials using all three theories:

For stress conditions given below, calculate the factor of safety for each if the yield strength, S
Y
= 600 MPa.

a)
1
= 420 MPa,
2
= 420 MPa,
3
= 0
b)
1
= 420 MPa,
2
= 180 MPa,
3
= 0
c)
1
= 420 MPa,
2
= 0,
3
= -180 MP
d)
1
= 0,
2
= -180 MPa,
3
= -420 MPa



Brittle Materials
Brittle material characteristics:

i. Stess-strain curve no yielding smooth continuous line to failure
ii. Compressive strength is much higher than tensile strength (Suc>>>Sut)
iii. Ultimate torsional strength nearly equals tensile strength (SsuSut)


Coulomb-Mohr Theory - For tensile and compression tests,
failure occurs for any stress situation which produces a circle tangent
to the envelop of the two test circles.


Stress strength relationship (refer Fig 6-30 below):



1
3 1
=
UC UT
S S
o o

1
0 :
3
0 (a)

By manipulating above equation, Coulomb-Mohr theory can be put as:

1
'
3
1
3

=
o
o
ut
uc
uc
S
S
S
S (b) S
3
is limiting value of
3



Modified Mohr theory (MMT)

1
' '
3
1
3

=
o
o
ut
ut uc
uc
S
S S
S
S
3
-S
ut
:
1
0 (c) S
3
is limiting value of
3












SUT
SUC
Fig.1 Mohrs Circle- Tensile and Compression
Tests
Design for Static Strength
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in terms of line slope r =
B
/
A
, = -S
uc
+ S
ut

(a)
(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)
(g)
(h)
Ssy
Brittle Failure
Design for Static Strength
5
Fig 3 torsion beam

) ..( , 0 : ,
2
, ), ( ..
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
j S S S
r r
S
c
r
S
S r
b where i
c b b
n
ut B uc ut A
ut ut
ut
A
s s s s
A
= +
A
=
+
= o o o



Q1
A machine element is loaded so that
1
= 120 MPa,
2
= 0 MPa, and

3
= -90 MPa;
the material has a minimum yield strength in tension and compression of
360 MPa.

Calculate the factor of safety for each of the following failure theories:
(a )Maximum-normal-stress theory b) Maximum-shear-stress theory, and
(c) Distortion-energy theory

Q2 Figure 2 shows a round bar subjected to the vector moment
M = 1.75i + 1.lOk kN - m. The material is 5052-H38 aluminum alloy. A stress element A located on top of the bar
is oriented in the xz plane as shown.
Using the stresses on this element,
determine the factor of safety guarding against a static failure by using the maximum-shear-stress theory and the
distortion-energy theory






Q3 A lever subjected to a downward static force of 1.8 kN is
keyed to a 25-mm round bar as shown in the figure3.


(a) Calculate the critical stresses in the round bar

(b)The round bar is made of BS 825M40 steel with
yield strength, S
y
= 1020 MPa. Based on static loading,
determine the factor of safety using the distortion-energy
theory.

(c) As a check on (b), obtain the factor of safety using the
maximum-shear-stress theory. Should the result be greater
or less than that obtained in (b) ? Why




Q 4 For a force F = 1800 N in Figure5, determine the
Principal stresses at element A.













Fig.2 Loaded round bar
Fig3 Torsion beam
Fig 4 Loaded cantilever
Design for Static Strength
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Q5.The clevis pin in Figure4 is 12 mm diameter, with dimensions
a = 12 mm and b = 18 mm. The pin is made of
AISI 1018 hot-rolled steel with maximum load of 4.4 kN.
Determine whether the factor of safety for loading in
C or d is the same. Use the maximum shear - stress
hypothesis













Fig 4 Loaded clevis pin