Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

ADJUSTABLE SPEED INDUCTION

MOTOR DRIVE

































INSTRUCTED BY: Dr. D. P. Chandima


NAME :A.G.N.Bandara

INDEX NO : 090041G

FIELD : EE

GROUP : G2
DATE OF PER : 3
rd
June 2013
DATE OF SUB : 17
th
June 2013











Motor Input Waveform:


Measurement of speed control characteristics


1. The variation of Nr (Rotor Speed) with fs (Inverter Frequency).


Speed-Input potentiometer
setting
Inverter Frequency
fs (Hz)
Rotor Speed
Nr (rpm)

1

1.17 0.00
2

2.50 70.00
3 4.33 128.20
4

6.17 180.70
5

8.00 231.40
6

10.00 286.50
7

13.17 375.10
8

25.50 741.20
9

42.83 1242.70
10

50.00

1463.80
















0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
R
o
t
o
r

S
p
e
e
d

(
r
p
m
)


Frequency (Hz)
The variation of Nr (Rotor Speed) with fs (Inverter Frequency)


2. The variation of inverter output current (Is) with inverter frequency (fs)


Speed-Input potentiometer Inverter Frequency Inverter Output Current
setting fs (Hz) Is (A)

1 1.17 0.80

2 2.50 1.10

3 4.33 1.10

4 6.17 1.00

5 8.00 0.80

6 10.00 0.70

7 13.17 0.65

8 25.50 0.80

9 42.83 0.90

10 50.00 0.90




















0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
0 10 20 30 40 50
I
n
v
e
r
t
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)

Frequency (Hz)
The variation of inverter output current (Is) with inverter
frequency (fs)


3. The variation of inverter output power (Ws) with inverter frequency (fs)


















Speed-Input potentiometer Inverter Frequency Inverter Output Power


setting fs (Hz) Ws (W)

1 1.17 20

2 2.50 20

3 4.33 20

4 6.17 20

5 8.00 20

6 10.00 20

7 13.17 20

8 25.50 60

9 42.83 120

10 50.00 140

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 10 20 30 40 50
O
u
t
p
u
t

P
O
w
e
r

(
W
)

Frequency (Hz)
The variation of inverter output power (Ws) with
inverter frequency (fs)



4. The variation of the ratio between inverter output voltage (Vs/fs) with inverter frequency
(fs)


Speed-Input potentiometer
setting
Inverter Frequency
fs (Hz)
Ratio between Inverter Output
Voltage and Inverter Frequency
Vs/fs (V/Hz)






1 1.17 0.00

2 2.50 8.00

3 4.33 6.92

4 6.17 5.84

5 8.00 4.75

6 10.00 3.80

7 13.17 3.19

8 25.50 3.29

9 42.83 3.22

10 50.00 3.16















0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
V
s
/
f
s

(
V
/
H
z
)

Inverter Frequency(Hz)
(Vs/fs) with inverter frequency (fs)


Measurement of speed control characteristics with voltage control


1. The variation of rotor speed (Nr) with the inverter output voltage (Vs)


Voltage feedback
potentiometer setting

Inverter Output Voltage
Vs (V)
Rotor Speed
Nr (rpm)

1 80
728.60

2 80
729.30

3 102
736.80

4 118
740.00

5 132
742.10

6 146
743.80

7 160
745.00

8 178
745.90

9 190
746.40



















726
728
730
732
734
736
738
740
742
744
746
748
80 100 120 140 160 180
R
o
t
o
r

S
p
e
e
d

N
r

(
r
p
m
)

Inverter Output Voltage
Vs (V)
The variation of rotor speed (Nr) with the inverter
output voltage (Vs)


2. The variation of inverter output current (Is) with the inverter output voltage (Vs)


Voltage feedback
potentiometer setting

Inverter Output Voltage
Vs (V)
Inverter Output Current
Is (A)

1 80 0.70

2 80 0.70

3 102 0.80

4 118 0.90

5 132 1.00

6 146 1.15

7 160 1.30

8 178 1.50

9 190 1.65





















0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
I
n
v
e
r
t
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

I
s

(
A
)

Inverter Output Voltage
Vs (V)
The variation of inverter output current (Is) with the
inverter output voltage (Vs)




3. The variation of inverter output power (Ws) with the inverter output voltage (Vs)






























Voltage feedback
potentiometer setting
Inverter Output Voltage Inverter Output Power
Vs (V) Ws (W)

1 80 60

2 80 60

3 102 40

4 118 60

5 132 60

6 146 80

7 160 80

8 178 100

9 190 100


40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
I
n
v
e
r
t
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t

P
o
w
e
r

(
W
)

Inverter Output Voltage (V)
The variation of inverter output power (Ws) with the
inverter output voltage (Vs)


01. What is the motive of keeping v/f constant with adjustable speed drives
By controlling the supply frequency of the induction motor smoothly, the synchronous speed can be
controlled over a wide range. This gives smooth speed control of an induction motor. But the
expression for the air gap flux is given by,

)

It can be seen from this expression that if the supply frequency f is changed, the value of air gap
flux also gets affected. This may result into saturation of stator and rotor cores. Such a saturation
leads to the sharp increase in the (magnetisation) no load current of the motor. Hence it is necessary
to maintain air gap flux constant when supply frequency f is changed.
To achieve this, it can be seen from the above expression that along with f, V also must be changed
so as to keep (V/f) ratio constant. This ensures constant air gap flux giving speed control without
affecting the performance of the motor.













02. Why not V is increased with f for speeds above the rated speed and how this affects the motor
torque
With supply voltage equal to its rated value depending on the motor design, beyond a speed
somewhere in a range of 1.5-2 times the rated speed is reduced so much that the motor
approaches its pull-out torque. At still higher speeds, the motor can deliver only a fixed percentage
of the pull-out torques power becomes constant. Both the torque and the motor current decline
with speed.
Keeping V, constant, the motor torque in this region is not limited by the current handling
capability of the motor, since the current at the limit is less than its rated value and
declines with speed rather, it is limited by the maximum
torque produced by the motor.



Torque Speed Characteristics for higher speeds

03. Compare the degree of speed controllability with frequency control and voltage control.
By using variable frequency control, it is possible to adjust the speed of the motor either above or
below base speed. A properly designed variable frequency induction motor can control the speed
over a range from as little as 5% of base speed up to about twice base speed.

Variable Speed by Frequency control

The torque developed by an induction motor is proportional to the square of the applied voltage.
Therefore the speed of the motor may be controlled over a limited range by varying the line
voltage. This method is sometimes used on small motor driving fans.

Variable Speed by Voltage Control
04. Comment on the motor voltage and current waveforms


Both current and voltage waveforms obtained has a frequency of 40 Hz. Voltage wave form has taken
considerably the shape of a square waveform. Which is the theoretical output of the six step voltage
source inverter. Peaks at the rising edges and dips at the falling edges due to inductance are clearly
visible. Noise can be observed in the waveform.
Current output is also obey to the theory excluding small deviation. According to the theory the curvy
shape of the waveform is generated by inductances. Those inductances are not perfect therefore the
waveform is somewhat deviated from the expected. And the waveform is also not perfect due to
harmonics.

05. Outline the salient features of control circuit giving reasons for use of different potentiometers
In the slow-up/slow-down circuit two potentiometers VR1 and VR2 are used to vary the rate of change
of speed input signal.VR1 potentiometer is used to adjust the ratio of the voltage feedback.
VR2 potentiometer adjusts the control signal transient. That control signal compared with the current
feedback from the output of the converter.
VR3 is used to adjust the current feedback ratio of N-1 amplifier circuit. This is for stability reasons
and protection purposes.
Before feeding to the comparator VR5 is used to adjust the final signal range. By adjusting these
potentiometers the dc output of the converter can be distinguished without varying the frequency.