A .

Political communication =>the analysis of the political life 15 themes (Denis McQuail) = the
process of communication can be defined as: 1. ransmission = the purpose of communication is to
deli!er messa"es# $. %ntention of the communicator & "estures and e'pression# (. )ffect*cause of the
political relations*interactional structures# +. ,inear# circular or interacti!e processes# 5. -ource of
cohesion* conflict .. Acti!e*reacti!e dimension
/. Political communication in practice (he emer"ence of strate"ic communication = a ne0
e'plicati!e factor of the electoral results: -e"ol1ne 2oyal# ony /lair (3eter Mandelson
What is (not) Political Communication4 3ropa"anda* 3ersuasion & propa"anda is commonly
understood as dissemination to the "eneral public of a doctrine or an ideolo"y. 3olitical propa"anda is
part of the 0hole structure and process of institutions. /ut ne"ati!e# connotation related 0ith 5a6i
mytholo"y and ima"inary# 0ar (7o0ett 8arth# 9ictori :;Donnel#3ropa"anda and 3ersuasion# -a"e#
$<<.). === 0hite# blac># "ray
De9ito (1?@.) neutral techniAue# Bto disseminate and to promote particular ideasC & related 0ith a clear
institutional ideolo"y and obDecti!e# Bor"anised persuassionC
-proule (1??+:@): BPropaganda represents the 0or> of lar"e or"anisations or "roups to 0in o!er the
public for special interests throu"h a massi!e orchestration of attracti!e conclusions pac>a"ed to
conceal both their persuasi!e purpose and lac> of sound supporti!e reasonsC
Anthony 3rat>anis# )lliot Aronson ($<<1) 3ropa"anda= abuse of persuasion# a mass su""estion or
influence throu"h the manipulation of symbols and the psycholo"y of indi!idual(11)
-ha0n 7 3arry 8iles($<<$) 3ropa"anda = strate"ically de!ised messa"es that are disseminated to
masses of people by an institution for the purpose of "eneratin" action benefitin" its sources (ruman#
)isenho0er* mobili6e propa"anda as official peacetime institution)
3rat>anisEurner(1??.) 3ropa"anda !s persuasion =difference the "eneral type of manipulation
3ropa"anda=attempts to mo!e a recipient to a predetermined point of !ie0 by usin" simple
ima"es and slo"ans that truncate throu"h by playin" on preDudices and emotions 1??<. 3ersuasion
implies deliberation# propa"anda manipulation of the mob by the elite
M:-F:9%F% (theory of leadership) & ( strate"ies of propa"anda: 1. representational strate"y# refers to
the spatial arran"ements &lar"e cro0ds# bi" sAuares $. ceremonies that include displays of 0eaponry
(. the leader and the dramatic use of stron"ly persuasi!e lan"ua"e.
Political marketing= the use of mar>etin" concepts and techniAues in politics. Go0 the or"anisations
beha!e in relation to their customers. 3olitical mar>etin"= mo!ed beyond the narro0 focus on
communication (o!erlappin" dimension)# concerned 0ith the demands of the mar>et and political
beha!iour in a broader sense# political or"anisations adaptin" techniAues (D. ,ille>er# 7.,ees=
Marshment# 3olitical mar>etin"# Manchester Hni! 3ress#$<<5# p#.)
,ees Marshment $<<1= ho0 parties mi"ht beha!e if they follo0ed a product# sales or mar>et
orientation. 3roduct oriented party 1. product desi"n# $. communication (campai"n or institutional)
7ennifer ,ees=Marshment# 3olitical mar>etin": principles and applications# ($<<?) he >ey difference
bet0een political communication and mar>etin". I3olitical mar>etin" is no0 seen as potentially
affectin" the 0ay politicians# parties and "o!ernments beha!e# not Dust ho0 they communicate that
beha!iour.C 5e0man (1???:(?) Mar>etin" reasearch is used by political leaders to shape policy
,ille>er ($<<J): B3olitical mar>etin" is the reachin" and influencin" of decisions and the formulation of
strate"ies and creation of offerin"s that satisfy the needs and 0ants of a society that e'chan"es its
o0n representati!e capacity for this satisfactionC
Gu"hes and Dann ($<<+): B3olitical mar>etin" is a political communications Kor"anisational functionL
and a set of processes for creatin"# communicatin" and deli!erin" promises of !alue to customers#
and for mana"in" customer relationships in 0ays that benefit the political or"anisation and its
,ees Marshment ($<<1): B3olitical mar>etin" is about political or"anisations (parties# "o!ernments#
parliaments) adaptin" techniAues (mar>et research and product desi"n) and concepts (such as desire
to satisfy the !oter demands) ori"inally used in business 0orld to help them to achie!e their "oals (e'
0in the elections)
PR (public relations) and Political advertisement
32 = propa"anda = increasin" efficiency of the political messa"e 32 -pecialists:
Media mana"ement= medialities = media e'posure = e!ent creation# controllin" the media
%ma"e mana"ement = public ima"e E political mar>etin" = ad placement# lo"os# controllin" the
lan"ua"e etc.
%nternal political communication = internal party channel of communication = coordination and
multiplyin" the messa"e
he informational mana"ement = controllin" the dissemination of information and its form=controllin"
the meanin" and the 0ay in 0hich the messa"e is disseminated
The Evolution of Political Communication
/ob Mran>lin# 3ac>a"in" 3olitics: 3olitical Fommunications in /ritainNs Media Democracy# $nd ed#
he professionali6ation of politics =>ad!ertisement of political leaders and their policies=>public
%ncreasin" role of political communication:
• Media e!olution and the political discourse chan"e (the role of charismatic leadership# Ansell
E Mish# he Art of /ein" %ndispensable# 1???)
• 3rofessionali6ation of politics = professional ad!isors (3. Oebb# . 3o"unt>e# he
presidentialisation of politics in democratic societies# $<<$. )
• he emer"ence of alternati!e channels of communication (blo""in"# Maceboo># t0itter etc)#
• 3olitical ad!ertisement as a campai"n strate"y (tal> sho0s# Matthe0 /aum# al>in" the 9ote:
Ohy 3residential Fandidates Git the al> -ho0 Fircuit# $<<5 )
• 3olitical transparency (media access)
Definitions of political communication
-e!eral dimensions:
Def1: echnical tools. 3olitical communication in practice
Def$: A form of e'chan"e bet0een political leaders E electorate. 3olitics = the e'pression of political
Def(: )ffects*outcomes. 3olicy dimension in political communication
Def+: A form of Bpolitical de"radationC
Def5: he e'pression of the symbolic uses of politics
Def 1: Political communication as practice
K3ractitioners of political communicationL
• 3olitical communication = tools employed by different "roups and indi!iduals emphasi6in"
their differences and their unity (homas Gollihan# $<<1)
• 2oyal Fayrol = a mar>et oriented approach in studyin" political communication
• -trate"ic communication: Bin!ol!es a coordinated plan 0hich sets out party obDecti!es#
identifies tar"et !oters# establishes the battle"round issues# orchestrates consistent >ey
themes and ima"es# prioriti6es or"ani6ational and financial resources and lays out the
frame0or> 0ithin 0hich campai"n communications operate.C (3ippa 5orris 1??? )
Def 2: Political exchange beteen lea!ers an! folloers
3arty politics scholars such as 3ippa 5orris focusin" on public opinion*ci!ic en"a"ement** 7. M.
Fotteret# 8ou!ernants et "ou!ernPs# 3HM# 1?J(
3aul M. ,a6arsfeldQ /ernard /erelson and Ga6el 8audet# he 3eopleNs Fhoice: Go0 the 9oter Ma>es
Hp Gis Mind in a 3residential Fampai"n# Duell# -loan and 3earc# 5e0 Ror># 1?++. Bhe people 0ho
did most of the readin" and listenin" not only read and heard most of their o0n partisan propa"anda
but 0ere also most resistant to con!ersation because of stron" predispositionsC (,a6arsfeld 1?+@)
3olitical Fommunication = interaction bet0een different "roups that influence the political decision=
3arty de=ali"ment => increasin" role of political communication ()!ans E 5orris 1???)
-ociali6ation theories E Fi!ic culture (Almond and 9erba 1?.()
Fontemporary studies: 3olitical communication= ne0 form of ci!ic en"a"ement
he hope that tele!ision and the press can help to mobili6e and ener"i6e !oters "enerates effecti!e
public deliberation 0hich informs citi6ens# and produce enli"htened preferences (8elman and Sin"
:ther authors = sensationalism rather than serious policy debates can lead to ci!ic disen"a"ement
(3utnam 1??5)
Def ": Polic# !imension of political communication
Political Communication $ discussion in terms of effects on public policies. Go0 the messa"e and
actions are co!ered by mass media and disseminated by the lar"er public and its discourse4
eleolo"ical definition of communication
(7ean O. Feaser and Andre0 ) /usch# Red Over Blue: 2004 Elections and American Politics# $<<5)
The %chematic &o!el of Political Communication ('orris 1((()
Def ): * form of political !egra!ation
he manufacture of consent E art of persuasion = seen as harmful for democracies: B3ersuasion has
become a self=conscious art and a re"ular or"an of "o!ernmentUC (Oalter ,ippmann# 1?$$)
3olitical Fommunication = Discursi!e process by 0hich political information is shared and promotes
a0areness# i"norance# manipulation# consent# dissent# action and passi!ity. Fommunication as an
2o"er8Prard -ch0art6enber"! "#e superstar s#o$ o% government& A bold and c'nical look at $orld
leaders as bigtime stars(( )*Etat spectacle& Essai sur et contre le +tar +'stem en politi,ue! -.//
Def 5: he e'pression of the symbolic uses of politics
8o!ernin" communicationC (8. /alandier# $<<.) = dramatur"ical effects of political communication#
V3olitics is a spectacle# reported by the media and 0itnessed by parts of the public. %t attracts attention
because# as an ambi"uous te't# it becomes inflused that reassure or threaten. he construction of
di!erse meanin"s for describin" political e!ents shapes support for causes and le"itimi6es !alue
allocation.C (Murray )delman# 2eflections on -ymbolism and 3oliticsQ 1?@+)
Fommunication is a ne0 form of political domination (symbolic !iolence 3ierre /ourdieu* 5orbert

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