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Environmental

Compliance Inspector
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California Water Environment Association
Grade III
Environmental Compliance Inspector
Study Guide
Copyright 2002 California Water Environment Association, Incorporated
All Rights Reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced without written permission from California Water Environment Association.
Technical Content by CGvL Engineers
6 Hughes, Suite 100
Irvine, CA 92618
www.cgvl.com
CGvL Project Team
Richard W. von Langen.......... CGvL Project Manager
Paul Rydzynski ........................ Author
Dr. Kenneth D. Kerri ............... Technical Editor
Rhonda Barkey....................... Word Processing Group
Jessie Lee ................................ Word Processing Group
Joy Gautier............................... Word Processing Group
Lisa House............................... Word Processing Group
Appendix A: You and Wastewater Math
Cheryl Ooten............................ Author
CWEA Project Team
Chris Lundeen ........................ CWEA Project Manager/ Editor
Nicole Schlosser...................... Editing Assistance
Lindsay Roberts ...................... Project Support
CWEA Technical Content Review
Rebecca Bjork......................... City of Santa Barbara
Jeff Carter ................................ Eastern Municipal Water District
Larry Whitney.......................... City of Simi Valley
Anne Schubert........................ City of Simi Valley
Victoria Shidell ........................ City of Benicia
Tom Gaworski .......................... Orange County Sanitation District
Kelly Christansen.................... Orange Couty Sanitation District
Cover Photo ................................ Courtesy of Orange County Sanitation District
Important Notice: CWEA is pleased that you have purchased this book. We want to remind you that
this book is one of many resources available to assist you, and we encourage you to identify and
utilize the other resources in preparing for your next test.
Please send comments, questions, and suggestions to:
California Water Environment Association
7677 Oakport Street, Suite 600
Oakland, CA 94621 USA
Phone: 510-382-7800
Fax: 510-382-7810
Web: http:/ / www.cwea.org
Email: tcp@cwea.org
Page i
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector Study Guide
Table of Contents
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
1 Introduction ................................................................................ 1
2 Certification Program Information and Policies............................... 3
Technical Certification Program History................................................................................. 3
Certification Process .............................................................................................................. 3
Test Administration................................................................................................................ 3
Test Dates and Sites ........................................................................................................ 3
Test Site Admission ......................................................................................................... 4
Test Security .................................................................................................................... 4
Test Postponement and Cancellation............................................................................... 4
Test Result Notification.................................................................................................... 4
Issue of Certificate........................................................................................................... 4
Certificate Renewal .......................................................................................................... 4
Accommodations for Physical or Learning Disabilities..................................................... 4
Test Design and Format ......................................................................................................... 4
Test Design ...................................................................................................................... 4
Test Delivery Mechanism................................................................................................. 5
Test Format...................................................................................................................... 5
Test Pass Point ...................................................................................................................... 5
How Pass Points are Set .................................................................................................. 5
Why Use Modified Angoff? ............................................................................................... 5
Test Scoring ................................................................................................................... 6
Item Appeals........................................................................................................................ 6
Item Appeals.................................................................................................................. 6
Qualifying for the Test ........................................................................................................ 6
Table 2-1 Eligibility Criteria for Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector ......... 6
Essential Duties................................................................................................................... 7
3 Skill Sets ....................................................................................9
Skill Set 1: Regulations and Permitting ............................................................................ 9
1.1 Applying Federal Categorical Pretreatment Standards ..................................... 9
1.2 Industrial User Permits and Reports ................................................................. 10
1.3 Enforcement Regulations and Principles .......................................................... 10
Skill Set 2: Environmental Monitoring and Sampling Techniques ................................. 10
2.1 Standard Analytical Methods ............................................................................. 11
2.2 Laboratory Instrumentation................................................................................ 11
2.3 Sampling and Analysis Quality Control and Assurance ................................... 11
2.4 Microbiological Analysis ..................................................................................... 12
2.5 Biomonitoring and Toxicity................................................................................. 12
Skill Set 3: Wastewater Collection, Treatment, and Disposal Control .......................... 12
Table of Contents
Page ii Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
3.1 Compliance Monitoring and Inspection Techniques......................................... 12
3.2 Special Studies .................................................................................................... 13
3.3 Spills and Uncontrolled Discharges ................................................................... 13
Skill Set 4: Funding of POTW and Pretreatment Programs ........................................... 13
Skill Set 5: Development and Evaluation of Local Limits .............................................. 14
Skill Set 6: Safety Practices ............................................................................................. 14
6.1 Practices and Procedures ................................................................................... 15
6.2 Injury and Illness Prevention ............................................................................. 15
6.3 Hazard Communication and Worker Right-to-Know Laws ................................ 15
6.4 Reporting ............................................................................................................. 16
Skill Set 7: Industrial Processes and Pretreatment ....................................................... 16
7.1 Industrial Processes............................................................................................ 16
7.2 Pretreatment Technologies ................................................................................ 16
7.3 Pollution Prevention Techniques ....................................................................... 17
Skill Set 8: Management and Supervision Principles ..................................................... 17
8.1 Planning, Organizing, and Scheduling............................................................... 17
8.2 Human Resources ............................................................................................... 18
8.3 Communications and Public Relations .............................................................. 18
8.4 Budgeting............................................................................................................. 18
Table 3-1 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector Primary References ......... 19
4 Test Preparation ...................................................................... 23
Basic Study Strategy ......................................................................................................... 23
Multiple Choice Questions................................................................................................ 23
Table 4-1 Environmental Compliance Inspector Equivalents and Formulas................ 24
Math Problems................................................................................................................... 25
Calculators ................................................................................................................... 25
Approach ...................................................................................................................... 26
Solutions ...................................................................................................................... 26
Equivalents and Formulas .......................................................................................... 26
Dimensional Analysis .................................................................................................. 26
Sample Questions........................................................................................................ 27
Math Skills ......................................................................................................................... 27
Arithmetic..................................................................................................................... 27
Algebra ......................................................................................................................... 27
Geometry...................................................................................................................... 28
5 Diagnostic Test......................................................................... 29
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 29
Skill Set 1: Regulations and Permitting .......................................................................... 29
Skill Set 2: Environmental Monitoring and Sampling Techniques ................................. 31
Skill Set 3: Wastewater Collection, Treatment, and Disposal Control .......................... 31
Skill Set 4: Funding of POTW and Pretreatment Programs ........................................... 32
Skill Set 5: Development and Evaluation of Local Limits .............................................. 33
Skill Set 6: Safety Practices ............................................................................................. 34
Skill Set 7: Industrial Processes and Pretreatment ....................................................... 35
Skill Set 8: Management and Supervision Principles ..................................................... 38
Test Answer Key ................................................................................................................ 40
Page iii
Table of Contents
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Skill Set 1: Regulations and Permitting .................................................................... 40
Skill Set 2: Environmental Monitoring and Sampling Techniques ........................... 40
Skill Set 3: Wastewater Collection, Treatment, and Disposal Control .................... 40
Skill Set 4: Funding of POTW and Pretreatment Programs ..................................... 40
Skill Set 5: Development and Evaluation of Local Limits ........................................ 40
Skill Set 6: Safety Practices ....................................................................................... 41
Skill Set 7: Industrial Processes and Pretreatment ................................................. 41
Skill Set 8: Management and Supervision Principles ............................................... 41
Selected Problem Solutions.............................................................................................. 42
Skill Set 1: Regulations and Permitting .................................................................... 42
Skill Set 3: Wastewater Collection, Treatment, and Disposal Control .................... 43
Skill Set 4: Funding of POTW and Pretreatment Programs ..................................... 44
Skill Set 5: Development and Evaluation of Local Limits ........................................ 45
Skill Set 7: Industrial Processes and Pretreatment ................................................. 46
Skill Set 8: Management and Supervision Principles ............................................... 47
6 References .............................................................................. 49
Primary References........................................................................................................... 49
Secondary References ...................................................................................................... 50
A Appendix: You and Wastewater Math ......................................... 51
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 51
Two Facts to Consider ................................................................................................. 51
Move Beyond the Math You Know.............................................................................. 51
Practice Problem Solving Strategies ............................................................................... 53
Units and Arithmetic.................................................................................................... 53
Example Problems....................................................................................................... 54
Take Charge of Your Success ........................................................................................... 56
Recommendations....................................................................................................... 56
Test-Taking Strategies....................................................................................................... 57
Before the Exam.......................................................................................................... 57
At the Exam.................................................................................................................. 58
Negative Thinking About Exams ................................................................................ 59
B Appendix: Glossary of Technical Terms ...................................... 61
C Appendix: Glossary of Management and Supervision Terms ........ 65
D Appendix: Common Acronyms and Abbreviations ........................ 71
Page 1
S e c t i o n 1
Introduction
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
The California Water Environment Association
(CWEA) Technical Certification Program (TCP) is
voluntary; its purpose is to educate, prepare, and
test an individuals knowledge within six vocations.
Plant Maintenance Technology (with two par-
allel specialties in Electrical/ Instrumentation
and Mechanical Technology)
Laboratory Analysis
Collection System Maintenance Technology
Environmental Compliance Inspection
Industrial Waste Treatment Plant Operations
Biosolids Land Application Management
CWEA also assists in educating and training waste-
water treatment plant operators for the State of
California Operator Certification Tests. Upon quali-
fying and successfully completing a test, an indi-
vidual is certified in that specialty at one of
the grade levels. Levels within a specialty desig-
nate technical knowledge for the apprentice, jour-
ney, and management levels. Tests are designed
to demonstrate minimum competence for a
particular grade.
The purpose of this study guide is to provide a
description of the knowledge, skills, and abilities
(KSA) needed to pass the test. Also included are
questions designed to assess candidates
strengths and weaknesses relative to their present
KSA. Finally, the study guide provides references
used to refresh subject knowledge, or to learn
more about particular subject areas not com-
pletely understood.
Typically there are two to five primary references
for each specialty area, which need to be read and
understood. Test questions are generally based
on information contained in these references.
Secondary references give more information and
often provide a different approach to a subject,
making it easier to understand.
This study guide is not a compendium of all that
may be on the test, so successfully answering
questions contained in this guide does not guar-
antee passing. To successfully pass the Grade III
Environmental Compliance Inspector (Inspector)
test, the reference materials presented in this
study guide should be thoroughly understood.
This study guide can best be used to help iden-
tify strengths and weaknesses and to identify ma-
terial that may need further study. Comments and
suggestions to improve the study guide are always
welcome and appreciated. Good luck on the test!
Page 3
S e c t i o n 2
Certification Program Information and Policies
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
CWEAs mission is to enhance the education
and effectiveness of California wastewater pro-
fessionals through training, certification, dis-
semination of technical information, and pro-
motion of sound policies to benefit society
through protection and enhancement of the
water environment.
CWEA is a California Nonprofit Corporation, a
Member Association of the Water Environment
Federation (WEF), and a member of the Na-
tional Organization for Competency Assurance
(NOCA).
Technical Certification
Program History
TCP was created to offer multilevel technical
certification for individuals employed in the wa-
ter quality field. Tests are written by vocational
specialists and administered twice yearly in six
different disciplines: Collection System Main-
tenance, Environmental Compliance Inspec-
tion, Laboratory Analysis, Plant Maintenance
(Electrical/Instrumentation and Mechanical
Technologist), Industrial Waste Treatment Plant
Operation, and Biosolids Land Application Man-
agement.
CWEA first offered a certification program for
wastewater treatment plant operators in 1937.
The program was administered by CWEA until
1973 when the State of California assumed re-
sponsibility. During those 36 years, CWEA
awarded 3,915 operator certificates.
The first committees were formed in 1975 to
establish a voluntary certification program for
water quality professionals specializing in dis-
ciplines other than plant operation. The Vol-
untary Certification Program (VCP) emerged
with specialized certificate programs for Col-
lection System Maintenance, Plant Mainte-
nance, Environmental Compliance Inspection,
and Laboratory Analysis with certifications first
issued in April 1976. In the 1980s, two more
disciplines were added: Electrical/Instrumen-
tation and Industrial Waste Treatment Plant
Operator.
Today, CWEA offers certification in six voca-
tional programs with a total of 22 individual cer-
tifications. About 2,000 applications are pro-
cessed annually and currently over 5,500 cer-
tificates are held by individuals in California and
neighboring states.
Certification Process
To become certified, all applicants must com-
plete the Application for Technical Certification,
pay the application fee, have suitable experi-
ence and education, and pass the computer-
based test. Application instructions and fee
schedules are listed on the application. After
applications are received at the CWEA office,
applicant information is compiled in a database,
and reviewed by CWEA staff and subject mat-
ter experts for the respective vocation applied
for. If approved, the applicant will receive an
eligibility letter. If the application is rejected, the
applicant will be notified and asked if warranted
to supply more information.
After completion of the computer-based test
and grading, applicants are mailed their offi-
cial test results. Those who pass the exam,
are mailed certificates and wallet cards.
Test Administration
Test Dates and Sites
Tests are given throughout the year in Califor-
nia, Michigan, and Alaska (see Application for
Technical Certification for test schedule. Ap-
plicants who are eligible to take the test will be
mailed an acceptance letter with instructions
on how to schedule their exam.
Section 2: Certification Program Information and Policies
Page 4 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Test Site Admission
Certificate candidates are required to show at
least one valid government issued photo iden-
tification (State drivers license or identification,
or passport). Only after positive identification
has been made by the testing proctor may a
candidate begin the exam. Candidates do not
require to show their eligibility letters to enter
the test site.
Test Security
All tests are computer based. No reference
material, laptop computers, or cameras are al-
lowed in the test site. Candidates will have
access to an on-screen calculator, however,
you are welcome to bring your own pre-ap-
proved calculator (visit www.cwea.org/cert).
Candidates are not allowed to take any notes
from the test site. Candidates who violate test
site rules may be asked to leave the site and
may be disqualified from that test. All viola-
tions of test security will be investigated by
CWEA and appropriate action will be taken.
Test Rescheduling and Cancellation
To postpone your application you must submit
a written request (a letter stating that you wish
to postpone), to postpone to the adjacent test-
ing window. You may only reschedule your ap-
plication once without a fee. Additional
postponent will require a $40 reschedule fee.
There are no exceptions to this policy.
To cancel your application you must submit a
written request (a letter stating you wish to can-
cel your application) to CWEA. The written re-
quest must be received at the CWEA office no
later than 2 weeks after the approved testing
window. Full refunds, less the administrative
fee*, will be made within 4 weeks after the sched-
uled test date. There are no exceptions to this
policy.
If you have a scheduled exam with our testing
administrator, Pearson Vue, you must contact
them 24 hours in advance to avoid losing your
exam fee.
Test Result Notification
Test results are routinely mailed to certificate
candidates approximately two weeks after the
test date. Results are never given over the
phone. All results are confidential and are only
released to the certificate candidate. There are
no exceptions to this policy.
Issue of Certificate / Wallet Card
Certificates and wallet cards are issued to all
candidates who pass the test. Certificates are
mailed about two to three weeks after result
notifications are mailed.
Certificate Renewal
All certificates are renewed annually. The first
renewal is due one year from the last day of
the month in which the certification test was
held. Certificate renewals less than one year
past due are subject to the renewal fee plus a
penalty fee of 100 percent of the renewal fee.
Certificate holders more than one year past
due will need to retest to regain certification.
Renewal notices are mailed to certificate
holders two months before the due date. It is
the responsibility of certificate holders to en-
sure the certificate(s) remains valid. Continu-
ing education will be required for renewal after
2001.
Accommodations for Physical or Learning Dis-
abilities
In compliance with the Americans with Disabili-
ties Act, special accommodations will be pro-
vided for those individuals who provide CWEA
with a physicians certificate, or its equivalent,
documenting a physical or psychological dis-
ability that may affect an individuals ability to
successfully complete the certification test.
Written requests for special accommodations
must be made with the test application along
with all supporting documents of disability.
Test Design and Format
Test Design
All certification tests are designed to test knowl-
edge and abilities required to perform the Es-
sential Duties listed at the end of the section
with minimal acceptable competence.
Page 5
Section 2: Certification Program Information and Policies
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
The Essential Duties and Test Content Areas
for each certification were determined by a job
analysis and meta-analysis of job specifications
by two independent psychometric consulting
firms. The studies gathered data from on-site
visits of over 31 water and wastewater agen-
cies, interviews with 110 water and wastewater
professionals, and analysis of more than 300
job specifications. All research was conducted
under the guidance of the TCP Committee, vo-
cational sub-committees, and CWEA staff. All
test questions are designed to measure at least
one area of knowledge or ability that is required
to perform an essential duty.
Test Delivery Mechanism
All tests are computer based format and are
written in the English language only.
Test Format
All TCP tests are in multiple choice format (see
the sample test questions in this booklet for an
example). The multiple choice format is con-
sidered the most effective for use in standard-
ized tests. This objective format allows a
greater content coverage for a given amount
of testing time and improves competency mea-
surement reliability. Multiple choice questions
range in complexity from simple recall of knowl-
edge to the synthesis and evaluation of the
subject matter.
Test Pass Point
The basic minimum score required to pass all
tests is 75 percent of possible total points.
However, the score may be adjusted downward
depending on test complexity. It should be as-
sumed that the passing score is 75 percent
and candidates should try to score as high as
possible on their test (in other words, always
try for 100 percent). The pass point for each
vocation and grade level is set independently.
Also, each version, or form of a test will have
its own pass point. Different versions are given
each time the certification test is administered.
How Pass Points are Set
A modified Angoff Method is used to determine
the pass point for each version of each test.
The modified Angoff Method uses expert judge-
ments to determine the test difficulty. The
easier the test, the higher the pass point; simi-
larly the more difficult the test, the lower the
pass point.
The following is an outline of the modified Angoff
Method (some details have been omitted):
1. A group of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)
independently rate each test question
within a given test. The ratings are de-
fined as the probability that an acceptably
(minimally) competent person with the req-
uisite education and experience will answer
the question correctly. An acceptably (mini-
mally) competent person is defined as
someone who safely and adequately per-
forms all job functions and requires no fur-
ther training to do so.
2. The SMEs review each test question as a
group. A consensus is reached for the rat-
ing of each test question. The SMEs also
review comments submitted in writing by
test-takers. Any test question that is
judged to be ambiguous, has more than
one correct answer, or has no correct an-
swers is eliminated from the scoring pro-
cess for that test. These test questions
are then revised for future use, re-classi-
fied, or deleted from the test item bank.
3. After the data are refined, the final step is
to calculate the mean, or average, of all
the test question ratings. This becomes
the overall pass point estimation.
Why Use Modified Angoff?
Each version of a given certification test uses
questions from a test item bank. Each of these
questions vary in difficulty. Because a differ-
ent mix of questions is used in each test, the
overall difficulty level is not fixed. Thus, it is
important to make sure that the varying diffi-
culty level is reflected in the pass point of each
test to ensure that test results are reliable. Test
reliability is concerned with the reproducibility
of reoverall difficulty level is not fixed. Thus, it
is important to make sure that the varying diffi-
culty level is reflected in the pass point of each
test to ensure that test results are reliable. Test
reliability is concerned with the reproducibility
of reof questions is used in each test, the over-
all difficulty level is not fixed.
Section 2: Certification Program Information and Policies
Page 6 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Thus, it is important to make sure that the vary-
ing difficulty level is reflected in the pass point
of each test to ensure that test results are re-
liable. Test reliability is concerned with the re-
producibility of results for each version of a
given test. In other words, for a test to be reli-
able it must yield the same result (pass or fail)
for the same individual under very similar cir-
cumstances. For example, imagine taking a cer-
tain grade level test and passing it. Immedi-
ately after completing this test, a different ver-
sion of the same grade level test is taken. If
the test is reliable, the same result will be
achieved: pass. If a passing grade is not
achieved, it is likely that the test is not a reli-
able measure of acceptable (minimal) compe-
tency.
By taking into consideration the difficulty of the
test, the modified Angoff Method significantly
increases the reliability of the test. Also, since
each test is adjusted for difficulty level, each
test version has the same standard for pass-
ing. Thus, test-takers are treated equitably and
fairly, even if a different version of the test is
taken.
There are other methods for setting pass
points. However, for the type of tests adminis-
tered by CWEA, the modified Angoff Method is
the best and most widely used.
Test Scoring
All tests are electronically scored by CWEA.
Most test items are valued at one point. Some
test items requiring calculations are worth mul-
tiple points varying from two to five (possibly
more). After tests are scored, total points are
compiled and an overall score is calculated as
the sum of all points earned on the test. If the
overall score is equal to or greater than the
established pass point, the candidate has
passed the test. Total points possible for each
test vary, but the average is 100 points plus or
minus 25.
Item Appeals
Candidates who wish to appeal a specific test
item must do so during the test by completing
an the Candidate Feedback Review Screen
during the exam. Candidate feedbacks will be
evaluated and appropriate adjustments will be
made to the test content. Candidates submit-
ting feedback will not be contacted in regards
to the appeal.
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspec-
tor certification is designed to demonstrate
acceptable competency at the lead or ad-
vanced level. More specifically, Grade III cer-
tification implies competence in the knowl-
edge, skills and abilities required to perform
the Essential Duties of a lead or advanced
level Environmental Compliance Inspector.
I I I e d a r G r o f a i r e t i r C y t i l i b i g i l E 1 - 2 e l b a T
r o t c e p s n I e c n a i l p m o C l a t n e m n o r i v n E
- i b m o C
n o i t a n
d n a n o i t a c u d E
e c n e i r e p x E + s e t a c i f i t r e C
A
e n o N
s r a e y e m i t - l l u f 6
l a t n e m n o r i v n e n i
e c n a i l p m o c
n o i t c e p s n i
B
I I e d a r G a d l o H
l a t n e m n o r i v n E
e c n a i l p m o C
- i f i t r e C r o t c e p s n I
s r a e y 2 r o f e t a c
s r a e y e m i t - l l u f 4
l a t n e m n o r i v n e n i
e c n a i l p m o c
n o i t c e p s n i
C
S A / A A n a d l o H
a n i e e r g e d
d l e i f d e t a l e r
s r a e y e m i t - l l u f 4
l a t n e m n o r i v n e n i
e c n a i l p m o c
n o i t c e p s n i
D
r o , S B / A B a d l o H
n i e e r g e d , r e h g i h
d l e i f d e t a l e r a
s r a e y e m i t - l l u f 3
l a t n e m n o r i v n e n i
e c n a i l p m o c
n o i t c e p s n i
Page 7
Section 2: Certification Program Information and Policies
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Essenti al Duti es
Grade III duties include the essential duties
identified in the study guides for Environmen-
tal Compliance Inspector Grades I and II. In ad-
dition, the Grade III Environmental Compliance
Inspector essential duties include:
Reviewing and evaluating highly complex
permit applications, discharge reports, fa-
cility modifications, and pretreatment sys-
tems; issuing permits, following established
practices, policies, procedures, internal
guidelines, and models; establishing mod-
els and procedures when appropriate; re-
porting findings to appropriate authorities;
researching compliance history of facilities;
assessing possible effect of proposed dis-
charges on the treatment plants and col-
lection systems; and initiating appropriate
follow-up activities.
Explaining wastewater discharge permit
conditions and other environmental com-
pliance regulations, requirements, and poli-
cies to system users, to the general public,
and to other government agency staff.
Evaluating compliance monitoring reports,
such as toxic organic management plans,
spill prevention control and countermea-
sures, baseline monitoring reports, 90-day
reports, periodic reports of continued com-
pliance, pollution-prevention plans, self-
monitoring reports, and sample reports, for
compliance with local, state, and federal
requirements.
Supervising sampling and inspection of
commercial and industrial facilities and dis-
charges to determine processes and ac-
tivities generating wastewater or sources
of storm water pollution; evaluating data
used in determining compliance with appli-
cable standards and in establishing sewer
service charges and capacity fees.
Organizing, planning, supervising, and
reviewing the activities and work of sub-
ordinate staff.
Participating in employee selection; evalu-
ating employee performance; developing
and participating in employee development
and training programs; developing and
overseeing division performance standards
and resolving employee relations matters.
Supervising record keeping activities and
participating in the preparation of a variety
of periodic and special reports, including
monthly operation reports; advising man-
agement of significant data or information
related to the work of the division.
Assisting in the administration of a
divisions safety program; performing field
inspections for safety conformance; con-
ducting investigations of accidents/injuries.
Providing instruction and training to staff
in the techniques of sampling and inspec-
tion, the application of laws, codes, ordi-
nances and procedures governing imple-
mentation, and enforcement of pretreat-
ment regulations and other activities.
Supervising investigations and the enforce-
ment activities related to illegal discharges.
Initiating appropriate enforcement action
after identifying noncompliance with local,
state, or federal requirements; preparation
and issue of written notices of requirements
and violations of agency regulations; fa-
cilitating and participating in enforcement
hearings and monitoring follow-up action.
Performing special studies requiring tech-
nical expertise and project management
skills, such as local limits, sampling and in-
spection program review, impact of dis-
charge review, regulations review, water
reclamation, commercial business regula-
tions, development of best-management
practices, and public outreach projects.
Performing calculations required to com-
plete the annual sewer service charge, rev-
enue, and compliance programs; perform-
ing calculations related to industrial dis-
charge permitting, including calculation of
production-based and alternative dis-
charge limits, and capacity fees and as-
sessment of storm water fees; assisting in
the development of program budgets and
fiscal reports.
Inspecting a variety of pretreatment sys-
tems, facilities and processes of industrial,
commercial, residential, and institutional es-
Section 2: Certification Program Information and Policies
Page 8 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
tablishments for compliance with federal,
state, and local regulations related to pre-
treatment, runoff, and pollution prevention;
verifying user classification; collecting data
used in evaluating compliance with appli-
cable standards in establishing sewer ser-
vice charges.
Investigating and tracing the source of ille-
gal waste discharges entering the collec-
tion system; responding to and coordinat-
ing call-outs; providing technical assistance
and guidance; observing, monitoring, and
evaluating conditions and initiating appro-
priate responses.
Determining appropriate sampling meth-
ods and locations; performing fieldwork
as required.
Working with industries to identify and re-
solve discharge problems or serious vio-
lations of applicable permits, ordinances,
and regulations; identifying noncompli-
ance and initiating appropriate responses
consistent with policies, procedures,
practices, guidelines, and models.
Responding to and initiating oral and writ-
ten contact with system users; providing
detailed information on a variety of com-
plex topics in a clear, succinct manner us-
ing the appropriate approach and response
for the situation; providing internal and in-
ter-agency coordination based on informa-
tion from the field and analyzing and mak-
ing recommendations on additional actions;
sharing technical and/or specialized infor-
mation with staff.
Preparing appropriate enforcement actions
and notices of violations and monitoring fol-
low-up action.
Representing the employer in meetings
of regional task forces, committees and
work groups.
Page 9
S e c t i o n 3
Skill Sets
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
In addition to having mastered the knowledge,
skills, and abilities (KSAs) for Grade I and Grade II
Inspectors, Grade III candidates are expected to
have a thorough understanding of the subject ar-
eas covered in the skill sets outlined below, and
must be able to apply the appropriate principles
and theories to concrete problems and utilize the
given facts or data to find the solutions. In par-
ticular, Grade III candidates should be well versed
in the KSAs relating to the application, enforce-
ment, and supervision of federally approved pre-
treatment programs.
Table 3-1, presented at the end of this section,
cross-references each skill set with a specific chap-
ter, section, and/ or page of applicable references
to assist the candidate in better understanding
the subject matter.
Skill
1 Regulations and Permitting
Set
Candidates must be very familiar with all federal,
state, and local rules, regulations, and standards
that authorize the duties of Grade III inspectors.
These include all wastewater, pretreatment, wa-
ter and storm water quality, hazardous waste, and
other environmental regulations previously re-
viewed in the Grade I and Grade II study guides.
This skill set focuses on the application of federal
categorical pretreatment standards, evaluation of
industrial discharge permit applications and other
compliance reports, and enforcement regulations
and principles.
1.1 Applying Federal Categorical
Pretreatment Standards
Inspectors must be able to properly apply the cat-
egorical pretreatment standards when reviewing
permit applications and writing new or renewal
permits for the most complex industrial discharg-
ers. These dischargers include all categorical in-
dustries for which numerical standards have been
developed, as codified in Title 40 of the Code of
Federal Regulations (CFR), Parts 410 through 471.
Candidates must know the different forms of cat-
egorical standards, and how they apply to differ-
ent types of dischargers. Some dischargers have
operations and discharges representing multiple
categorical standards. Discharge limits can be
concentration-based, mass-based, or both, such
as in the category of petroleum refining (40 CFR
419) and others.
Some categories, such as aluminum forming (40
CFR 427), have production-based limits. These are
expressed as the allowable total mass of a pollut-
ant discharged per unit of production. Candidates
must understand terms used in production-based
standards and must be able to calculate mass or
concentration-based discharge limits for regulated
wastestreams. Note that there are often different
standard limits on wastewater from different in-
dustrial processes within the same category. Can-
didates must be able to solve problems for con-
centration or mass-based limits using production
and flow data, or calculate alternative production-
based mass limits from flow data and standard
production-based limits.
Some industrial discharges require application of
the combined wastestream formula (CWF). This
formula is used to determine a single concentra-
tion or mass-based alternative limit for a waste
discharge composed of variously regulated and
unregulated wastestreams. Inspectors should
know the proper application of this formula and
be able to identify the regulated, unregulated, and
dilute wastestreams as defined in the General and
Categorical Pretreatment Standards. Candidates
must be able to solve problems for alternative
concentration or mass discharge limits.
Section 3: Skill Sets
Page 10 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
1.2 Industrial User Permits and Reports
Inspectors must be very familiar with all aspects
of industrial user permitting under approved pre-
treatment programs. Under the federal pretreat-
ment regulations, all significant industrial users
require permits. Candidates must be able to iden-
tify significant industrial users, as defined in 40
CFR 403.3(t), and determine how to classify them
for permitting purposes. They must know what
information should be included in a permit appli-
cation and what additional documents are re-
quired. These can include waste surveys, baseline
monitoring reports, compliance schedules, final
(90-day) compliance reports, sludge control plans,
and toxic management plans. Candidates must be
very familiar with the purpose and elements of
these documents and how they apply to various
types of industrial users.
Inspectors must also be familiar with the modifi-
cations and variances from categorical standards
that are available to industrial users, including
variance for fundamentally different factors (FDF),
net gross adjustments, and removal credits.
Required elements of an industrial user permit
should be well understood, including:
statement of duration;
effluent limitations;
self-monitoring, sampling, reporting, notifica-
tion, and record keeping requirements;
statement of non-transferability; and
statement of applicable civil and criminal pen-
alties.
1.3 Enforcement Regulations
and Principles
Enforcement of pretreatment regulations and per-
mit conditions is a large portion of Inspectors
duties. Candidates must be very familiar with the
enforcement mechanisms authorized under the
federal pretreatment regulations, including the
required elements of an enforcement response
plan and the definition of significant noncompli-
ance (SNC).
Inspectors must be able to review wastewater dis-
charge monitoring results and determine whether
or not an industrial user has had chronic viola-
tions or Technical Review Criteria (TRC) violations
as defined in 40 CFR 403.8 (f)(2)(vii). Chronic and
TRC SNC calculations use discharge data cover-
ing six-month periods and are performed on a
quarterly basis.
Inspectors must also be familiar with the increas-
ing levels of enforcement that the control author-
ity is authorized to use to obtain compliance from
industrial users. These include the following:
Administrative Actions
Informal Notice
Notice of Violations
Administrative Fines
Show Cause Orders
Consent Orders
Compliance Orders
Cease and Desist Orders
Legal Actions
Injunctive Relief
Civil Penalties
Criminal Prosecution
Skill
2
Environmental Monitoring
Set and Sampling Techniques
As part of their duties, Inspectors implement and
supervise the flow monitoring and environmental
sampling of industrial users. They must be well
trained and knowledgeable in collecting represen-
tative samples of water and wastewater from in-
dustrial, commercial, residential, and institutional
sources and storm sewers. They must be able to
determine proper sample locations, proper sam-
pling methods, sample handling, and documen-
tation. Inspectors must understand the reasons
why special sampling techniques are required or
why various preservatives prevent sample degra-
dation. Understanding the details of sampling
enhances legally defensible sampling protocol.
Page 11
Section 3: Skill Sets
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Although Inspectors generally do not participate
in laboratory analysis of water or wastewater
samples, Inspectors must be familiar with the
physical, chemical, microbiological, and bacterio-
logical tests applied to water and wastewater in
the laboratory. These include standard test meth-
ods, laboratory instruments, and quality control
techniques. This knowledge aids Inspectors in
planning sampling and analytical programs, evalu-
ating analytical data used in determining compli-
ance with applicable standards, and understand-
ing the limitations of analytical results.
2.1 Standard Analytical Methods
Inspectors must be familiar with the standard pro-
cedures for tests commonly performed on water
and wastewater samples. These can be found in
the latest of edition of the Standard Methods for
Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard
Methods). These methods are also cross-refer-
enced in the Tables of Approved Test Procedures
found in 40 CFR Part 136.3. Candidates must be
knowledgeable about metal analysis by flame
atomic absorption (AA) and the cold vapor tech-
nique for mercury, among others. Principles of
analysis for determination of inorganic non-metal-
lic constituents include the use of spectrophotom-
eters, ion selective electrodes, titrations, etc., and
may require color development, standard curves,
and distillations.
2.2 Laboratory Instrumentation
Inspectors must have a working knowledge of
the wet chemistry and instrumental techniques
used in standard test methods for the most com-
mon analyses of water and wastewater. Stan-
dard Methods often has a good discussion of
the basic principles and theory, instrument com-
ponents, and interferences of instrumental tech-
niques. Inspectors should be familiar with the
following laboratory instruments used in water
and wastewater analysis:
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instruments
in which atoms are excited in a plasma torch
and emit radiation. This emitted radiation can
be analyzed to determine which elements are
present in the sample, and the concentration
of the individual elements. An ICP is capable
of multi-element analyses on a single sample,
and is commonly used for various metals in
water and wastewater.
Gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer
(GC/ MS) systems are used to detect and
quantify organic compounds. Organics in
water samples are solvent extracted. The
solvent extract is injected into a heated in-
jector port where the solvent and com-
pounds are vaporized. The compounds and
carrier gas migrate through a column and
enter a detector. Each of the compounds
contained in the solvent extract will migrate
through the column at a different rate. The
electrical signal from the detector produces
a chromatogram, which is a record of the
peaks of the exiting compounds. GC/ MS
systems identify and quantify organic com-
pounds and are used for the volatile and
semi-volatile compounds that make up the
Total Toxic Organic (TTO) lists for various
federal categorical pretreatment standards.
High-pressure liquid chromatographs (HPLC)
are similar to gas chromatographs except
that the process of separation is achieved
in a liquid carrier rather than a gas carrier.
Compounds that tend to be heat sensitive
can be analyzed by this instrument. In wa-
ter and wastewater analysis, this instrument
is used for polynuclear aromatics (PAH),
among others.
Ion Chromatographs (IC) are a specialized type
of HPLC configured to analyze organic or inor-
ganic ions. One application of this instrument
is to analyze inorganic anions such as chlo-
ride, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate.
2.3 Sampling and Analysis
Quality Control and Assurance
Inspectors must be familiar with the quality con-
trol (QC) and quality assurance (QA) incorporated
into each standard method. This includes the use
of blank samples or background correction tech-
niques. Much useful information on the use of
blank QC samples, including field blanks, trip
blanks, preservative blanks, spiked and blind
samples, duplicates and split samples can be
found in Standard Methods and the references in
Section 6.
Section 3: Skill Sets
Page 12 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
2.4 Microbiological Analysis
Inspectors must be knowledgeable regarding
coliform and fecal coliform analyses. These are
often required on storm water samples and other
direct discharges monitored under National Pol-
lutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) per-
mits. Knowledge of the standard test methods is
helpful in designing sampling programs for this
pollutant, including sample dilution methods and
how lab results are calculated into reportable re-
sults. Fecal coliform in water samples is expressed
as most probable number (MPN) per 100 millili-
ters (mL), a calculated concentration since the
number of bacteria colonies, not individual bacte-
ria, are counted. Inspectors must be especially
aware of the effects of sample dilution on test re-
sults. Standard tests for drinking water assume a
coliform concentration of less than 400 MPN/ mL.
In storm water or other direct discharges, counts
could be much higher. The sampler should inform
the laboratory of the expected order-of-magnitude
coliform count so that the proper sample dilutions
can be prepared.
2.5 Biomonitoring and Toxicity
As part of their NPDES permit monitoring require-
ments, indirect dischargers may be required to run
aquatic toxicity tests on their effluent. Acute and
chronic toxicity test specifications are included in
40 CFR 136.3, Table IA. Different aquatic species
are used for discharges to fresh water or marine
environments. Inspectors must be familiar with
terminology specific to this branch of analysis.
Many Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW)
have whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing require-
ments as part of their NPDES permits. If an efflu-
ent sample fails the WET test, its discharge is con-
sidered toxic and a toxicity reduction evaluation
(TRE) may be triggered. The toxicity identification
evaluation (TIE) is the base of the TRE and typi-
cally consists of toxicant characterization, identi-
fication, and confirmation. When toxic chemicals
are identified, they are traced back to likely gen-
erators. Inspectors must know how to design and
implement a collection system sampling plan to
identify the sources of toxic pollutants that have
been identified in the TRE.
Skill
3
Wastewater Collection, Treatment,
Set and Disposal Control
Inspectors must be very well versed in the design
and operation of POTW and their collection sys-
tems. They must also understand the impacts on
the POTW of industrial wastes, accidental spills,
and uncontrolled or illegal discharges. Candidates
must be able to apply environmental principles
and practices to wastewater control, and must be
able to develop models for evaluating impacts of
discharges on the POTW and collection system,
and tracing uncontrolled or illegal discharges.
3.1 Compliance Monitoring
and Inspection Techniques
Candidates must be very familiar with the proce-
dures and methods of preparing for and conduct-
ing inspections of industrial users. Inspectors
must be well acquainted with the various types of
significant industrial users, how to prepare for in-
specting them, and what to look for during inspec-
tions. For example, when inspecting the wastewa-
ter treatment facility at a petroleum refining plant,
the inspector would want to pay special attention
to the oxidation system for sulfide and thiosulfate
and to the sulfide monitoring system. High levels
of these compounds in wastewater could produce
excessive chlorine demand at the POTW.
References in Section 6 provide valuable informa-
tion on specific types of industrial users, the types
of pollutants generated, waste treatment and pol-
lution prevention techniques, and areas of inspec-
tion specific to these industries. Grade III Inspec-
tors must be able to train lower-level inspectors in
the preparation and inspection techniques re-
quired for these dischargers.
Compliance monitoring of industrial users can in-
volve industrial user self-monitoring and monitor-
ing by the control authority, or a combination of
the two. Inspectors must be familiar with the ad-
vantages and disadvantages of self-monitoring
versus control authority monitoring. Inspectors
must be able to evaluate self-monitoring reports
and data used in determining compliance with
applicable standards. Inspectors may be called
upon to design monitoring programs to assess the
effectiveness of self-monitoring programs. The
results of these programs or models may be used
to revise self-monitoring programs or other per-
mit requirements for industrial users.
Page 13
Section 3: Skill Sets
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
3.2 Special Studies
Inspectors may be involved in the design and
implementation of special studies and monitor-
ing programs for POTW, their collection systems,
and industrial users. These can include the devel-
opment of screening tests for centralized disposal
facilities or centralized waste treatment facilities.
An example would be screening tests for septic
tank dumping stations to screen for indicators of
illegal industrial dumping. Candidates must be
able to design and implement special studies and
monitoring programs, evaluate the impact of spe-
cific discharges on collection systems or POTW,
and solve mass balance problems regarding im-
pacts of individual discharges.
3.3 Spills and Uncontrolled Discharges
Uncontrolled discharges or other spills of indus-
trial or hazardous materials and wastes can have
severe impacts on POTW and their collection sys-
tems. These types of discharges can cause a
POTW to malfunction by damaging equipment, kill-
ing important organisms, or altering chemical re-
actions (otherwise known as interference). If the
facility is not designed to handle the material, or
the amount or concentration of the material, ex-
cessive amounts may go through the system with-
out being treated (otherwise known as pass-
through). Either situation could cause the treat-
ment facilities to violate their own discharge stan-
dards. Once an uncontrolled discharge or spill has
entered the collection system, it can be very diffi-
cult to detect until after its impact or damage has
occurred.
Inspectors must be knowledgeable about the
principles, practices, and methods of determin-
ing sources of uncontrolled discharges and
spills. This includes record review of existing
permits and other in-house records, surveillance
monitoring programs, and concealed sampling
at upstream and downstream locations of sus-
pected dischargers. Collection system monitor-
ing and sampling may be required to isolate
drainage areas as sources of such discharges
when the in-house records do not reveal any
clues regarding the problem.
Surveillance sampling programs may also be
conducted with knowledge of the industrial us-
ers being investigated in some circumstances.
Inspectors should be able to design surveillance
monitoring programs using the proper indicator
parameters to determine whether uncontrolled
discharges have occurred. Candidates must be
able to solve problems regarding the impact of
toxic waste on sewer systems, utilizing upstream
and downstream pollutant concentrations and
flow rates.
Skill
4
Funding of POTW
Set and Pretreatment Programs
Operation and maintenance of POTW and their
collection systems are financed by the levying of
sewer service charges on domestic, commercial,
and industrial users. Industrial users supervised
under approved pretreatment programs are typi-
cally subject to connection or capacity fees when
they first connect to the sanitary sewer system or
when their discharge flow or strength increases,
typically by a factor of 25 percent or more.
In addition to capacity fees, users are subject to
annual sewer service charges and surcharge fees
for the discharge of conventional pollutants at lev-
els that exceed typical domestic wastewater. In-
spectors should be well versed in the fee systems
commonly used for funding, operating, and main-
taining sewage collection and treatment systems.
Inspectors must be able to solve a variety of prob-
lems regarding the assessment of sewer usage
fees and surcharge fees based on given flows and
pollutant levels. In addition, some control authori-
ties charge fines or surcharge fees for certain pol-
lutants, such as metals, that exceed given limita-
tions. Inspectors must be able to calculate sur-
charge fees for problems involving exceedance of
allowable discharge limits.
Section 3: Skill Sets
Page 14 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Skill
5
Development and Evaluation
Set of Local Limits
In accordance with 40 CFR 122.21(v) 4, all POTW
with approved pretreatment programs are required
to provide a written technical evaluation of the
need to revise local limits with their NPDES per-
mit application. Since most NPDES permits are
renewed every five years, local limits typically are
evaluated at that interval. Local limits and federal
categorical pretreatment standards are distinct
and complementary types of standards. Local lim-
its are developed to achieve the following funda-
mental objectives:
Prevent the introduction of pollutants into the
POTW that could interfere with its operations,
such as activated sludge and anaerobic diges-
tion.
Prevent pass-through of pollutants in concen-
trations that could violate applicable water
quality standards or the POTWs NPDES efflu-
ent limits.
Prevent excessive build up of pollutants in the
POTW sludge that could limit the beneficial
uses or disposal alternatives of the biosolids.
Protect worker safety in the collection treat-
ment and disposal systems.
Methods to develop and implement local limits are
included in the Guidance Manual on the Develop-
ment and Implementation of Local Discharge Limi-
tations under the Pretreatment Program (US EPA,
1987), as referenced in Section 6. Inspectors must
be familiar with the methodologies used to obtain
the data used in local limits development. This
includes the use of in-house industrial user moni-
toring data to calculate existing industrial loadings,
and the development of collection system sam-
pling and monitoring programs to obtain back-
ground domestic wastewater data. Much valuable
information on the development of local limits and
monitoring programs for the evaluation of techni-
cally based local limits can be found in the refer-
ences in Section 6.
The method most often used to evaluate the need
for or validity of existing local limits is the Maxi-
mum Allowable Headworks Loading (MAHL) meth-
odology. A MAHL analysis is performed for each
pollutant of concern. It is based on the discharge
limitations of the POTW and the constraints im-
posed on its sludge or biosolids, together with
pollutant removal through the process, to deter-
mine a maximum allowable load at the headworks.
Determining the MAHL for each pollutant requires
adequate POTW influent, effluent, and sludge pol-
lutant level data, as well as flow rates. Inhibition
criteria may require internal flow and concentra-
tion values for the various processes such as acti-
vated sludge and anaerobic digestion.
Candidates must be familiar with the MAHL
method and the data required to calculate the
MAHL for each pollutant of concern. Candidates
must also be able to solve problems involving cal-
culations of MAHL, given specific data and the
methods of allocating the allowable headworks
loading among industrial users. These include the
uniform concentration method and the industrial
contributory flow method, among others. Since
many POTW dispose of their dewatered biosolids
through land application, the land application
regulations in 40 CFR 503 will often result in the
most stringent allowable headworks loadings for
most pollutants.
Skill
6 Safety Practices
Set
Inspectors must have thorough knowledge of the
safety practices and principles utilized in pretreat-
ment work. Inspectors must be able to implement
and to instruct lower-level inspectors in the writ-
ten safety policies and procedures under their
control authority. Responsibilities include assist-
ing management in providing adequate safety
training, and ensuring that all employees under
their supervision carry out proper safety practices
and procedures on the job. Inspectors also inves-
tigate accidents and injuries to determine their
cause, and institute corrective measures or revi-
sions to safety plans or programs when needed.
Page 15
Section 3: Skill Sets
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
6.1 Practices and Procedures
Candidates must be very familiar with the required
safety practices and procedures associated with
pretreatment program administration and inspec-
tion work. These include the ability to develop and
implement traffic control plans, supervise and
provide required permits for confined-space entry
work, and recognize and plan for the chemical and
biological hazards associated with inspecting or
monitoring specific types of industries. Informa-
tion on safety precautions, practices, and proce-
dures specific to the various industries regulated
under pretreatment programs can be found in the
references in Section 6.
6.2 Injury and Illness Prevention
Various federal, state, and local regulations re-
quire development of plans to prevent injury or
illness to workers and to respond to emergen-
cies that may affect the health and safety of
employees. These are commonly referred to as
emergency operations plans, contingency plans,
and injury and illness prevention programs. In-
spectors must be able to administer such pro-
grams and/ or assist in their development. As
part of their essential duties, Inspectors review
the written emergency or contingency docu-
ments generated by regulated industries. Ele-
ments of a typical contingency or emergency
response plan include the following:
Vulnerability assessment to identify potential
emergencies and hazards;
Organizational chart or list of personnel in-
volved in plan implementation, including
phone numbers, emergency phone numbers,
and duties;
Established emergency communications
procedure;
Plan and inventory of personal protective
equipment, plant equipment, records, and
maps;
Agreements or coordination with local and
regional agencies, such as health, police,
and fire departments to assist in carrying
out the plan;
Training programs and training schedules
for the personnel tasked with carrying out
the plan.
In the event of an emergency, Inspectors must
be well acquainted with the procedures and
plans established within the control authority
and the resources available to respond to such
emergencies.
6.3 Hazard Communication
and Worker Right-to-Know Laws
Grade III candidates must be familiar with the
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) regu-
lations that impact their duties. This includes fa-
miliarity with the use and composition of material
safety data sheets (MSDS) in identifying hazards
associated with various materials and chemicals.
Inspectors must be able to implement or assist in
the development of the hazard communication
and worker right-to-know programs for the local
control authority. The basics of a hazard commu-
nication program include the following elements:
Identifying hazardous materials to which em-
ployees are most likely to be exposed;
Obtaining chemical information (MSDS) and
defining hazardous conditions associated with
identified materials;
Making the information available to employ-
ees who could be exposed to such potential
hazards;
Proper labeling of hazards;
Hazard communication training.
Once physical, chemical, and health hazards are
identified, a labeling and training program is imple-
mented. There are various standards for hazard
labeling of containers, tanks, and other hazard-
ous areas. Inspectors must be familiar with the
standards and codes used in hazard communica-
tion, including the symbols and standards used
by OSHA, the Department of Transportation (DOT),
and the National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA). Guidelines and standards are available
from all three agencies.
Section 3: Skill Sets
Page 16 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
For hazard communication training, it is important
for Inspectors and other personnel in the pretreat-
ment program to be trained in the potential haz-
ards associated with their agency. Similarly, In-
spectors must understand the hazards that could
be encountered at industries and other locations
where work is performed. Most industries are re-
quired to have their own hazard communication
programs and documents. Inspectors need to be
familiar with these documents in order to prepare
for and carry out inspection and monitoring ac-
tivities at these locations.
Grade III Inspectors duties include ensuring the
safety and health of lower-level inspectors and
technicians. They may be called upon to develop
specific safety programs, such as tailgate safety
meetings and health and safety plans, and to
monitor and enforce safety procedures and re-
quirements among subordinates.
6.4 Reporting
Record keeping is an important part of the safety
program. Even minor injuries on the job should
be reported in order to establish a record in case
the injury develops into a more serious health
problem. Inspectors must understand the pur-
poses of safety record keeping. Records and re-
ports include documentation of worker training
and safety responsibilities, employee medical sur-
veillance records, safety meeting records, site in-
spection and monitoring reports, and incident or
accident reports. Vehicle or employee accident
reports are very important and accomplish the
following objectives:
Recording of all details required by law and
all data needed for statistical purposes;
Establishing the cause or causes of the in-
cident or accident, including unsafe condi-
tions or actions on the part of the injured or
other employees;
Identifying corrective actions that must be
taken to prevent future incidents or accidents;
Identifying the departments or persons
responsible for making the corrections and
establishing a timetable or deadline for
completion.
While the primary reason for good safety record
keeping is to document worker health and safety,
another important element is establishing the re-
sponsibilities and liabilities of the control author-
ity in dealing with issues such as worker compen-
sation and disability insurance, among others.
Skill
7 Industrial Processes and Pretreatment
Set
Inspectors must be very familiar with the indus-
trial processes and wastewater pretreatment sys-
tems they inspect. Additionally, Inspectors must
be able to read and understand technical infor-
mation submitted to them by industrial users, re-
lating to wastewater generation, treatment, and
disposal, including engineering drawings and
schematics that may be included with industrial
wastewater discharge applications and compli-
ance actions. They must also be familiar with
mechanical, hydraulic, and environmental engi-
neering principles, and concepts as applied to
pretreatment inspection work.
7.1 Industrial Processes
Grade III Inspectors must be knowledgeable about
industrial wastewaters and the manufacturing pro-
cesses that generate them. Attention should be
paid to the manufacturing processes that fall un-
der federal Pretreatment Standards. These include
metal finishing, printed circuit board manufactur-
ing, pulp and paper industries, battery manufac-
turing, petroleum refining, iron and steel indus-
tries, and inorganic chemical industries among
others. Grade III candidates must also be familiar
with the industrial wastewater and processes as-
sociated with significant non-categorical discharg-
ers such as rendering plants, dairies, vegetable
and fruit canners, meatpackers, and other dis-
chargers of high strength wastes.
7.2 Pretreatment Technologies
Grade III candidates must be very familiar with
the standard pretreatment technologies used for
each federal category. These can be found in the
WEF Manuals of Practice, the federal Pretreatment
Standards Development Documents, and the ref-
erences in Section 6.
Page 17
Section 3: Skill Sets
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
A good working knowledge of these technologies,
their capabilities and limitations, is necessary for
Inspectors to be able to assess industrial users
systems for the pretreatment performance ex-
pected under federal law. This knowledge assists
Inspectors in assessing the ability of pretreatment
systems to meet local limits, which can be more
stringent than federal categorical limits. Grade III
candidates must be knowledgeable about the
most complex pretreatment technologies as well.
Inspectors must be able to perform routine engi-
neering calculations as needed to evaluate the
feasibility of pretreatment systems they have to
inspect or review as part of an industrial user per-
mit application. Routine calculations include open
and closed-conduit hydraulics. Inspectors must
also be able to evaluate pump hydraulics and
power to determine if adequate hydraulic capac-
ity is available.
Inspectors must be able to perform calculations
regarding flow equalization, screening, sedimen-
tation, flotation, filtration, evaporation, absorption,
air stripping, pH neutralization, precipitation, oxi-
dation/ reduction, and disinfection treatment. In-
spectors must be familiar with the various biologi-
cal pretreatment methods, including anaerobic
and aerobic treatment.
Inspectors must also be very familiar with the tech-
nologies used for pretreatment solids or residu-
als management. These include sludge concen-
tration or thickening, digestion, dewatering or dry-
ing, heat treatment or incineration, and stabiliza-
tion and solidification. Solid residues from pre-
treatment systems are often considered hazard-
ous wastes and must be properly disposed of in
accordance with federal and local hazardous
waste regulations. Inspectors duties include mak-
ing sure these wastes are properly disposed of.
7.3 Pollution Prevention Techniques
Grade III candidates must be very familiar with
the pollution prevention measures and technolo-
gies used in federal categorical and other major
industries. The Source Control section of the U.S.
EPA Pretreatment Facility Inspection Manual con-
tains valuable information and checklists of meth-
ods and technologies for specific industries. Can-
didates should also review the WEF Manuals of
Practice and other reference materials listed in
Section 6.
Skill
8 Management and Supervision Principles
Set
Grade III Inspectors need a broad understanding
of supervisory and management practices and
techniques. Strong written and oral communica-
tion, decision-making, and problem solving skills
are required, along with interpersonal and public
relations skills. Inspectors must be able to read,
speak, and write in the English language at a high
school education level. It is important to maintain
effective communications with citizens/ custom-
ers, co-workers, and supervisors. Candidates must
have the ability to understand verbal and written
instructions from supervisors and to accurately
pass along the information to co-workers and sub-
ordinates. Inspectors must be able to recognize
or anticipate potential problems and implement
a solution or communicate a solution to a super-
visor, as required. An understanding of the bud-
geting process, as well as computer skills and
knowledge of information management systems
(IMS) is recommended.
Inspectors must provide responsible and com-
plex technical support to upper management
and prepare/ present staff reports, including or-
ganizational efficiency studies. They must be
able to develop and administer safety programs,
technical training, and management programs
for staff under their supervision. Further, they
must be able to organize, monitor, and direct
the work of staff, contractors, and service pro-
viders in the operation and administration of the
pretreatment program.
8.1 Planning, Organizing,
and Scheduling
Inspectors have many tasks, schedules, and dead-
lines that need to be adhered to as part of their
duties. These include reviewing and processing
permit applications and compliance and monitor-
ing reports. Other responsibilities include timely
responses to violations, including processing vio-
lation notices and administrative orders, and de-
veloping compliance schedules. Monthly, quar-
terly, semi-annual, and annual reports may be re-
quired for the control authority, as well as regional,
state, and federal agencies.
Section 3: Skill Sets
Page 18 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Scheduling pretreatment inspections and effi-
ciently allocating resources to accomplish moni-
toring and enforcement activities are major por-
tions of Inspectors duties. Planning and organiz-
ing are key elements of these functions. Inspec-
tors are required to understand the need, various
elements, and terminology surrounding the plan-
ning and organizing of a pretreatment program.
They need the ability to develop reliable informa-
tion, to establish goals, and to utilize short- and
long-term planning to carry out these goals. An
understanding of the purpose of an organization
chart and job duties is required. Inspectors need
to have a full understanding of the terms of au-
thority, responsibility, delegation, and accountabil-
ity as they pertain to management functions.
8.2 Human Resources
Candidates must have a good understanding of
the responsibilities of a supervisor, and of employ-
ment policies, laws and procedures governing
employer/ employee relations. An understanding
of application and selection processes is required,
as well as the new employee orientation training
and certification procedures. Inspectors must
have knowledge of how to prepare for and admin-
ister performance evaluations, the disciplinary
process, and the investigation and resolution of
harassment charges.
Inspectors evaluate other inspectors and em-
ployees under their supervision on an annual
or semi-annual basis. Therefore, they must have
knowledge of methods to measure employee
productivity.
New and refresher training programs for subor-
dinates in the areas of pretreatment inspection,
enforcement, storm water, safety, and other
regulatory areas are the direct responsibility of
Inspectors. This requires good communication
skills, as well as thorough knowledge of the sub-
jects to be taught.
8.3 Communications
and Public Relations
Good communication skills are essential for In-
spectors. They are required to collect and com-
pile information into oral and written reports. It is
essential that Inspectors have good oral, written,
and listening skills. Record keeping is a necessary
part of Inspectors duties. It is essential that In-
spectors understand the purpose of record keep-
ing and the different types of records used in pre-
treatment program administration.
An understanding of public relations principles is
also necessary. Inspectors need to understand
how to handle customer- and media-related issues.
Inspectors should understand how to represent
their employer in public meetings and meetings
of regional task forces, committees, and work
groups. Inspectors must be able to make presen-
tations to management within the control author-
ity or utility to present progress reports, annual
reports, results of special studies, and budget pro-
jections or requests for the pretreatment program.
8.4 Budgeting
An understanding of financial principles is an im-
portant part of an Inspectors knowledge base.
Inspectors must have a good understanding of the
budgetary process, capital improvement, and
equipment repair/ replacement practices and tech-
niques. Candidates should be able to perform
calculations involving budgeting, capital and op-
erating expenses, and economic evaluations and
comparisons such as simple payback calculations.
Inspectors may be called upon to develop or to
assist in the development of the annual pretreat-
ment budget. This budget must be submitted to
the state or regional agency permitting authority.
Page 19
Section 3: Skill Sets
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
r o t c e p s n I e c n a i l p m o C l a t n e m n o r i v n E I I I e d a r G 1 - 3 e l b a T
s e c n e r e f e R y r a m i r P
a
. o N t e S l l i k S
l a r e d e F f o e d o C
s n o i t a l u g e R
g n i p o l e v e D
l o r t n o C e c r u o S
r o f s m a r g o r P
d n a l a i c r e m m o C
l a i r t s u d n I
r e t a w e t s a W
t n e m t a e r t e r P
y t i l i c a F
n o i t c e p s n I
e t s a W l a i r t s u d n I
, t n e m t a e r T
I I d n a I s e m u l o V
y t i l i t U
t n e m e g a n a M
1 g n i t t i m r e P d n a s n o i t a l u g e R
1 . 1 g n i y l p p A
l a r e d e F
l a c i r o g e t a C
t n e m t a e r t e r P
s d r a d n a t S
R F C 0 4
, 1 7 4 0 1 4
6 . 3 0 4
s r e t p a h C
5 d n a 1
s r e t p a h C
3 d n a 1
1 e m u l o V
3 r e t p a h C
2 . 1 l a i r t s u d n I
s t i m r e P r e s U
s t r o p e R d n a
, 3 . 3 0 4 R F C 0 4
8 . 3 0 4
3 r e t p a h C 2 r e t p a h C 1 e m u l o V
3 . 3 r e t p a h C
3 . 1 t n e m e c r o f n E
s n o i t a l u g e R
s e l p i c n i r P d n a
8 . 3 0 4 R F C 0 4 s r e t p a h C
7 d n a 6
s r e t p a h C
4 d n a 3
2 s e u q i n h c e T g n i l p m a S d n a g n i r o t i n o M l a t n e m n o r i v n E
1 . 2 d r a d n a t S
l a c i t y l a n A
s d o h t e M
b
6 3 1 R F C 0 4 4 4 2 5 2 2 . s g P 1 . 6 r e t p a h C
2 . 2 y r o t a r o b a L
- a t n e m u r t s n I
n o i t
6 3 1 R F C 0 4 7 4 2 5 4 2 . s g P 5 4 3 2 4 3 . s g P
3 . 2 d n a g n i l p m a S
s i s y l a n A
y t i l a u Q
d n a l o r t n o C
e c n a r u s s A
b
6 3 1 R F C 0 4 3 5 2 7 4 2 . s g P 6 r e t p a h C
4 . 2 - o i b o r c i M
l a c i g o l
s i s y l a n A
b
6 3 1 R F C 0 4
5 . 2 g n i r o t i n o m o i B
y t i c i x o T d n a
6 3 1 R F C 0 4 2 6 1 8 5 1 . s g P
a. Complete reference information given in Section 6.
b. Latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater should also be used as
a reference.
Section 3: Skill Sets
Page 20 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
a. Complete reference information given in Section 6.
c. The EPA Guidance Manual on the Development and Implementation of Local Discharge Limitations Un-
der the Pretreatment Program (1987) should be considered the primary reference for the development of
Local Limits for approved pretreatment programs.
r o t c e p s n I e c n a i l p m o C l a t n e m n o r i v n E I I I e d a r G 1 - 3 e l b a T
s e c n e r e f e R y r a m i r P
a
. o N t e S l l i k S
l a r e d e F f o e d o C
s n o i t a l u g e R
g n i p o l e v e D
l o r t n o C e c r u o S
r o f s m a r g o r P
d n a l a i c r e m m o C
l a i r t s u d n I
r e t a w e t s a W
t n e m t a e r t e r P
y t i l i c a F
n o i t c e p s n I
e t s a W l a i r t s u d n I
, t n e m t a e r T
I I d n a I s e m u l o V
y t i l i t U
t n e m e g a n a M
3 l o r t n o C l a s o p s i D d n a , t n e m t a e r T , n o i t c e l l o C r e t a w e t s a W
1 . 3 e c n a i l p m o C
g n i r o t i n o M
d n a
n o i t c e p s n I
s e u q i n h c e T
8 . 3 0 4 R F C 0 4 6 0 1 1 0 1 . s g P 0 1 r e t p a h C
2 . 3 l a i c e p S
s e i d u t S
8 . 3 0 4 R F C 0 4 4 r e t p a h C 5 . 6 r e t p a h C
3 . 3 d n a s l l i p S
d e l l o r t n o c n U
s e g r a h c s i D
, 5 . 3 0 4 R F C 0 4
8 . 3 0 4
0 7 1 8 6 1 . s g P 1 1 r e t p a h C
4 s m a r g o r P t n e m t a e r t e r P d n a W T O P f o g n i d n u F
0 . 4 l a r e n e G 8 . 3 0 4 R F C 0 4 0 4 e g a P I I x i d n e p p A
s n o i t c e S
L d n a D
5 s t i m i L l a c o L f o n o i t a u l a v E f o t n e m p o l e v e D
c
0 . 5 l a r e n e G R F C 0 4
, 5 . 3 0 4 , 1 2 . 2 2 1
8 . 3 0 4 d n a
5 9 6 8 . s g P
6 s e c i t c a r P y t e f a S
1 . 6 d n a s e c i t c a r P
s e r u d e c o r P
0 1 9 1 R F C 9 2 3 1 r e t p a h C 5 r e t p a h C , I e m u l o V
2 r e t p a h C
2 1 r e t p a h C
2 . 6 d n a y r u j n I
s s e n l l I
n o i t n e v e r P
4 1 r e t p a h C 5 r e t p a h C , I e m u l o V
s r e t p a h C
0 1 . 2 8 . 2
2 1 r e t p a h C
Page 21
Section 3: Skill Sets
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
r o t c e p s n I e c n a i l p m o C l a t n e m n o r i v n E I I I e d a r G 1 - 3 e l b a T
s e c n e r e f e R y r a m i r P
a
. o N t e S l l i k S
l a r e d e F f o e d o C
s n o i t a l u g e R
g n i p o l e v e D
l o r t n o C e c r u o S
r o f s m a r g o r P
d n a l a i c r e m m o C
l a i r t s u d n I
r e t a w e t s a W
t n e m t a e r t e r P
y t i l i c a F
n o i t c e p s n I
e t s a W l a i r t s u d n I
, t n e m t a e r T
I I d n a I s e m u l o V
y t i l i t U
t n e m e g a n a M
3 . 6 d r a z a H
- i n u m m o C
d n a n o i t a c
- t h g i R r e k r o W
s w a L w o n K - o t
R F C 9 2
0 0 2 1 . 0 1 9 1
4 1 3 2 0 3 . s g P
4 1 r e t p a h C
1 1 r e t p a h C , I e m u l o V
0 1 . 2 r e t p a h C
2 . 2 1 r e t p a h C
4 . 6 g n i t r o p e R 5 r e t p a h C
s e c i d n e p p A
H d n a G
, I e m u l o V
9 . 2 r e t p a h C
4 . 2 1 r e t p a h C
7 t n e m t a e r t e r P d n a s e s s e c o r P l a i r t s u d n I
1 . 7 l a i r t s u d n I
s e s s e c o r P
R F C 0 4
1 7 4 0 1 4
s r e t p a h C
2 1 d n a 4
8 r e t p a h C , I e m u l o V
5 r e t p a h C
2 . 7 t n e m t a e r t e r P
s e i g o l o n h c e T
R F C 0 4
1 7 4 0 1 4
t n e m p o l e v e D
s t n e m u c o D
s r e t p a h C
2 1 d n a 4
9 r e t p a h C , I e m u l o V
1 1 7 s r e t p a h C
, I I e m u l o V
8 2 s r e t p a h C
3 . 7 n o i t u l l o P
n o i t n e v e r P
s e u q i n h c e T
R F C 0 4
1 7 4 0 1 4
2 1 r e t p a h C 9 r e t p a h C , I e m u l o V
4 r e t p a h C
8 s e l p i c n i r P n o i s i v r e p u S d n a t n e m e g a n a M
1 . 8 , g n i n n a l P
, g n i z i n a g r O
d n a
g n i l u d e h c S
3 r e t p a h C 2 r e t p a h C 3 s r e t p a h C
4 d n a
2 . 8 n a m u H
s e c r u o s e R
0 3 8 2 . s g P 5 r e t p a h C
3 . 8 - i n u m m o C
d n a s n o i t a c
c i l b u P
s n o i t a l e R
3 r e t p a h C 6 . 2 r e t p a h C 8 6 s r e t p a h C
4 . 8 g n i t e g d u B 4 4 2 4 . s g P 1 . 2 r e t p a h C 9 r e t p a h C
a. Complete reference information given in Section 6.
Page 23
S e c t i o n 4
Test Preparation
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
This section provides tips on the how candidates
should prepare for the test, information on the test
question format and the math skills likely to be
needed, and a table of equivalents and formulas.
Basic Study Strategy
To prepare adequately for the test, candidates
need to employ discipline and develop good study
habits. Ample time to prepare for the test should
be allowed. Candidates should establish a study
schedule and stick to it. One or two nights a week
for one or two months should be sufficient in most
cases. Spend one or more hours studying in quiet
surroundings or in small groups of two or three
serious candidates. Efforts should be directed to
the test subject areas that are not being performed
on a day-to-day basis.
It is especially important for candidates to obtain
access to the reference materials listed under the
Primary References heading in Section 6 of this
study guide. Many of these materials are likely to
be available in the work place and in technical li-
braries. Some references, such as codes and regu-
lations, are available on-line as well. For a list of
links to on-line resources, see the Certification
Resource Links page on the CWEA website at
www.cwea.org/ tcp/ resources.
Candidates should study at the certification level
being sought after. There is no advantage to spend-
ing time studying material that will not be on the
test. Refer to Section 3 of this study guide for top-
ics that will be covered.
While using this study guide, be sure to under-
stand the answers to all the sample and diagnos-
tic test questions. It may also be helpful to use
the skill set descriptions in Section 3 to devise
additional questions for further study. Discuss the
questions with others. Not only is this a good study
technique, it is also an excellent way to learn.
It is not necessary, but it can certainly be helpful,
to memorize all the formulas and equivalents used
in working out the solutions for questions involv-
ing calculations. Table 4-1 lists many, but not all,
of these formulas and conversion factors. When
the test is administered, a sheet listing some, but
not all, of the relevant formulas and equivalents
will be provided as part of the test materials. So
that candidates may determine which formulas
and equivalents will actually be on the sheet in-
cluded with the test booklet, copies of these
sheets are provided on the CWEA website at
www.cwea.org/ tcp/ resources. (The set of equiva-
lents and formulas on the sheet provided with the
test may not be exactly the same as the set in-
cluded in Table 4-1.)
Multiple Choice Questions
All test questions are written in multiple-choice for-
mat. At first glance, the multiple-choice problem
may seem easy to solve because so much infor-
mation is given, but that is where the problem lies.
The best answer must be chosen from the infor-
mation provided. Here are some tips that may help
solve multiple-choice problems.
1. Read the question completely and closely to
determine what is being asked.
2. Read all the choices before selecting an
answer.
3. Look for key words or phrases that often, but
not always, tip off correct or incorrect answers:
Absolute Words
(Suspect as a wrong choice)
Always Never None
Totally All
Limiting Words
(Often a correct choice)
Few Occasionally
Some Generally
Often Usually
Many Possible
Section 4: Test Preparation
Page 24 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Manning Formula
Q=
1.49 x A x R
2/ 3
x S
1/ 2
N
where R =Hydraulic Radius
S =Slope
N =Friction Factor
A =Area of Flow
Table 4-1 Environmental Compliance Inspector
Equivalents and Formulas
3.785 Liters/ gallon
8.34 lbs/ gallon
7.48 gallons/ ft
3
43,560 ft
2
/ acre
453.6 gm/ lb
28.35 gm/ oz
12 inches/ ft
=3.14
Area
circle = x R
2
trapezoid=
(B +b)
x H
2
triangle =
b x h
2
Volume
rectangular solid=L x W x H
cylinder = x R
2
x H
Periodic Properties of Elements
Element Symbol Atomic Number Atomic Weight
(grams/ mole)
Hydrogen H 1 1.0
Carbon C 6 12.0
Nitrogen N 7 14.0
Oxygen O 8 16.0
Flourine F 9 19.0
Sodium Na 11 23.0
Magnesium Mg 12 24.3
Aluminum Al 13 27.0
Phosphorus P 15 31.0
Sulfur S 16 32.1
Chlorine Cl 17 35.5
Potassium K 19 39.1
Calcium Ca 20 40.1
Chromium Cr 24 52.0
Iron Fe 26 55.8
Nickel Ni 28 58.7
Copper Cu 29 63.5
Zinc Zn 30 65.4
Arsenic As 33 74.9
Silver Ag 47 107.9
Cadmium Cd 48 112.4
Page 25
Section 4: Test Preparation
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
4. Never make a choice based on the frequency
of previous answers. If the last ten questions
have not had a b answer, dont arbitrarily
select b. Instead use logic and reasoning to
increase the chances of choosing the best
answer.
5. Reject answers that are obviously incorrect
and choose from the remaining answers.
Example
The straight line distance from the center
of a circle to the outer edge is called the:
a. diameter
b. circumference
c. chord
d. radius
It is possible to reason out the answer by
having some knowledge of geometry and
studying the questions and the four pro-
vided answers. The question is asking for
the name of a line or distance that is in-
side of the circle. Circumference is the dis-
tance around the outside of the circle, so
this is an obvious incorrect answer.
6. Make an educated guess.
Never reconsider a choice that has already
been eliminated. This means that answer b
should not be considered. Look for key
phrases or words that give a clue to the right
answer. Chord, answer c, chord refers to a
straight line inside of the circle, but it does
not necessarily go through the center of the
circle, so this answer can be eliminated.
Answers a and d are distances that are
measured as straight lines and either start or
go through the center of a circle. The diam-
eter goes through the center rather than start-
ing from the center. Radius, answer d is the
correct answer and is defined as the straight
line distance from the center to the outer edge
of a circle.
7. Skip over questions that are troublesome.
Mark these questions for later review.
8. When finished with the test, return to the ques-
tions skipped. Now think! Make inferences.
With a little thought and the information given,
the correct answer can be reasoned out.
9. Under no circumstances leave any question
unanswered. There is no penalty for incor-
rect answers. However, credit is given only
for correct answers.
NO ANSWER=WRONG ANSWER
10. Keep a steady pace. Check the time
periodically.
11. Remember to read all questions carefully. They
are not intended to be trick questions; how-
ever, the intent is to test candidates knowl-
edge of and ability to understand the written
language of this profession.
Math Problems
Math problems on the certification tests are
meant to reflect the type of work encountered
in Plant Maintenance E/ I Technology. Although
there is no specific math section on the test,
many questions will require some calculations
such as area, volume, ratios, and conversion of
units. By far, the greatest number of applicants
who fail the certification tests do so by failing
to complete the math problems. Completing the
math problems will be greatly simplified by us-
ing a calculator and the approach suggested in
the following paragraphs.
Calculators
A scientific calculator may be used during the test;
however, a four-function (add, subtract, multiply
and divide) calculator is adequate for completing
any of the certification tests. Additional functions
(e.g., square root) are not necessary, but may be
helpful in some situations. The most important
factor in effectively using a calculator is the can-
didates familiarity with its use prior to the time of
the examination. Confidence in the calculator and
a full understanding of how to properly operate it
are a must. The best way to gain confidence is to
obtain the calculator early and use it frequently.
Completing the sample problems in this section
as well as the diagnostic test in Section 5 will
improve proficiency. Additional use will also help.
For example, calculate the gas mileage when fill-
ing a vehicles tank. Check the sales tax calcula-
tion on each purchase. Balance a checkbook, or
check a paycheck. The calculator chosen should
have large enough keys so that the wrong keys
Section 4: Test Preparation
Page 26 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
are not accidentally punched. Be certain there are
new batteries in the calculator, or use a solar pow-
ered calculator with battery backup.
Approach
The solution to any problem requires understand-
ing of the information given, understanding of what
is being requested, and proper application of the
information, along with the appropriate equations
to obtain an answer. Any math problem can be
organized as follows:
Given or Known
All information provided in the problem
statement that will be used to get the cor-
rect answer.
Find
A description of the answer that is being
requested.
Sketch
If possible, sketch the situation described in
the problem statement showing size and
shape (dimensions).
Equation
A listing of the equation or equations that will
be used to generate the answer.
Assumption(s)
Stated assumptions of key information
needed to answer a math problem with miss-
ing information. This occurs frequently on
higher-grade tests.
Answer
This is where the answer is clearly identified.
Advantages to using this approach to organ-
ize math problems are that it helps to organize
thoughts, breaks the problem solution into a se-
ries of smaller steps, and reduces chances of
making errors.
Solutions
Solutions to math problems are like driving routes
from Los Angeles to San Francisco: there are many
different routes that can be taken. Some routes
are shorter or less complicated than others. Only
certain routes end up in San Francisco.
Solutions to sample problems given in this study
guide are the most common solutions. If a differ-
ent solution arrives at the correct answer, then it
can be used as well.
Equivalents and Formulas
Familiarity with the equivalents (conversion fac-
tors) and formulas in Table 4-1 is important. Pay
special attention to the units of measure that are
used in the formulas. A correct answer will not be
obtained unless the correct units of measure are
used.
Check the units, arithmetic, and answer so that:
1. the units agree;
2. the answer is the same when the arithmetic
is repeated; and
3. the answer is reasonable and makes sense.
Dimensional Analysis
When setting up an equation to solve a math prob-
lem, the trick is to have clearly in mind what units
the answer should be in. Once the units have been
determined, work backwards using the facts given
and the conversion factors known or given. This is
known as dimensional analysis, using conversion
factors and units to derive the correct answer.
Remember, multiplying conversion factors can be
likened to multiplying fractions. The denominator
(the number on the bottom of the fraction) and
the numerator (the number on the top of the frac-
tion) cancel each other out if they are the same,
leaving the units being sought after.
Example
If a company runs a discharge pump rated at
50 gallons per minute all day, every day for a
year, what is the discharge for the year in mil-
lions of gallons per year (MGY)?
Given: pump rating =50
gal

min
Find: discharge = ? MGY
Calculations
Convert gal/ min to million gal/ yr, convert gal-
lons to million gallons, and minutes to years.
What is known about minutes and years?
There are 60 minutes in an hour, 24 hours in
a day, and 365 days in a year. Put that into an
equation, and multiply each conversion fac-
tor so the unneeded units are cancelled out:
50
gal
x 60
min
x 24
hr
x 365
days
x
min hr day yr
1
MG
=26.28 MGY
1,000,000 gal
Page 27
Section 4: Test Preparation
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Sample Questions
The following sample math problems are intended
to demonstrate unit conversion techniques. Al-
though they are general wastewater problems, the
questions may not be specific to any vocation.
1. How many gallons of water will it take to fill a
3 cubic foot container?
3 cubic feet x 7.48
gallons
= 22.4 gallons
cubic feet
2. If a gallon of gasoline weighs 7.0 pounds, what
would be the weight of a 350 gallon tank full
of gasoline?
350 gallons x 7.0
pounds
=2,450 pounds
gallon
3. The rated capacity of a pump is 500 gallons
per minute (GPM). Convert this capacity to mil-
lion gallons per day (MGD).
500 GPM x 1
MGD
= 0.72 MGD
694 GPM
4. A chemical feed pump is calibrated to deliver
50 gallons per day (GPD). What is the cali-
brated chemical feed in gallons per minute
(GPM)?
50 gal
x
1 day
x
1 hr
= 0.035 GPM
day 24 hr 60 min
5. A chemical feed pump delivers 50 mL per
minute (mL/ min). Determine the chemical
feed in gallons per day (gpd).
50 mL
x
1 L
x
1 gallon
x
60 min
x
24 hr
min 1000 mL 3.785 L hr day
=19 GPD
6. A cyanide destruction process is designed to
treat 30 pounds of cyanide per 24-hour op-
erational day. How many pounds of cyanide
can be treated during an 8-hour shift?
30 lbs CN
x
8 hr
x
1 day
=10 lbs CN/ shift
day shift 24 hr
Math Skills
Grade III candidates must be skilled in arithmetic,
basic algebra, and geometry. Candidates must be
able to apply these skills to make calculations for
work-related tasks such as proportions, averages,
volumes, concentrations, determining flow rates,
converting from volume to mass, and any other
job-related math task that may fall within the skill
sets listed in Section 3.
A thorough review of the types of mathematics
required for the test is beyond the scope of this
study guide. Consult an appropriate math text
(see Section 6, References) if there is unfamil-
iarity with any specific math skill. Appendix A
provides general strategies for approaching
math problems and math anxiety, as well as
resources for remedial study. Below are some
examples of the types of math problems that a
candidate should be able to quickly solve.
Arithmetic
Candidates should be able to understand and
perform the following calculations, either manu-
ally or with a calculator:
1. Addition and subtraction of whole numbers,
fractions, exponents, and fractional expo-
nents.
2. Multiplication and division of whole numbers,
fractions, exponents, fractional exponents,
powers, and scientific notation.
Algebra
Candidates should be able to perform basic ap-
plied algebra calculations, such as solving for one
unknown in one equation.
Section 4: Test Preparation
Page 28 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Example
A company is required to take a daily time-
composite sample of its industrial wastewa-
ter discharge for analysis. The automatic sam-
pler must take a discrete fixed-volume sample
every 20 minutes for 24 hours. What is the
minimum volume, in millimeters, that must be
taken every 20 minutes to provide a 3 liter
composite sample in 24 hours?
This is a ratio problem. The total volume of
wastewater sample divided by the volume of
each discrete sample is proportional to the
total time of sampling divided by the time be-
tween discrete samples. The ratio is expressed
as follows:
Total Volume
=
Total Time

Discrete Volume Time Between Samples


The unknown is the discrete sample volume,
expressed in milliliters. Construct the equa-
tion with the proper units so that all but the
answer units cancel out. This will require con-
verting all volumes to milliliters and all times
to minutes.
3L x 1,000 mL/ L
=
24 hrs x 60 min/ hr
Vol/ sample 20 min/ sample
Then use basic algebra to solve for the un-
known, remembering that the unknown
must be in the numerator and by itself on
one side of the equation with all knowns on
the other side.
3,000 mL =72 samples x Vol/ sample
3,000 mL
=41.7 mL/ sample
72 samples
Although this problem requires basic arith-
metic skills, it also requires knowledge and
familiarity with sampling techniques to syn-
thesize the given information and translate
it into a mathematical equation to solve the
problem.
Geometry
Candidates should be able to calculate circumfer-
ence, find the area of a rectangle or circle, and
find the volumes of rectangular and cylindrical
solids. Be prepared to apply these basic skills to
work-related problems.
Example
A circular clarifier treats a flow of 1.2 MGD.
The diameter is 55 feet and the depth is 8
feet. What is the surface loading rate and what
is the detention time?
This problem requires the ability to calculate
the surface area of the tank and use this data
to calculate the surface loading rate. It also
requires calculating the volume of the tank
and using the volume and flow rate to deter-
mine a unit of time.
Calculate the surface loading rate (SLR):
Convert flow into gallons per day.
1.2 MGD x
1,000,000 gal
=1,200,000 GPD
MG
Calculate the surface area.
A = x R
2
A =3.14 x
(
55 ft
)
2
=2,374.6 ft
2
2
SLR =
Q
A
SLR =
1,200,000 GPD
2,374.6 ft
2
SLR =505 GPD/ ft
2
Calculate detention time:
Calculate the volume.
Vol =2,374.6 ft
2
x 8 ft x
7.48 gal
x
ft
3
MG
=0.142 MG
1,000,000 gal
t =
Vol
Q
t =0.142 MG x
day
x
24 hrs
=2.8 hrs
1.2 MG day
Page 29
S e c t i o n 5
Diagnostic Test
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Introduction
This section provides a diagnostic test to assist
those studying for the Grade III Environmental
Compliance Inspector certification test in evalu-
ating their current level of knowledge in the skill
sets outlined in Section 3.
The example questions in the diagnostic test rep-
resent the type of knowledge that may be required
to successfully pass the certification test. They are
based on information contained in Section 6,
References, and are arranged according to the skill
sets presented in Section 3. However, passing the
diagnostic test does not guarantee passing the
certification test.
Diagnostic test answers, the applicable skill sets,
and selected solutions are presented at the end
of this section. Candidates should take the diag-
nostic test, mark wrong answers, and record the
skill sets for questions missed. Using Table 3-1,
candidates should review the references to im-
prove their knowledge of the subjects, especially
in areas where they answered diagnostic test ques-
tions incorrectly.
Skill
1 Regulations and Permitting
Set
1. An alternative pretreatment limit calculated
by the combined wastestream formula (CWF)
may not be used if the alternative limit is:
a. based on less than 60-day average flows.
b. calculated on combined wastestreams
with concentration and production-based
mass limits.
c. calculated on wastestreams combined be-
fore pretreatment.
d. below the analytical detection limit.
2. Calculate the alternative concentration limit
for nickel (Ni) for a captive electroplater that
discharges to the local POTW. This facility com-
bines 80,000 gallons per day of plating waste-
water with 20,000 gallons per day of
noncontact cooling water. Captive shops are
subject to pretreatment standards for the
metal finishing category. The categorical pre-
treatment standard for nickel is 3.98 mg/ L.
a. 3.18 mg/ L
b. 2.55 mg/ L
c. 0.99 mg/ L
d. 0.80 mg/ L
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Page 30 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
3. A facility manufacturing aluminum tanks
forms the parts by forging metal into the ap-
propriate shape. After forging, the formed
parts are welded. To prepare the parts for
welding, they are cleaned and rinsed. The
wastewaters generated are treated in a com-
bined treatment facility to comply with the
standards of the Aluminum Forming Point
Source Category (40 CFR 467). In addition,
wastewaters from a parts washer on a paint
line are treated in the combined treatment fa-
cility. Daily wastewater flow rates through the
combined treatment facility are as follows:
Regulated Wastestreams
Cleaning bath =900 gallons per day
Cleaning rinse =2,700 gallons per day
Unregulated Wastestream
Parts washer =1,400 gallons per day
The applicable zinc limits from 40 CFR 467
are as follows:
Maximum for Any One Day
Cleaning or etching bath =0.26 mg/ off-kg
(lb/ million off-lbs)
Cleaning or etching rinse =2.03 mg/ off-kg
(lb/ million off-lbs)
Calculate the alternative mass limit for zinc
in the combined wastestream.
a. 2.29 lb/ day
b. 1.65 mg/ off-kg
c. 3.18 mg/ off-kg
d. 1.98 lb/ million off-lbs
4. The Electroplating Pretreatment Standards
limit which pollutants in plants with flows of
less than 10,000 gallons per day?
a. Amenable cyanide, cadmium, chromium,
lead
b. Amenable cyanide, cadmium, lead, TTO
c. Cadmium, copper, lead, TTO
d. Cadmium, lead, mercury, zinc
5. Review of an industrial discharge permit ap-
plication indicates the discharger must com-
ply with a Categorical TTO standard. What
pollutants must the discharger sample and
analyze for to comply with the TTO standard?
a. All pollutants listed in the standard.
b. Only the pollutants detected in previous
sampling results.
c. Only the pollutants found in the raw ma-
terials used.
d. Only the pollutants that would reasonably
be expected to be present.
6. Special Conditions of an industrial user dis-
charge permit may include:
a. duty to mitigate clause.
b. accidental discharge reporting.
c. industrial user management practices.
d. severability clause.
7. An industry regulated under the metal finish-
ing pretreatment standards for existing
sources (PSES) cannot consistently meet its
discharge limits for nickel. Bi-monthly sample
results in mg/ L for the last six months are
given as follows:
2.05 2.19
2.53 3.58
4.01 2.75
4.85 2.87
2.45 2.23
1.97 1.99
PSES nickel limits are:
Daily maximum: 3.98 mg/ L
Monthly average: 2.38 mg/ L
Determine whether or not the industrial user
is in significant noncompliance (SNC) for
this period, and the type and percentage of
violations.
a. Not SNC, chronic violations, 58 percent
b. SNC, chronic violations, 66 percent
c. SNC, TRC violations, 33 percent
d. SNC, TRC violations, 58 percent
Page 31
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Skill
2
Environmental Monitoring
Set and Sampling Techniques
1. Which of the following methods are used to
determine pesticides?
a. EPA Method 1664
b. Standard Methods 5230
c. Standard Methods 1664
d. EPA Method 608
2. What analysis uses the purge and trap tech-
nique?
a. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon analysis
b. Volatile organic compound analysis
c. Pesticide analysis
d. Organic acid analysis
3. Which of the following types of control
samples may be used to determine accuracy?
a. Method blank
b. Calibration standard
c. Certified reference material
d. Duplicate
4. Which of the following types of control
samples may be used to determine precision?
a. Method blank
b. Calibration standard
c. Certified reference material
d. Duplicate
5. An EPA-approved standard method of deter-
mining fecal coliform bacteria concentration
in effluent samples is called the:
a. multiple-tube fermentation technique.
b. heterotrophic plate count technique.
c. brilliant green lactose technique.
d. agar streaking technique.
6. Short term toxicity tests are inappropriate to:
a. obtain toxicity data as rapidly and inex-
pensively as possible.
b. obtain an estimation of overall toxicity.
c. screen test solutions or materials for
which toxicity data do not exist.
d. determine chronic toxicity.
7. The toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) pro-
cess includes:
a. determining bioaccumulation factors.
b. fractionation and analysis of the constitu-
ents in an effluent.
c. acute biological toxicity testing.
d. chronic biological toxicity testing.
Skill
3
Wastewater Collection, Treatment,
Set and Disposal Control
1. The local municipal sewage treatment plants
effluent has a TDS averaging 600 mg/ L. The
flow averages 24 MGD. The maximum allow-
able discharge of TDS in the effluent is 750
mg/ L. A new industry is proposing to locate in
this town and to discharge 1.5 MGD to the
sewer. The agency intends to keep the treat-
ment plants effluent TDS below 710 mg/ L.
What is the maximum TDS concentration the
new industry can discharge at the proposed
1.5 MGD flow rate?
a. 2,470 mg/ L
b. 1,760 mg/ L
c. 3,360 mg/ L
d. 210 mg/ L
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Page 32 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
2. A plating company has a total chromium level
of 25 mg/ L in a discharge of 40,000 GPD to a
sewer. The downstream POTW has a total flow
of 45 MGD and 45 percent of the chromium
is removed by the treatment processes. What
would be the expected concentration of chro-
mium in the POTWs effluent in milligrams per
liter? Assume no other sources of chromium
flowing into the POTW.
a. 0.0100 mg/ L
b. 0.0122 mg/ L
c. 0.00146 mg/ L
d. 0.00199 mg/ L
3. A company is suspected of illegally discharg-
ing high BOD waste. The company reports an
average flow of 100,000 GPD with a BOD of
500 mg/ L. The city has installed upstream
and downstream monitoring equipment. The
average monitoring results are upstream flow
of 300,000 GPD with BOD of 350 mg/ L, and
downstream flow of 400,000 GPD. What
would the average BOD at the downstream
monitoring point have to exceed to support
the suspicion of illegal discharge?
a. 1,293 mg/ L
b. 517 mg/ L
c. 388 mg/ L
d. 350 mg/ L
4. A pickle packaging plant discharges a sodium
chloride brine waste amounting to 10,000
pounds of salt per seven-day work week. If the
POTW has a flow at the headworks of 30 MGD
containing 100 mg/ L of sodium, what percent-
age of the sodium is from the pickle company?
The molecular weight of sodium chloride is
58.44 and sodium is 22.99.
a. 0.19 percent
b. 2.25 percent
c. 14.51 percent
d. 18.73 percent
Skill
4
Funding of POTW
Set and Pretreatment Programs
1. An industrial user is billed monthly for BOD,
total suspended solids (TSS) and flow. The
total flow discharged in 24 hours is 50,000
gallons. The company sampled BOD and TSS
on a weekly basis with the following results:
Week BOD, mg/ L TSS, mg/ L Flow, gal
1 1,350 900 350,000
2 4,000 2,200 245,000
3 900 450 500,000
4 1,500 1,000 375,000
The agencys sewer rates are charged as fol-
lows: BOD is $28.00/ 1,000 lbs; TSS is
$8.00/ 1,000 lbs; flow is $1,100.00/ million
gallons (MG).
What is the industrial users total sewer charge
for this one month?
a. $2,289.41
b. $68,881.00
c. $1,697.65
d. $674,257.00
2. A metal finisher has the following discharge
limitations: copper, 3.0 mg/ L; lead, 0.7 mg/
L; chromium, 2.7 mg/ L; and nickel, 3.3 mg/ L.
The metal finisher had the following metal
concentrations in a recent 24-hour discharge
sample collected and analyzed for sewer-use
fees: Cu, 15.0 mg/ L; Pb, 3.2 mg/ L; Cr, 18.3
mg/ L; and Ni, 6.3 mg/ L. The metal finisher
discharges a flow of 30,000 GPD. The sewer-
use penalties in dollars per pound discharged
over the limits are: Cu, $225/ lb; Pb, $325/ lb;
Cr, $250/ lb; and Ni, $375/ lb. What would be
the metal finishers daily monetary penalty for
exceeding the discharge limits?
a. $2,840.50
b. $2,305.28
c. $2,136.28
d. $1,932.83
Page 33
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
3. A company using 20,000 gallons of water per
day claims the following water losses: evapo-
rative at 15.0 percent; landscaping at 10.0
percent; and other at 5.0 percent. The com-
pany operates 312 days per year and has an
average discharge of BOD of 650 mg/ L and
suspended solids of 800 mg/ L. The company
is subject to the following sewer-use fees: BOD
is $150/ 1,000 lbs; SS: is $300/ 1,000 lbs;
flow is $500/ MG.
What is the companys annual sewer-use fee?
a. $6,205
b. $3,658
c. $12,297,012
d. $14,479
4. A company has an industrial waste discharge
of 65,000 GPD with an average sulfite con-
centration of 7,500 mg/ L (measured as sul-
fur). The company operates 250 days per year.
The local POTW has an industrial waste sewer-
use fee that charges $23.50 per thousand
pounds of COD. How much does this company
pay each year for the sulfite discharge? The
molecular weight of sulfur is 32. There are two
equivalents per mole of sulfite and 8,000 mil-
ligrams of COD per equivalent.
a. $3,154
b. $5,420
c. $11,938
d. $54,199
5. An iron foundry discharges industrial waste-
water with a suspended solids concentra-
tion of 1,300 mg/ L to a cooling pond at a
rate of 45,000 GPD, six days per week. Dur-
ing mixing and spray aeration, 12 percent
of the water is lost to evaporation before
discharging to the sewer. Assuming no sol-
ids reduction or settling in the pond, calcu-
late the foundrys annual sewer-use fee
based on the following charges: SS is $200/
1,000 lbs; flow is $500/ MG.
a. $37,464
b. $36,622
c. $32,969
d. $9,828
Skill
5
Development and Evaluation
Set of Local Limits
1. The average dry weather flow (ADWF) to a
POTW is 21.15 MGD with an average influent
copper concentration of 0.08 mg/ L. Copper
in the plant effluent is non-detected at <0.01
mg/ L. The plant produces 60.3 tons of dewa-
tered sludge per day with a solids content of
19.9 percent. The copper content of the
sludge averages 504 mg/ kg on a dry weight
basis. Copper not removed with the sludge
passes through the plant. Based on this data,
what is the total plant removal efficiency for
copper?
a. 12.5 percent
b. 85.7 percent
c. 86.3 percent
d. 87.5 percent
2. Removal efficiencies for copper have been
calculated for a POTW based on nine sampling
events. The decile removal efficiencies in per-
cent removal are as follows:
69, 72, 73, 74, 75, 80, 81, 84, 85
The allowable NPDES discharge loading for
copper is 10 kg/ day. The allowable copper
loading on the biosolids for beneficial reuse
is 27 kg/ day. Using the second decile removal
for pass-through, and the median or fifth
decile removal for biosolids, calculate the
maximum allowable headworks loading
(MAHL) for copper.
a. 20 kg/ day
b. 36 kg/ day
c. 37 kg/ day
d. 40 kg/ day
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Page 34 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
3. The maximum allowable industrial load of a
pollutant at the POTW headworks is deter-
mined by:
a. subtracting the commercial loading from
the background loading.
b. subtracting the residential loading from
the MAHL.
c. subtracting the uncontrollable loading
from the MAHL.
d. Adding the commercial and residential
loading and using a safety factor.
4. The process inhibition level for cadmium in
anaerobic digesters at a POTW is 20 mg/ L.
Cadmium removal efficiency across primary
and secondary treatment is 77.22 percent. If
the average flow to the digesters is 85,900
GPD, what is the MAHL for cadmium, based
on digester inhibition.
a. 18.5 lbs/ day
b. 14.3 lbs/ day
c. 2.2 lbs/ day
d. 2.2 ppm
5. The MAHL calculated for cadmium in POTW
influent is 1.22 lbs/ day. The non-industrial
headworks loading is 0.11 lbs/ day. Total in-
dustrial influent flow is 800,000 GPD. Indus-
tries discharging cadmium contribute 52,000
GPD to the plant influent. Using a 10 percent
expansion and safety factor, calculate the lo-
cal concentration limit for cadmium for the
contributing industrial flow.
a. 0.15 mg/ L
b. 2.28 mg/ L
c. 2.56 mg/ L
d. 19.0 mg/ L
Skill
6 Safety Practices
Set
1. What is the first step toward developing an
effective contingency plan for emergencies?
a. Training programs for personnel carrying
out the plan
b. Establish a communications procedure
c. Make a vulnerability assessment
d. Coordinate with local health, police, and
fire departments
2. When a lead acid battery for a sampler is be-
ing charged, what hazardous gas is created?
a. Cyanide
b. Hydrogen
c. Hydrogen sulfide
d. Oxygen
3. When using ferrous sulfide (FeS) to precipitate
hexavalent chromium (Cr
6+
), what will happen
if the pH drops below 8?
a. Corrosion problems will develop
b. Hydrogen sulfide gas can be generated
c. The rate of precipitation will increase
d. The sludge volume will increase
4. Which one of the following items is not a ma-
jor section of the OSHA regulations?
a. Hazardous materials
b. Laboratories
c. Personal protective equipment
d. Walking-working surfaces
5. Unsafe chemical storage and handling prac-
tices include:
a. eyewash and shower stations.
b. planned control countermeasures
for spills.
c. protective clothing.
d. storing all chemicals together in a
safe room.
Page 35
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
6. A maintenance hole on a 24-inch sewer flow-
ing partially full is being continuously venti-
lated. Continuous air monitoring instruments
show that the atmosphere is safe for entry
without breathing apparatus. Is this now a
permit-required or non-permit required con-
fined space and for what reason? Assume all
required entry and traffic-control equipment
and procedures are used.
a. Non-permit required; all potential hazard-
ous conditions have been neutralized
b. Non-permit required; safe atmosphere
c. Permit required; slip, trip, fall hazard
remains
d. Permit required; engulfment hazard
remains
7. The physical/ chemical characteristics section
of a MSDS sheet does not include:
a. boiling point.
b. hazardous ingredients.
c. vapor pressure.
d. appearance and odor.
8. A white warning placard with the symbol OXY
would be placed on a tank containing which
chemical?
a. Hydrogen peroxide
b. Hydrogen sulfide
c. Hydrochloric acid
d. Sodium hydroxide
9. What is the primary responsibility of a super-
visor when reviewing the accident report form
of an injured employee?
a. Determine whether or not medical treat-
ment was needed
b. Determine what disciplinary action is
needed for the injured employee
c. Determine the causes and the steps
needed to prevent such accidents in the
future
d. Determine which personnel were respon-
sible for the accident
Skill
7 Industrial Processes and Pretreatment
Set
1. In the petroleum refining industry, what terms
are used to differentiate various types of pe-
troleum crudes based on the residues pro-
duced after simple distillation?
a. Paraffin base, asphalt, mixed base
b. Asphalt, sulfur base, mixed base
c. Light crude, heavy crude, tars
d. High sulfur, low sulfur, wax base
2. Which one of the following items is a major
characteristic of the wastes from a glass
facility?
a. BOD
b. Chromium
c. Color
d. Hardness
3. Which of the following items is a major char-
acteristic of the wastes from the manufacture
of glue?
a. Chromium
b. Phenol
c. Sulfide
d. Temperature
4. Which of the following items is a major char-
acteristic of the wastes from the manufacture
of candles?
a. Grease
b. Organic acids
c. Temperature
d. Variable pH
5. A recoverable chemical from a textile mill
waste is:
a. caustic soda.
b. soda ash.
c. sulfur dioxide.
d. sulfuric acid.
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Page 36 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
6. Industrial wastes that can be treated by bio-
logical processes include:
a. metal finishing wastes.
b. paper product wastes.
c. plating wastes.
d. pesticide wastes.
7. A captive plating facility is installing a new
cadmium plating line. To meet new source
standards, the facility has chosen to recycle
all of its cadmium plating rinsewater. The pri-
mary treatment technology that would most
likely be used to recycle the rinsewater would
be:
a. micro filtration.
b. ion exchange.
c. sulfide precipitation.
d. activated carbon adsorption.
8. Chrome plating solutions recovered by evapo-
ration recovery systems must be treated to re-
move:
a. chromic acid.
b. hexavalent chromium.
c. trivalent chromium.
d. nitric acid.
9. Electroless nickel rinse water is often recov-
ered or treated separately from other plating
waste because of the presence of:
a. organic brighteners.
b. surfactants.
c. phosphates.
d. chelators.
10. What is the water horsepower or pump out-
put for a pump that delivers a flow of 120 GPM
against a head of 40 feet?
a. 1.2 hp
b. 8.7 hp
c. 30 hp
d. 73 hp
11. A pump delivers a flow of 350 GPM against
a head of 65 feet and the electric motor draws
6 kilowatts. Calculate the overall efficiency
(wire to water) of the pump and electric motor.
a. 71 percent
b. 85 percent
c. 89 percent
d. 95 percent
12. A plating shop wishes to treat 1,200 gallons
of chrome plating waste by the reduction and
precipitation batch treatment process to re-
duce the hexavalent chromium (Cr
6+
). One mg/
L of Cr
6+
usually requires about 16 mg/ L of
sodium metabisulfite, 6 mg/ L of sulfuric acid,
and 9.5 mg/ L lime. The Cr
6+
in the waste is
300 mg/ L. If the sodium metabisulfite is fed
at a 5 percent solution at a rate of 100 gal-
lons per hour, how long should the sodium
metabisulfite feed pump operate?
a. 5 minutes
b. 23 minutes
c. 1 hour, 9 minutes
d. 1 hour, 15 minutes
13. A circular clarifier treats a flow of 1.2 MGD.
The diameter is 55 feet and the depth is 8
feet. What is the surface loading rate?
a. 278 GPD/ ft
2
b. 379 GPD/ ft
2
c. 397 GPD/ ft
2
d. 505 GPD/ ft
2
14. What is the sludge volume index (SVI) for a
mixed liquor sample from an activated sludge
tank if 70 mL of sludge settles in 30 minutes
in a 2 liter graduate? The MLSS is 2,900 mg/ L.
a. 77
b. 115
c. 125
d. 258
Page 37
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
15. Which of the following items is not an objec-
tive of equalization?
a. Allow acid and basic wastewater to mix
and neutralize each other
b. Allow continuous feeding of biological
treatment systems on weekends and
other periods when there is no industrial
waste generation
c. Provide for reduction of high concentra-
tions of toxic substances from batch
dumps
d. Provide opportunity for solids to settle out
16. A company uses lime to neutralize their sulfu-
ric acid wastes. The molecular weight of lime,
CaO, is 56.08. If the company has a 50,000
GPD flow, uses 85 percent slurry of lime for
neutralization, and the initial pH is 1.5, how
many gallons of 85 percent lime slurry will the
company use each day?
a. 52 GPD
b. 56 GPD
c. 104 GPD
d. 145 GPD
17. A batch of industrial wastewater must be neu-
tralized before additional treatment. In the
laboratory, a 50 mL sample requires 5.8 mL
of a 0.5 N sulfuric acid to lower the pH to 7.0.
How many gallons of 2 N sulfuric acid will be
required to neutralize 5,000 gallons of the
wastewater to a pH of 7.0?
a. 125 gallons
b. 145 gallons
c. 150 gallons
d. 290 gallons
18. Chrome plating waste is treated in a continu-
ous flow process at a rate of 5.0 GPM to re-
duce hexavalent chromium to the trivalent
state. One mg/ L of hexavalent chromium re-
quires 16 mg/ L of ferrous sulfate for reduc-
tion. The hexavalent chromium concentration
in the waste entering the mixing tank is 320
mg/ L. If the ferrous sulfate is fed as a 4.0
percent solution, what should be the feed rate
on the ferrous sulfate pump?
a. 5.3 GPM
b. 110 GPD
c. 921 GPD
d. 7,680 GPD
19. The disadvantages of the ion exchange pro-
cess include:
a. inability to treat most metals.
b. poor efficiency at recovering plating met-
als.
c. provides an ineffective source of deminer-
alized water.
d. resins are susceptible to fouling by cya-
nide complexes.
20. Electrodialysis is used to treat wastewater
from:
a. canneries.
b. oil refineries.
c. pickle liquor processes.
d. pulp mills.
21. A circular clarifier treats a flow at 1.2 MGD
with an influent suspended solids concentra-
tion of 300 mg/ L. The diameter is 55 feet, the
depth is 8 feet, and the effluent suspended
solids is 90 mg/ L. What is the clarifier effi-
ciency in removing suspended solids?
a. 23 percent
b. 63 percent
c. 65 percent
d. 70 percent
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Page 38 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
22. An advantage of anaerobic filters as applied
to the processing of fruit and vegetable waste-
water is that they can be used effectively:
a. as soon as the biological culture can be
built up.
b. on an intermittent basis.
c. on low BOD wastes.
d. on wastes from crops treated with
pesticides.
23. Determine the suspended solids loading on a
dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit if the flow is
1.2 MGD and the influent suspended solids
are 1,400 mg/ L.
a. 1,700 lbs/ day
b. 11,200 lbs/ day
c. 12,600 lbs/ day
d. 14,000 lbs/ day
24. Activated carbon is regenerated by the use
of a:
a. brine backwash.
b. high pressure water backwash.
c. multiple-hearth furnace.
d. sulfuric acid rinse.
25. Which of the following is not a pollution pre-
vention or source control measure in the dairy
processing industry?
a. Install monitoring systems on clean-in-
place (CIP) process
b. Air blow milk lines to silo
c. Use anaerobic/ aerobic treatment sludge
as compost
d. Review cleaning chemicals and look for
alternatives to reduce environmental
impact
Skill
8 Management and Supervision Principles
Set
1. An organization chart for a utility can be help-
ful for several reasons. Which of the following
is the least valid objective of an organization
chart?
a. To establish proper chain-of-command
authority
b. To help develop a budget
c. To help in making up project schedules
d. To help in preparing for emergencies
2. The span of supervision is the:
a. average length of time required to be in
the organization before making supervi-
sor.
b. number of levels between the lowest em-
ployee and the boss.
c. number of subordinates for each manager.
d. number of supervisors in an organization.
3. If an organizations departments are orga-
nized by jobs to be done, this is known as
departmentation by:
a. customer.
b. function.
c. product.
d. territory.
4. An information management system helps
utility managers make decisions by:
a. collecting, analyzing, exchanging, storing,
and delivering information.
b. collecting, analyzing, exchanging, delet-
ing, and delivering information.
c. dispersing, analyzing, exchanging, delet-
ing, and delivering information.
d. collecting, exchanging, deleting, and de-
livering information.
Page 39
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
5. Annual inspections for 40 industrial users
must be completed within five days. Two in-
spectors are available for this task. Inspector
A averages six inspections in an eight-hour
day. Inspector B averages four inspections per
eight-hour day. If the labor rate for inspector
A is $55/ hour and the rate for inspector B is
$38/ hour, which of the following inspection
schedules would be the most economical?
Assume no overtime.
a. Work inspector A full-time and inspector
B half-time
b. Work inspector A half-time and inspector
B full-time
c. Work inspectors A and B full-time
d. Work inspectors A and B half-time
6. Performance appraisal forms:
a. should not be discussed with the em-
ployee.
b. make the employee evaluation process
consistent.
c. should not contain a rating scale.
d. must be limited to three judging factors.
7. What does the term paper screening mean?
a. Additional analysis of qualified applicants
b. Elimination of applicants not qualified for
the job
c. Filing of unsuccessful applicants paper-
work for future job openings
d. Review of research papers submitted by
a job applicant
8. Which one of the following questions is an
acceptable interview question?
a. What is your religious affiliation?
b. What is the nationality of your parents or
spouse?
c. What is your age?
d. What is your technical background?
9. What is the best approach to solve a discipline
problem?
a. Accept the employees solution to the
problem
b. Form a committee of peers to make a rec-
ommendation
c. State the problem and order a solution
d. State the problem and ask employee to
suggest a solution
10. Behavior that is considered sexual harass-
ment is behavior of a sexual nature that is:
a. invited, annoying, offensive, humiliating,
and hostile.
b. non-hostile, invited, annoying, offensive,
and humiliating.
c. uninvited, hostile, annoying, offensive,
and humiliating.
d. uninvited, hostile, annoying, defensive,
and non-humiliating.
11. Why is written communication more demand-
ing than oral communication?
a. Ideas must be expressed clearly
b. Important information may be missed
c. The need to use highly technical terms
d. No chance to clarify and explain ideas in
response to audience
12. What must a manager have to prepare an
annual budget?
a. Sufficient revenues
b. Good records from the previous year
c. Budget surplus
d. Good public relations
13. Getting the facts is the first step in what part
of the process?
a. Development of alternatives
b. Problem analysis
c. Problem definition
d. Selection of alternatives
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Page 40 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
14. Flow monitoring is conducted quarterly at five
locations within a sewer collection system
using portable flow meters. All five locations
are monitored simultaneously, with all flow
meters set up on the first day and taken down
on the last day of each monitoring period. A
field crew, with a combined labor rate of $250
per hour, spends 2.5 hours set-up and 2.5
hours take down time at each site. The crew
is paid time and a half after the first eight
hours per day. Data reduction for each event
takes four hours office labor per site at $60
per hour.
The control authority is considering the pur-
chase of new, more efficient flow meters that
will reduce set-up and take down time by one
hour each at each site. Data reduction time
will be reduced by one hour per site. Calcu-
late the simple payback, in years, on the new
meters at a capital cost of $5,000 each.
a. 2.23 years
b. 1.72 years
c. 1.59 years
d. 1.08 years
Test Answer Key
Skill
1 Regulations and Permitting
Set
No. Answer Skill Set
1 d 1.1
2 a 1.1
3 c 1.1
4 b 1.1
5 d 1.2
6 c 1.2
7 c 1.3
Skill
2
Environmental Monitoring
Set and Sampling Techniques
No. Answer Skill Set
1 d 2.1
2 b 2.2
3 c 2.3
4 d 2.3
5 a 2.4
6 c 2.5
7 b 2.5
Skill
3
Wastewater Collection, Treatment,
Set and Disposal Control
No. Answer Skill Set
1 a 3.1
2 b 3.2
3 c 3.3
4 b 3.2
Skill
4
Funding of POTW
Set and Pretreatment Programs
No. Answer Skill Set
1 a 4.0
2 c 4.0
3 d 4.0
4 c 4.0
5 b 4.0
Skill
5
Development and Evaluation
Set of Local Limits
No. Answer Skill Set
1 b 5.0
2 b 5.0
3 c 5.0
4 a 5.0
5 b 5.0
Page 41
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Skill
6 Safety Practices
Set
No. Answer Skill Set
1 c 6.1
2 b 6.2
3 b 6.1
4 b 6.3
5 d 6.3
6 d 6.1
7 b 6.3
8 a 6.3
9 c 6.4
Skill
7 Industrial Processes and Pretreatment
Set
No. Answer Skill Set
1 a 7.1
2 c 7.1
3 a 7.1
4 b 7.1
5 a 7.1
6 b 7.2
7 b 7.2
8 c 7.2
9 d 7.3
10 a 7.2
11 a 7.2
12 c 7.2
13 d 7.2
14 c 7.2
15 d 7.2
16 a 7.2
17 b 7.2
18 c 7.2
19 d 7.3
20 c 7.3
21 d 7.2
22 b 7.2
23 d 7.2
24 c 7.2
25 c 7.3
Skill
8 Management and Supervision Principles
Set
No. Answer Skill Set
1 d 8.1
2 c 8.2
3 b 8.1
4 a 8.4
5 a 8.4
6 b 8.2
7 b 8.2
8 d 8.2
9 d 8.2
10 c 8.2
11 d 8.3
12 b 8.4
13 c 8.4
14 c 8.4
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Page 42 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Selected Problem Solutions
Skill
1 Regulations and Permitting
Set
2. Calculate the alternative concentration limit
for nickel (Ni) for a captive electroplater that
discharges to the local POTW. This facility com-
bines 80,000 gallons per day of plating waste-
water with 20,000 gallons per day of
noncontact cooling water. Captive shops are
subject to pretreatment standards for the
metal finishing category. The categorical pre-
treatment standard for nickel is 3.98 mg/ L.
Use combined wastestream formula (CWF):
Cm =
[(Cr)(Fr)]
x
Fr - Fd
Fr Ft
Where:
Cm =alternative concentration limit in mg/ L
Cr =categorical pretreatment standard con-
centration limit in the regulated stream
Fr =regulated stream flow (min. 30-day avg.)
Fd =dilution flow
Ft =total flow at CWF monitoring point
Cm =
[(3.98 mg/ L) (80,000 GPD)]
x
80,000 GPD
100,000 GPD - 20,000 GPD
=3.18 mg/ L
100,000 GPD
3. A facility manufacturing aluminum tanks
forms the parts by forging metal into the ap-
propriate shape. After forging, the formed
parts are welded. To prepare the parts for
welding, they are cleaned and rinsed. The
wastewaters generated are treated in a com-
bined treatment facility to comply with the
standards of the Aluminum Forming Point
Source Category (40 CFR 467). In addition,
wastewaters from a parts washer on a paint
line are treated in the combined treatment fa-
cility. Daily wastewater flow rates through the
combined treatment facility are as follows:
Regulated Wastestreams
Cleaning bath =900 gallons per day
Cleaning rinse =2,700 gallons per day
Unregulated Wastestream
Parts washer =1,400 gallons per day
The applicable zinc limits from 40 CFR 467
are as follows:
Maximum for Any One Day
Cleaning or etching bath =0.26 mg/ off-kg
(lb/ million off-lbs)
Cleaning or etching rinse =2.03 mg/ off-kg
(lb/ million off-lbs)
Calculate the alternative mass limit for zinc
in the combined wastestream.
Use the alternate mass limit formula:
Mt =Sum of Mi x
(Ft Fd)
, Fd =0
Where:
Sum of Fi
Mt =production-based alternative mass limit
Mi =production-based categorical pretreat-
ment standard for the pollutant in the regu-
lated stream
Fi =regulated stream flow (min. 30-day avg.)
Fd =dilution flow
Ft =total flow at monitoring point
Sum of Mi =0.26 +2.03 =2.29 mg/ off-kg
Ft =900 +2,700 +1,400* =5,000 GPD
*Parts washer flow is unregulated, not dilu-
tion, and is added to the regulated flow.
Sum of Fi =900 +2,700 =3,600 GPD
Mt =2.29 mg/ off-kg x
(5,000 0) GPD
3,600 GPD
=3.18 mg/ off-kg
Page 43
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
7. An industry regulated under the metal finish-
ing pretreatment standards for existing
sources (PSES) cannot consistently meet its
discharge limits for nickel. Bi-monthly sample
results in mg/ L for the last six months are
given as follows:
2.05 2.19
2.53 3.58
4.01 2.75
4.85 2.87
2.45 2.23
1.97 1.99
PSES nickel limits are:
Daily maximum: 3.98 mg/ L
Monthly average: 2.38 mg/ L
Determine whether or not the industrial user
is in significant noncompliance (SNC) for
this period, and the type and percentage of
violations.
Chronic SNC: 66 percent or more of results >
maximum, daily or average limit.
Results >maximum or average limits =7
Percent of violations =
7
(100) =58 percent
12
Therefore, no chronic violations.
TRC SNC: 33 percent or more of results >TRC
TRC =1.2 x average or maximum daily limit
TRC =1.2 x 2.38 mg/ L =2.86 mg/ L
Number of results >2.86 mg/ L =4
Percent of violations =
4
(100) =33 percent
12
Therefore, discharger is in SNC due to TRC vio-
lations over six months.
Skill
3
Wastewater Collection, Treatment,
Set and Disposal Control
2. A plating company has a total chromium level
of 25 mg/ L in a discharge of 40,000 GPD to a
sewer. The downstream POTW has a total flow
of 45 MGD and 45 percent of the chromium
is removed by the treatment processes. What
would be the expected concentration of chro-
mium in the POTWs effluent in milligrams per
liter? Assume no other sources of chromium
flowing into the POTW.
Mass =flow x concentration x 8.34
where mass is in lbs/ day, flow is in MGD, and
concentration is in mg/ L.
Rearranging to solve for the unknown:
Concentration =
mass
x 8.34
flow
Effluent Load =Influent Load x
100 - RE
100
where RE =plant removal efficiency expressed
as a percentage.
Flow must be converted to MGD.
40,000 gal
x
MG
=0.04 MGD
day 1,000,000 gal
Influent Load
=0.04 MGD x 25 mg/ L x 8.34 lbs/ gal
=8.34 lbs/ day
Effluent Load
=8.34 lbs/ day x
100%- 45%
100%
=4.587 lbs/ day
Effluent Concentration
=
4.587 lbs
x
day
x
gal

day 45 MG 8.34 lbs


=0.0122 mg/ L
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Page 44 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
4. A pickle packaging plant discharges a sodium
chloride brine waste amounting to 10,000
pounds of salt per seven-day work week. If the
POTW has a flow at the headworks of 30 MGD
containing 100 mg/ L of sodium, what percent-
age of the sodium is from the pickle company?
The molecular weight of sodium chloride is
58.44 and sodium is 22.99.
POTW Na Load
=30 MGD x 100 mg/ L x 8.34 lbs/ gal
=25,020 lbs/ day
Pickle Company Na Load
=
10,000 NaCl
x
week
x
22.99 M.W. Na

week 7 days 58.44 M.W. NaCl


=562 lbs/ day
Percent Na load from pickle company
=
562 lbs
x 100 =2.25 percent
25,020 lbs
Skill
4
Funding of POTW
Set and Pretreatment Programs
3. A company using 20,000 gallons of water per
day claims the following water losses: evapo-
rative at 15.0 percent; landscaping at 10.0
percent; and other at 5.0 percent. The com-
pany operates 312 days per year and has an
average discharge of BOD of 650 mg/ L and
suspended solids of 800 mg/ L. The company
is subject to the following sewer-use fees: BOD
is $150/ 1,000 lbs; SS: is $300/ 1,000 lbs;
flow is $500/ MG.
What is the companys annual sewer-use fee?
Sum the losses:
15.0%+10.0%+5.0%=30%
Annual Sewer Flow
=
100%- 30%
x 20,000 gal x 312 days/ year
100%
=4,368,000 gal
Convert to MG:
=4,368,000 gal x
MG
=4.368 MG
1,000,000 gal
Annual BOD and SS load to sewer:
BOD
=4.368 MG x
650 mg
x
8.34 lbs
x
K-lb

L gal 1,000 lbs


=23.679 K-lbs
SS
=4.386 MG x
800 mg
x
8.34 lbs
x
K-lb

L gal 1,000 lbs


=29.143 K-lbs
Calculate and sum the annual fees:
Flow =4.368 MG x $500/ MG =$2,184
BOD =23.679 K-lbs x $150/ K-lb =$3,552
SS =29.143 K-lbs x $300/ K-lb =$8,743
$2,184 +$3,552 +$8,743 =$14,479
Page 45
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
5. An iron foundry discharges industrial waste-
water with a suspended solids concentra-
tion of 1,300 mg/ L to a cooling pond at a
rate of 45,000 GPD, six days per week. Dur-
ing mixing and spray aeration, 12 percent
of the water is lost to evaporation before
discharging to the sewer. Assuming no sol-
ids reduction or settling in the pond, calcu-
late the foundrys annual sewer-use fee
based on the following charges: SS is $200/
1,000 lbs; flow is $500/ MG.
The flow to the sewer is reduced by evapo-
ration. The suspended solids load is not re-
duced.
Convert flow to MGD:
45,000 gal
x
MG
=0.045 MGD
day 1,000,000 gal
Annual water use
=
0.045 MG
x
6 days
x
52weeks
=14.04 MG
day week year
Annual flow to sewer
=
100%- 12%
x 14.04 MG =12.355 MG
100%
Annual SS load to sewer
=14.04 MG x
1,300 mg
x
8.34 lbs
x
K-lb

L gal 1,000 lbs


=152.22 K-lbs
Calculate and sum annual fees:
Flow =12.355 x $500/ MG =$6,178
SS=152.22 K-lbs x $200/ K-lb =$30,444
$6,178 +$30,444 =$36,622
Skill
5
Development and Evaluation
Set of Local Limits
1. The average dry weather flow (ADWF) to a
POTW is 21.15 MGD with an average influent
copper concentration of 0.08 mg/ L. Copper
in the plant effluent is non-detected at <0.01
mg/ L. The plant produces 60.3 tons of dewa-
tered sludge per day with a solids content of
19.9 percent. The copper content of the
sludge averages 504 mg/ kg on a dry weight
basis. Copper not removed with the sludge
passes through the plant. Based on this data,
what is the total plant removal efficiency for
copper?
Calculate the copper load at the influent or
headworks:
Cu Influent Load
=21.15 MGD x 0.08 mg/ L x 8.34 lbs/ day
=14.1113 lbs/ day
Calculate the copper load to the sludge:
Convert tons to M-lbs
60.3 tons x
2,000 lbs
x
M-lb

ton 1,000,000
=0.1206 M-lbs
Cu Sludge Load
=
0.1206 M-lbs
x
504 lbs
x
19.9%
day M-lb 100%
=12.0957 lbs/ day
Note: The effluent load can also be used to
calculate removal efficiency, but in this case,
it cannot be calculated directly because
sample results were non-detected.
RE percentage =
Mass removed
x 100
Mass influent
=
12.0957 lbs/ day
x 100 =85.7%
14.1113 lbs/ day
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Page 46 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
5. The MAHL calculated for cadmium in POTW
influent is 1.22 lbs/ day. The non-industrial
headworks loading is 0.11 lbs/ day. Total in-
dustrial influent flow is 800,000 GPD. Indus-
tries discharging cadmium contribute 52,000
GPD to the plant influent. Using a 10 percent
expansion and safety factor, calculate the lo-
cal concentration limit for cadmium for the
contributing industrial flow.
MAHL with safety factor:
MAHLSF =1.22 lbs/ day -
1.22 lbs/ day 10%
100%
MAHLSF =1.098 lbs/ day
Maximum Allowable Industrial Load (MAIL):
MAIL =MAHLSF - Uncontrollable Load
MAIL =1.098 lbs/ day - 0.11 lbs/ day
MAIL =0.988 lbs/ day
Local Limit in mg/ L
=
MAIL

Contributory Flow x 8.34 lbs/ day


=
0.988 lbs/ day
x
1,000,000 gal
52,000 GPD x 8.34 lbs/ gal MG
=2.28 mg/ L
Skill
7 Industrial Processes and Pretreatment
Set
11. A pump delivers a flow of 350 GPM against
a head of 65 feet and the electric motor draws
6 kilowatts. Calculate the overall efficiency
(wire to water) of the pump and electric motor.
Use the following formula for water horse-
power or output:
Water hp =
QH

3,960
where Q =flow in GPM and H =discharge pres-
sure or head in feet of water.
Water hp =
350 GPM x 65 ft
=5.74 hp
3,960
Convert horsepower to kilowatts (kw):
kw =5.74 hp x
0.7457 kw
=4.28 kw
hp
Efficiency percentage
=
4.28 kw
x 100 =71 percent
6.00 kw
16. A company uses lime to neutralize their sulfu-
ric acid wastes. The molecular weight of lime,
CaO, is 56.08. If the company has a 50,000
GPD flow, uses 85 percent slurry of lime for
neutralization, and the initial pH is 1.5, how
many gallons of 85 percent lime slurry will the
company use each day?
Write the chemical reaction:
H2SO4 +CaO > CaSO4 +H2O
A pH of 1.5 has a hydrogen ion concentration
of 10
1.5
moles H
+
per liter or 0.0316 moles H
+
per liter.
First, calculate the moles of hydrogen ion to
be neutralized.
H
+
=Flow x Concentration, where H
+
is in
moles/ day, Flow is in L/ day, and Concentra-
tion is in moles/ L.
H
+
=
50,000 gal
x
3.785 L
x
0.0316 moles
day gal L
=5,985 moles H
+
/ day
Next, determine the weight of lime required.
From the chemical reaction, one mole of lime
is required for every two moles of acid.
Lime gm
=
5,985 moles H
+
x
56.08 gm
x
mole CaO
day mole Cao 2 moles H
+
=167,819 gm CaO/ day
An 85 percent lime solution contains 850
grams of lime per liter.
85%Lime
=
167,819 gm CaO
x
L
x
gal

day 850 gm CaO 3.785 L


=52 gal/ day
Page 47
Section 5: Diagnostic Test
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
18. Chrome plating waste is treated in a continu-
ous flow process at a rate of 5.0 GPM to re-
duce hexavalent chromium to the trivalent
state. One mg/ L of hexavalent chromium re-
quires 16 mg/ L of ferrous sulfate for reduc-
tion. The hexavalent chromium concentration
in the waste entering the mixing tank is 320
mg/ L. If the ferrous sulfate is fed as a 4.0
percent solution, what should be the feed rate
on the ferrous sulfate pump?
Dosage =
16 FeSO4
1 Cr
+6
Calculate pounds of hexavalent chromium to
be treated:
Flow =
5.0 gal
x
1,440 min
x
MG

min day 1,000,000 gal


Flow =0.0072 MGD
Mass =Flow x Concentration x 8.34
Mass =0.0072 MG x 320 mg/ L x 8.34
Mass =19.2 lbs/ day
Calculate pounds of ferrous sulfate needed
to treat the chromium:
FeSO4 =
19.2 lbs Cr
+6

x
16 lbs FeSO4
day lb Cr
+6
FeSO4 =307.2 lbs/ day
Feed rate of 4.0 percent ferrous sulfate so-
lution:
Q =
307.2 lbs
x
gal
x
100%
=921 gal/ day
day 8.34 lbs 4%
Skill
8 Management and Supervision Principles
Set
14. Flow monitoring is conducted quarterly at five
locations within a sewer collection system
using portable flow meters. All five locations
are monitored simultaneously, with all flow
meters set up on the first day and taken down
on the last day of each monitoring period. A
field crew, with a combined labor rate of $250
per hour, spends 2.5 hours set-up and 2.5
hours take down time at each site. The crew
is paid time and a half after the first eight
hours per day. Data reduction for each event
takes four hours office labor per site at $60
per hour.
The control authority is considering the pur-
chase of new, more efficient flow meters that
will reduce set-up and take down time by one
hour each at each site. Data reduction time
will be reduced by one hour per site. Calcu-
late the simple payback, in years, on the new
meters at a capital cost of $5,000 each.
Calculate existing labor costs:
Annual Regular Field Labor
=
$250
x
2.50 hrs
x
5 sites
x
2 days
x
4 events
hr site day event year
=$25,000
Annual Overtime Labor
=
$250
x
4.50 hrs
x
2 days
x
4 events
=$4,500
2 day event year
Annual Office Labor
=
$60
x
4 hrs
x
5 sites
x
4 events
=$4,800
hr site event year
Total existing labor cost/ year
=$25,000 +$4,500 +$4,800 =$34,300
Calculate labor costs using new meters:
Annual Field Labor
=
$250
x
1.5 hrs
x
5 sites
x
2 days
x
4 events
hr site day event yr
=$15,000
Annual Office Labor
=
$60
x
3 hrs
x
5 sites
x
4 events
=$3,600
hr site event yr
Total revised labor cost/ year
=$15,000 +$3,600 =$18,600
Annual labor savings
=$34,300/ yr - $18,600/ yr
=$15,700/ yr
Capital cost of meters =5 x $5,000 =$25,000
Simple payback in years =
Capital Cost

Annual Savings
=
$25,000
=1.59 yrs
$15,700/ yr
Page 49
S e c t i o n 6
References
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
This section provides titles and information on
primary and secondary references found useful
in obtaining Grade III Environmental Compliance
Inspector certification. Because primary refer-
ences contain most of the information needed for
the certification test, it is recommended that can-
didates obtain access to them for personal use.
Many of these publications may be reviewed and
purchased on-line from their publishers or from
electronic book retailers. Others may be found
in a wastewater treatment plant library or in a
college or university library. In addition, see the
CWEA Certification Resource Links page at
www.cwea.org/ tcp/ resources for links to re-
sources available on-line and any updates or
changes to the information and URLs listed below.
Primary References
40 CFR (CFR Title 40: Protection of
the Environment)
Available on-line at:
www.epa.gov/ epahome/ cfr40.htm
Developing Source Control Programs for Com-
mercial and Industrial Wastewater MOP OM-4
Order No: MM2004WW
Pub Date: 1996
Water Environment Federation
601 Wythe Street
Alexandria, VA 22314-1994
800-666-0206
www.wef.org
Pretreatment Facility Inspection: A Field Study
Training Program, 3rd Edition, 1996
Industrial Waste Treatment, Volumes I and II,
2nd Edition, 1994
Utility Management, 1st Edition, 1998
Office of Water Programs
California State University, Sacramento (CSUS)
6000 J Street
Sacramento, CA 95819-6025
916-278-6142
www.owp.csus.edu
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water
and Wastewater
Water Environment Federation
601 Wythe Street
Alexandria, VA 22314-1994
800-666-0206
www.wef.org
Guidance Manual on the Development and
Implementation of Local Discharge Limitations
Under the Pretreatment Program
NTIS Order No: PB92129188
Pub Date: December 1987
Office of Water
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
800-553-6847
www.ntis.gov
OSHA Regulations (Standards 29 CFR)
Available on-line at:
www.osha-slc.gov/OshStd_toc/OSHA_Std_toc.html
Available in print or on CD from:
Government Institutes, Inc.
4 Research Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20850
301-921-2300
www.govinst.com
Section 6: References
Page 50 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Secondary References
The information contained in the Primary Refer-
ences listed above provides a solid base of knowl-
edge for the Inspector. The additional sources of
information listed below may also be helpful for
candidates seeking to broaden or refresh their
knowledge in specific areas.
Industrial User Inspection and Sampling Manual
for POTWs
NTIS Order No: PB96-502646
April 1994
Office of Water (4202)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
888/ 584-8332
www.ntis.gov
Industrial User Permitting Guidance Manual
NTIS Order No: PB92123017
Pub Date: September 1989
Office of Water (EN-336)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
800-553-6847 (Call to Order)
www.ntis.gov
Pretreatment of Industrial Wastes MOP FD-3
Order No: MF2003WW
Pub Date: 1994
Safety and Health in Wastewater Systems MOP 1
Order No: M02001WW
Pub Date: 1994
W astewater Sampling for Process and Quality
Control MOP OM-1
Order No: MF2010WW
Pub Date: 1996
Water Environment Federation
601 Wythe Street
Alexandria, VA 22314-1994
800-666-0206
www.wef.org
Effective Supervisory Practices: Better Results
Through Teamwork
ICMA Order No: 41032
ICM International
City/ Council Management Association
800/ 745-8780
www.icma.org
Basic Math Concepts for Water and Wastewater
Plant Operators, 2nd Edition
Joanne Kirkpatrick Price
ISBN 0877628084
CRC Press
800-272-7737
www.crcpress.com
Page 51
A p p e n d i x A
You and Wastewater Math
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Example math problems found in Appendix A
are representative of general wastewater math
and are designed to illustrate a math prob-
lem solving strategy, not specific math skills.
Examples given in this appendix may not be
like the problems given on the test for your
discipline. However, the problems are typical
of types of problems you may encounter, in-
cluding, but not limited to, basic algebra (solv-
ing one equation for one unknown), story prob-
lems, and plane and solid geometry (area and
volume problems). For specific kinds of math
skills and problems you may encounter on the
certification test, please review Sections 3, 4,
and 5 of this study guide.
Introduction
Now is the time for you to begin preparation for
the math portion of your technical certification
exam. This Appendix provides suggestions to take
charge of:
Your math skills
Your attitudes toward math
Your test-taking skills
By doing this, you can improve your performance
in successfully completing the math questions on
the certification exam.
Two Facts to Consider
First, since early childhood, you have used math
mostly without giving it a second thought. Know-
ing your age, counting, comparing sizes and
shapes, adding your money, and subtracting to
get change are math skills.
You drive the streets judging distances, speeds,
and times. You estimate if you can afford a vaca-
tion or a car and when you can retire. You com-
pare volumes and areas as you build and do jobs
around the work site. You even measure volume
in putting toothpaste on your toothbrush. You use
statistics as you watch sports and consider things
like RBIs in baseball or field goal percentages in
basketball. All of these are mathematical skills
many people take for granted.
Second, if you think math is hard, please know
that math becomes hard for everyone at some
point. You are not alone. There are math problems
that have been unsolved for hundreds of years
even though they have been attempted by com-
petent, well-informed mathematicians who may
work at them for decades. Those are not the prob-
lems you need to work unless you are curious.
When you work at your appropriate level, you find
a combination of easy ideas and hard ideas.
You may get discouraged comparing your speed
and understanding in math with others. Those
people who appear to do math easily have, most
likely, done those specific problems, or ones like
them, many, many times.
You will want to study and progress at your grow-
ing edgethe skill level where you have a bit of
discomfort with new material, but where you are
not totally overwhelmed. You can expect chal-
lenges that trouble you, but that can be overcome.
Instead of saying I cannot do math, decide now
to begin learning enough math to make work and
test-taking easier.
Move Beyond the Math You Know
To move beyond your routine skill level in math,
consider the following points:
You Have Skills.
You already have many math skills and can build
on that base. It is best and easiest to build on
what you already know.
Basics are Important.
Going back over the basics of what you know will
build confidence and help you progress and
add new math skills to your ability to solve math
problems.
by Cheryl Ooten, Mathematics Professor, Santa Ana College, Ooten_Cheryl@rsccd.org
Appendix A: You and Wastewater Math
Page 52 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Math Progresses Logically.
There are many different areas of math and
each builds on itself as well as on the others. If
you cannot do a particular problem, it may be
because you have missed something basic to
that one area along the way. Working your way
up slowly and cumulatively in math is the fast-
est way to gain skills.
Words Count.
Each and every word and symbol in math means
something. You need to find out those meanings
and then practice them. If you do not know what
mgd or psi means, or which units measure
flow, it is harder to do problems involving them.
It can seem like a foreign language.
Brains are Unique.
Each individual brain is wired differently, causing
each person to think and learn differently. The
more you know about the way you as a specific
individual learn, the more you will permit yourself
to do what it takes to learn math. Some people
need to do many written repetitions. Some need
to walk or move around as they do math. Some
need to talk out loud. Others need to draw pic-
tures. Some need to work problems with other
people. Some need to use words and some need
to use symbols. In order to focus on how to move
forward, think about what works for you or where
learning has been difficult for you.
If you are an independent learner, you might find
a basic math book at your library to work through
on your own. You may be able to study with your
own children to learn some math together or with
your friends and colleagues. You may have an old
math book you used a long time ago that could
be helpful, and you may come to remember what
you learned from it.
Assessment Helps. .. ..
Assess your skill level honestly. Math placement
tests are available at your local college and
through private educational agencies to help you
determine where your skills are and where you can
best get help to make comfortable progress.
You are Not Alone.
No one promises that math will always be easy or
interesting for you. For most people, working on
math is a challenge. Persevering and pushing per-
sonal limits allows you to experience the satisfac-
tion of success.
Get help when you get discouraged or experience
confusion. Remember this is just a momentary prob-
lem in a sequence of ideas that you are confront-
ing. Do not buy into the myth that you have to do
math alone. Do not believe it is demeaning for
you to admit you do not understand. You can have
fun if you lighten up as you progress. Working with
others is an outstanding way to improve math skills.
Questions are Essential.
Make a list of people with whom you feel comfort-
able discussing your math questions. They may
be your colleagues, teachers, fellow students,
friends, or family memberseven your children.
Do not ask just anybody; pick people who are help-
ful and positive or non-judgmental about your
questions.
Mistakes Happen.
Expect mistakes up front. As you learn anything
new, you will make errors. Do not blame your mis-
takes on math itself! In any new endeavor you
need to allow yourself to crawl before you can walk.
Successful people in all fields know this. Trial and
error is the basis of all learning.
You can learn more from your mistakes than from
repeated successes. Making errors gives you feed-
back by showing you what you do not understand.
Learn to value and accept those errors and use
them to find out what areas of your learning need
more work. Correct them and then move on with
new knowledge.
Learning Math is Not a Competitive Game.
Physicist Albert Einstein, politician Winston
Churchill, and inventor Thomas Edison were all
considered slow in school. Musical composer
Ludwig Van Beethoven and scientist Louis Pas-
teur probably had learning disabilities. What all
five certainly had was determination and patience
to persevere. Only compete with yourself, push-
ing yourself forward, in learning math.
There is Hope for Those with Learning Disabilities.
If you really have a hard time learning, you might
ask your local college or a private learning
specialist to assess you for a learning disability.
Many colleges and universities do free testing and
training for their students. You can also purchase
this kind of assistance from private consultants.
Much is now known about learning disabilities and
how to help people who have them. Learning
Page 53
Appendix A: You and Wastewater Math
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
disabilities often become just learning differences
as students learn to honor and use their own think-
ing and learning styles.
Math Success and Test-Taking Success are Not
the Same.
Many math students understand and can work
math problems, but have difficulty in test-taking
situations. It is possible to know math and still
fail exams. These people may find Section 4, Test
Preparation very helpful. Conscious practice of
both math skills and test-taking skills can make a
big difference in your score.
Resources are Available.
Resources exist for all types of math. You will need
to decide whether you will work on your math skills
independently or with the help of some structure
such as a math course or a tutor. Different strate-
gies may work better at different stages in your
progress.
Your local community college has inexpensive
math courses. Some colleges even have math
courses specifically for water and wastewater pro-
fessionals. Professional organizations sponsor
training conferences and seminars which include
math courses specific to the field. Many agencies
can provide in-house training and many agencies
will provide individual help with all aspects of
test taking.
Community Colleges
Community colleges offer several types of
services including:
Math Placement Testing
Math Courses
Water Utility Science Courses
Math Anxiety Reduction Courses
Testing and Training for those with Learn-
ing Disabilities
Professional Organizations
Organizations such as the California Water En-
vironment Association (CWEA), American Water
Works Association, and American Public Works
Association also provide opportunities to prac-
tice your math skills and network with others:
Technical Certification Training Classes
and Annual Conferences
CWEA Study Guides
At Work
Ask for help and suggestions from others who
have taken math courses or are skilled in the
work area similar to the one you are trying to
prepare or improve. Ask your supervisor for
advice on how to prepare and how much time
on the job you can have to prepare. Ask your
supervisor to provide training classes for the
areas that you are wanting to improve. Ask
those managing other departments, agencies,
or local professional organizations for help in
getting the training you need.
Materials
Any basic math book or instructional manual
that you can beg, borrow, or buy, including:
Courses from Ken Kerri, Office of Water
Programs, California State University,
Sacramento, 6000 J Street, Sacra-
mento, CA 95819
Price, J oanne Kirkpatrick. Basic Math
Concepts for Water and Wastewater
Plant Operators, 2nd Edition. Lancaster,
Pennsylvania: Technomic, 1991; cur-
rently CRC Press LLC.
Smith, Richard Manning. Mastering
Mathematics: How to Be a Great Math
Student, 3rd Ed. Pacific Grove, CA:
Brooks/ Cole, 1998.
Zaslavsky, Claudia. Fear of Math. New
Brunswick, NJ : Rutger University Press,
1994.
Practice Problem Solving
Strategies
Wastewater math deals with only a handful of
basic types of problems that involve moving liq-
uids and semi-solids from place to place, and
manipulating, storing, and treating these sub-
stances along the way.
So basically, understanding area, volume, slope,
rates, concentrations, costs, and time elements
that occur in wastewater treatment 24 hours per
day, 365 days per year, pretty much covers what
you need to know.
Units and Arithmetic
All wastewater math problems can be solved by
simple arithmeticadding, subtracting, multiply-
ing, and dividing. You can become proficient with
Appendix A: You and Wastewater Math
Page 54 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
wastewater math by paying careful attention to
the units in the problems as you write down your
strategies, and then using a calculator to do the
needed arithmetic.
Units
Units such as cubic feet, gallons, gpm, and
mgd are important in wastewater math prob-
lems. Paying attention to the units will tell you
whether to multiply or divide. Also, the units
will often help you know what numbers to
multiply or divide.
Notice in each example that doing math op-
erations on the units produces the correct
units in the answer. Many people do the math
on the units first to figure out the correct pro-
cedure before they ever do the math on the
numbers.
Multiplying
Multiplying is important. There are several
symbols for multiplication. They are , x, and
()().
For example,
2 3 =2 x 3 =(2)(3) =6
Dividing
Dividing is important to wastewater math be-
cause units often used such as MGD, cfs,
ppm, GPM, psi, mg/ L, GPD/ sq ft, and %are
really division problems.
Per stands for divided by.
MGD =
million gallons
day
cfs =
cubic feet
second
ppm =
parts

million
GPM =
gallons
minute
psi =
pounds
square inch
mg/ L =
milligrams
Liter
GPD/ square foot =
gallons/ day
square foot
10%=ten percent =
10

100
Example Problems
Example 1
Plant No. 1 measured a flow of 3.5 million
gallons in half a day. If the peak flow (hydrau-
lic) capacity of the plant is 8 MGD, is there
need for concern?
Using the conversion factor
MGD =
million gallons
day
divide 3.5 million gallons by half a day.
MGD =
3.5 million gallons
=7 MGD
.5 day
7 MGD is less than the peak flow capacity,
8 MGD. There is no need for concern yet.
Example 2
a. Find the number of gallons in 10 cubic feet.
Since we can pour 7.48 gallons into a 1 cubic
foot container, that means that 7.48 gallons
=1 cubic foot. We can use either factor:
7.48 gal
or
1 cu ft

1 cu ft 7.48 gal
to convert cubic feet units into gallons or vice
versa
10 cu ft
x
7.48 gal
=
(10 cu ft)(7.48 gal)
1 1 cu ft 1 cu ft
=74.8 gal
Notice that using the first factor allows the
unit cu ft to cancel out leaving the answer
in gallons.
b. Find the number of cubic feet in 10 gallons.
Notice that using the second factor allows the
unit gal to cancel out leaving the answer in
cubic feet.
10 gal
x
1 cu ft
=
(10 gal)(1 cu ft)
1 7.48 gal 7.48 gal
=1.34 cu ft
You will notice how important it was in these
examples to consider the units in deciding
whether to multiply or divide by 7.48.
Page 55
Appendix A: You and Wastewater Math
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Example 3
a. Find the detention time for a basin with
675,460 gal if the flow is 1,000,000 gal/ day.
Flow is always a rate which is division. Units
like gpd or cfs are both division.
The formula for the basin detention time is:
Dt =
volume
flow
Dt =
675,460 gal

1,000,000 gal/ day


=
675,460 gal
x
day
=0.675 days
1 1,000,000 gal
b. Find the detention time for a 426 cubic foot
basin if the flow is 1,000 cfs.
Dt =
426 cu ft
=
426 cu ft

1,000 cfs 1,000 cu ft/ sec
=
426 cu ft
x
sec
=0.426 sec
1 1,000 cu ft
Example 4
Find the number of gallons of an 11%poly-
mer needed to produce 100 gallons of a
0.75%solution.
Use the formula C1V1=C2V2 where C=concen-
tration or %and V=volume.
You can let the volume you are looking for (i.e.
the number of gallons of 11%polymer) be rep-
resented by V1. Then C1=11% or 0.11,
C2=0.75%or 0.0075, and V2=100 gallons.
Using the formula C1V1=C2V2, you have
(0.11)(V1) =(0.0075)(100)
Notice to find V1, you do the opposite of multi-
plying (i.e. dividing) by 0.11 on both sides. You
then have
(0.11)(V1)
=
(0.0075)(100)
0.11 0.11
and using a calculator, V1=6.82. So, the
amount needed is 6.82 gallons.
Example 5
How many hours will it take to empty a 43,000
cubic foot tank if it empties at a rate of 2.7
cubic feet per second?
Notice that dividing 43,000 cubic feet by 2.7
cubic feet per second would make the cubic
feet unit cancel out. This would give us the
time in seconds. To convert seconds into
hours, use the factors
1 min
and
1 hr

60 sec 60 min
The work is given below. Notice how the units
cancel out leaving the answer in hours.
Time =
43,000 cu ft


x
1 min
x
1 hr

2.7 cu ft/ sec

60 sec 60 min
=4.42 hr
Example 6
Find the number of gallons of water in a rect-
angular basin 200 feet long, 50 feet wide, and
12 feet deep.
First, find the volume of the rectangular ba-
sin by multiplying length by width by height.
Volume =(200 ft)(50 ft)(12 ft) =120,000 cu-
bic feet or cu ft or ft
3
.
You now have a problem similar to Example
2. How many gallons are there in 120,000
cubic feet? Use the factor
7.48 gal
1 cu ft
to convert cubic feet into gallons.
Volume =
120,000 cu ft
x
7.48

1 1 cu ft
=897,600 gal
Appendix A: You and Wastewater Math
Page 56 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Example 7
A cylindrical tank is full to 3 feet below the
top at 10 a.m. and empty at 4 p.m. If the tank
is 50 feet tall with a diameter of 70 feet, find
the volume (in gallons) of the liquid at 10 a.m.
and the rate of flow from the tank in gallons
per minute.
For a math problem with many words, I rec-
ommend always first writing down what you
are trying to find:
(1) First, find the number of gallons of water
in the tank at 10 a.m.
(2) Second, find the rate of flow in gal/ min.
Drawing a sketch helps some people under-
stand the problem and helps to keep track of
the data.
I also like to write down and interpret the de-
tails that are given to me like:
Full to 3 ft below the top at 10 a.m.
Empty at 4 p.m.
Takes 6 hours to empty
a. First, to find the volume in gallons at 10 a.m.,
use the formula for volume of a cylindrical tank
which is V=(area of the base) times (height).
To find the area of the base of the tank which
is a circle, multiply 0.785 times the diameter
squared.
So, the area of the base =0.785(70
2
)
=3,846.5 sq ft.
The height at 10 a.m. is 47 feet because the
tank is filled to 3 feet below the top.
Volume =(area of the base)(height)
=(3846.5 ft
2
)(47 ft) =180,785.5 ft
3
However, you want the volume in gallons so
use the factor
7.48 gal
1 cu ft
to convert.
Volume in gallons =180,785.5 ft
3
x
7.48 gal
1 ft
3
=1,352,275.54 gal
b. Second, to determine the rate of flow in gal-
lons per minute, divide the number of gallons
by the number of minutes it took the tank to
empty. It took 6 hours to empty. To convert 6
hours to minutes, use 60 min =1 hr or factors
60 min
or
1 hr

1 hr 60 min
to convert. You want the hour unit to cancel
out, so you will use the first factor. The time
becomes:
6 hrs
x
60 min
=360 min
1 1 hr
Rate of flow in gal per minute =
1,352, 275.54 gal
=3,756.32 gal per min
360 min
Take Charge of Your Success
The key to progress with math is to consciously
take charge of your thoughts and actions. Then,
instead of letting math control you, you control
math and you take charge of your success.
Recommendations
Ask Questions.
Be active and assertive. Learning is not a specta-
tor sport. You cannot learn well from the sidelines.
Get involved. Work problems and keep asking
questions until they become clear. In classes and
seminars, ask questions on confusing procedures.
Take It Easy.
When you get stuck working problems, hang in
for a while and then take a break. Go back later,
begin at the beginning with a clean sheet of pa-
per and a different point of view. Just because
you do not understand at first does not mean
understanding will not come. Math learning re-
quires time to settle into your brain. Being able to
live with uncertainty for a while is a good math
skill to have.
Keep a List.
Write down your resources (books, tutors, people
to answer questions, people who understand) so
that you can consult them when you get discour-
aged. You are not alone. Find helpful people with
whom you are comfortable. Form a network with
others working toward the same goals as you.
Page 57
Appendix A: You and Wastewater Math
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Find Yourself.
Discover your own unique ways of learning. Experi-
ment with new ones. If a method does not work,
find others. Ask different people how they learn
math or do a problem. They will often feel hon-
ored and pleased that you asked them and you
might get a breakthrough idea.
Be Positive.
Listen to what you say to yourself inside your head.
It is difficult to work well if you are saying, I will
never get this or I cannot do math. Change
those negative messages to neutral ones like I
have not learned this yet or I cannot do this par-
ticular problem yet.
Reward Yourself.
Acknowledge your progressevery little bit! Pat
yourself on the back for each and every problem
you work. Notice what you know now that is new
that you did not know two weeks ago. Maybe even
write it down to document your growth.
Learn From Mistakes.
Remember that errors are part of the learning pro-
cess. Pay attention to them and figure out where
they happened and how to fix them.
Keep It Real.
Be realistic with your expectations of yourselfyour
math level, your life commitments, and your time
constraints. Do not beat yourself up for being a
human being.
Use Technology.
Learn to use a calculator and use it appropri-
ately for calculations with large numbers and
decimals. Each brand of calculator is different,
so keep your manual for reference. Take spare
batteries to exams.
Start Easy.
Practice the easier math problems to warm up
each time you begin your math study. This builds
confidence and strengthens those math pathways
in your brain.
Use Paper.
Keep scratch paper available and expect to use it
for your math work. You need empty space on
paper to think and do calculations.
Promote Emotional Well Being. .. ..
Patience, self-care, and humor will make your
math work so much easier. Your brain will work
better too.
Be Healthy.
You are making new connections in your brain as
you practice math, so sufficient sleep and healthy
foods are important. Having fresh drinking water
available and breathing fresh air also helps you
think better.
Test-Taking Strategies
There are many actions you can take before, dur-
ing, and after exams that will improve your test-
taking performance and outlook. Remember that
math skills and test-taking skills are different from
each other. This section will help you become con-
scious of your thoughts and actions regarding test
preparation. Use these suggestions to take charge
and approach your test confidently.
If you find yourself thinking negative thoughts
about your coming exam, skip to the last section
and read Negative Thinking about Exams first.
Before the Exam
Work Problems.
Diligently prepare and practice. Repeat solving
problems to gain speed and confidence. This takes
work and timesometimes many hours, even
days. Going in to an exam with the knowledge that
you have worked lots of problems boosts confi-
dence. Prep time is invaluable.
Relax.
Practice relaxation daily for about at least ten min-
utes using breathing. Sitting or lying comfortably,
breathe slowly in through your nose counting to
five and then out through your mouth counting to
ten. If you feel dizzy, breathe normally for a while.
Deep breathing activates chemicals in your body
that help you relax and feel better. Any type of regu-
lar meditation, yoga, or slow stretching while
breathing deeply can help facilitate your relaxation
response. Practicing daily will help you control your
adrenaline level during your exam. Using relaxation
consciously during an exam frees up the thinking
part of your brain. (Do not practice these deep
breathing exercises while you are driving.)
Appendix A: You and Wastewater Math
Page 58 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Stay Active.
Daily walks or biking or whatever aerobic exercise
you use consistently prepares your body for your
exam by relieving stress and keeping your state
of mind positive. Your mind and your body are
connected so tightly that they are nearly the same.
Rehearse.
Do a dress rehearsal for your exam. Write or have
someone assist you in writing a practice test with
problems and questions that you think might be
on the real exam. Use questions from the diag-
nostic test in Section 5 of this study guide. Give
yourself this practice test in an environment as
close to your testing situation and schedule as
possible. Time it and then correct it to learn from
your errors.
Plan Ahead.
Plan ahead carefully so that you will get to the
exam earlydo not be in a rush. Know exactly how
to get there and what you will wear so that you are
comfortable. You might want to wear your lucky
shirt or bring a photograph of people who care
about you and believe in you. WHATEVER you can
do to increase your sense of comfort and secu-
rity, do it. Ahead of time, pack a Testing-Taking Kit
with sharp pencils, pens, a ruler, erasers, tissues
or handkerchief, a bottle of water, extra calcula-
tor batteries, and anything else you think you might
need that is allowed at the test.
Care For Your Body.
Optimal food and rest are individual preferences.
Plan these ahead of time. Some research has
shown that a brisk walk before an exam has raised
test results. Some research has shown that eat-
ing a few candies (not chocolate) right before an
exam has raised test results. Protein appears to
be essential for clear thinking. Be in charge of what
happens to you before the exam. Do not let out-
side influences take charge of you for this little
time before your test.
At the Exam
Do a Data Dump.
Bring a short list of formulas or facts you find dif-
ficult to remember. Look at them before the test.
Visualize them going into a holding tank in your
brain. Practice making them subject to recall. If
you are not allowed to use notes on the exam, be
sure to put the list away so that your honesty is
not questioned. When you receive your test, quickly
write these formulas or facts on your exam paper.
Now you do not have to expend any energy trying
to recall them later when you need them.
Ignore Others.
Ignore all of the other people at the exambefore,
during, and maybe even after. Different people
have different ways of dealing with their anxiety
during tests. Some people get a little hyper and
try to rub off their anxiety on everyone else. Do
not take on someone elses anxiety. Your test is
not a competition, so what other people do will
not affect your score. Often the first person to leave
an exam gets a very low score, while the last per-
son to leave gets a very high score. Take your time.
Pay no attention to other peoples behavior.
Breathe.
When you feel stuck or tense, take a deep breath.
Let it all go as you expel the air. (The more you
have practiced relaxation and deep breathing
before the exam, the more you will relax during
the test.)
Take Time Out.
Take short breaks during the exam to close your
eyes, breathe deeply, and stretch your neck and
arms. Massaging your temples, scalp, and the
back of your neck will increase blood flow with
oxygen to your brain to help you think better. A
few isometric exercises can release tension too.
Use Your Subconscious Mind.
If a problem makes no sense, read it and go on.
Ideas will come to you as the problem sinks into
your subconscious mind while you continue with
the test.
Trust.
Let each question reach into your mind for the
answer. Remind yourself that you know everything
you need to know for now.
Page 59
Appendix A: You and Wastewater Math
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Strategize.
Do the easy problems and questions first. Make
pencil marks by the questions to which you want
to return.
Use Time Wisely.
Do not work on one problem for a long time. Of-
ten a question further into the exam will act as a
key to unlock a previous problem. Tell yourself
that you have all of the time you need. Let go of
the rest of your life during the exam. You can deal
with all that later.
After the Exam, Let the Results Go.
You have used a lot of energy and may be low and
off balance. You may wish to pass up discussing
the exam with others so you can take care of your-
self. Going to the bathroom, drinking some water,
and eating something can help you feel normal
again. You may have set much of your life aside to
prepare for this exam. Refresh yourself and get
your life back. You can deal with the test results
later when your priorities are in order again.
Negative Thinking About Exams
Here are negative thoughts math students often
think before test-taking. Put a check mark by the
examples familiar to you. Recognizing the dis-
torted thinking in each example can help you
change negative thoughts to neutral or positive
ones. If you need more assistance with overwhelm-
ing negative thoughts, I recommend the book Feel-
ing Good by David Burns (WholeCare, 1999).
I Will Fail.
Unless you have a crystal ball and can see into
the future OR unless you have made a definite
plan NOT to prepare for the test OR unless you
plan to freeze up during the exam, you have no
way of knowing whether you will fail or not. Worry-
ing about the future only takes energy from today.
I Will Panic During the Test.
It is not uncommon to be excited. An exam is a
process during which you will experience many
thoughts, feelings, and body sensations. Actors
get nervous, yet they still perform. If you do panic,
let panic leave you. It will. No one dies from pan-
icking during an exam.
Preparation by practicing problems, asking ques-
tions, and reviewing gives you confidence and
skills that you need. Taking a dress rehearsal test
and trying to panic can help you practice dealing
with out-of-control feelings. Learning some relax-
ation techniques to use before and during the
exam calms you and aids clear thinking. The more
you prepare yourself ahead, the more you are in
charge and feel relaxed.
I Cannot Do Math.
Math is a very broad subject involving many dif-
ferent skills. If you can recognize shapes, tell time,
and know where the front and back of a class-
room are, you can already do math. There are
many more math skills that you have and many
that you do not have YET. There are also many
that you will never choose to acquire. Instead of
thinking so absolutely about math, find areas
where you can grow and learn new skills instead
of paralyzing yourself with this broad generaliza-
tion.
I Am Stupid.
Name calling is seldom productive. Occasionally
you may feel stupid because you do not know
something or you mess up. What really is happen-
ing is that you are being human and humans are
not stupid. Educators recognize the need to
change how everyone thinks about intelligence.
They recognize that there are many different kinds
of intelligence including:
bodily/ kinesthetic
verbal/ linguistic
naturalist
logical/ mathematical
visual/ spatial
interpersonal
intrapersonal
musical/ rhythmic
This comes from the work of Howard Gardner.
(Gardner, Howard. Multiple Intelligences: The
Theory in Practice. New York: Basic Books, 1993.)
You are a wonderful combination of these talents
not just an IQ number. IQ Tests are limited because
they only measure a few types of intelligence and
ignore the rest. We are not all the same and can-
not possibly know all there is to know in every situ-
ation. Between now and the exam, there are many
questions you can get answered as well as many
new skills you can practice and master if you use
the skills and intelligence that you have.
Appendix A: You and Wastewater Math
Page 60 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
I Will Forget Everything.
Forgetting does not mean something is gone from
your mind forever. The right cue will often help you
remember what you need to know. Your exam will
be filled with cueswords and symbolsthat will
trigger formulas and ideas you have practiced.
Expecting to forget everything is foretelling the
future and making a broad generalization. Even
most people with amnesia caused by illness or in-
jury do not forget everything. If you are extremely
worried about your memory, The Great Memory
Book by Karen Markowitz and Eric Jensen (The
Brain Store, 1999) can be of assistance to you.
Math Tests Are Tricky.
Math students who rely on memorizing the mate-
rial rather than understanding it are usually the
ones who think tests are tricky. You will use your
memory to add to your understanding of how to
do the math. Your math problems will contain
many units such as mgd or ft
3
or psi. Learning how
to skillfully convert back and forth between units
of measure will take a lot of the trickiness away
from your test problems. Practicing using your
calculator will help too.
There Is So Much I Do Not Know.
This will always be the case the rest of your life. It
is the human condition. Taking a deep breath and
finding the level where you can begin to learn will
improve your feelings and your confidence.
Page 61
A p p e n d i x B
Glossary of Technical Terms
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
40 CFR 121124: The federal storm water regu-
lations for the permitting of municipalities and
industries. Regulations define storm water terms,
permitting, inspecting, and sampling
requirements.
40 CFR 136: The regulations for sampling preser-
vation and analyses of water, wastewater, and
solid waste.
40 CFR 403: The federal regulations defining the
elements of a pretreatment program, prohibited
discharges, and the approval process for estab-
lishing a pretreatment program.
Acid: A compound which liberates hydrogen ions
and has a pH below 7.
Alkalinity: The measurement of a samples capac-
ity to neutralize acid.
Atomic Weight: The sum of the number of pro-
tons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus
of an atom. Atomic weights of elements are found
on periodic tables.
Base: A compound which liberates hydroxide ions
and has a pH above 7.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): The quan-
tity of oxygen utilized in the biochemical oxidation
of organic matter under standard laboratory pro-
cedures for five days at 20 Centigrade, usually
expressed as a concentration (e.g., mg/ L). BOD
measurements are used to indicate the organic
strength of wastewater.
Biological Treatment: A waste treatment process
by which bacteria and other microorganisms break
down complex organic or inorganic (e.g., ammo-
nia) materials into simple, nontoxic, more stable
compounds.
Categorical Industrial User (CIU): An industrial
user (see IU definition below) that is subject to a
categorical standard promulgated by the U.S. EPA.
Centrifugal Pumps: Pumps using centrifugal force
to convey liquid. Discharge will vary according to
inlet and discharge pressure.
Chain-of-Custody: A legal record (which may be a
series of records) of each person who had pos-
session of an environmental sample, from the
person who collected the sample, to the person
who analyzed the sample in the laboratory, to the
person who witnessed the disposal of the sample.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): The amount
of oxygen (expressed in mg/ L) consumed from
the oxidation of a chemical during a specific
test. As such, COD is a measure of the oxygen-
consuming capacity of the organic matter
present in wastewater. The results of the COD
test are not necessarily related to the BOD, be-
cause the chemical oxidant responsible for uti-
lizing the oxygen may react with substances
which bacteria do not stabilize.
Cipolletti Weir: A trapezoidal sharp-crested weir
for measurement of liquid discharge in open
channels.
Clean Water Act (CWA): The federal Clean Water
Act sets the framework for the imposition of in-
dustrial wastewater control programs on munici-
palities and the regulation of industrial users. Sec-
tions 307(b) and (c) of the CWA set forth the au-
thority for the U.S. EPA to establish pretreatment
standards for existing and new sources discharg-
ing industrial wastewater to publicly owned treat-
ment works (POTWs).
Composite Sample: A collection of individual
samples obtained at regular intervals, based ei-
ther on flow or time. The individual samples are
combined proportionally.
Concentration Based Discharge Limits: Allowable
concentration of a pollutant in wastewater dis-
charges, usually expressed as a concentration
(i.e., mg/ L) in the discharge.
Confined Space: A space which has limited open-
ings for entry and exit, has unfavorable natural
ventilation which could contain or produce dan-
gerous air contaminants (or create an atmosphere
of oxygen deprivation), and which is not intended
for continuous employee occupation. A permit may
be required under OSHA to enter a confined space.
Appendix B: Glossary of Technical Terms
Page 62 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Density: The relationship between weight and vol-
ume, e.g., grams per cubic centimeter or pounds
per gallon.
Detention Times: The residence time of wastewa-
ter undergoing treatment in a treatment unit such
as a clarifier or tank. Minimum detention times
are required for settling, chemical treatment, and
biological treatment.
Doppler Flow Meter: An ultrasonic flowmeter
that measures the velocity of liquid in a pipe
flowing full.
Electroplating: The process of applying a thin
metal coating to the surface of a metal (substrate)
by electrodeposition of dissolved metal in a plat-
ing solution.
Flow Equalization: Temporary storage of wastewa-
ter flow to provide more uniform flow or waste char-
acteristics for treatment or discharge.
Grab Sample: A sample which is taken from a
wastestream without regard to the flow in the
wastestream, and over a period of time not to ex-
ceed 15 minutes.
Holding Time: The maximum time allowed be-
tween when a sample is taken and when it must
be analyzed in the laboratory, in accordance with
standard preservation, storage, and analytical pro-
cedures.
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S): Dissolved sulfide is pro-
duced by the biological reduction of sulfate and
organic matter under anaerobic (oxygen-free)
conditions. Dissolved sulfide can combine with
hydrogen to form hydrogen sulfide gas. H2S gas
is potentially hazardous to sewer maintenance
workers.
Industrial User (IU): Any non-domestic source
which introduces pollutants into a POTW.
Industrial Wastewater: Any non-domestic waste-
water (excluding storm water).
Magnetic Flowmeter: A flowmeter that creates a
magnetic field across a pipe flowing full, in which
the liquid acts as a conductor to measure the ve-
locity and flow in the pipe.
Mass Based Limits: Discharge limits based on al-
lowable dry weight of pollutant, usually expressed
in pounds per day (lbs/ day).
Mass Emission Rate: The rate of discharge of the
dry weight of a pollutant in wastewater or air, ex-
pressed in lbs/ day or kilograms per day (kg/ day).
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS): Sheets pro-
viding information about manufactured chemicals,
as required by the Hazard Communication Rule.
Molarity: Moles per liter; a measure of concen-
tration.
Molecular Weight: The sum of the atomic weights
of all atoms making up a molecule.
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Sys-
tem (NPDES): The federal permitting program
designed to control all discharges of pollutants
from point sources into U.S. waterways, as re-
quired under the CWA.
National Prohibited Discharge Standards: Prohi-
bitions, applicable to all nondomestic dischargers,
regarding the introduction of pollutants into
POTWs as set forth in 40 CFR 403.5.
Neutralization: Addition of an acid or alkali (base)
to a liquid to cause the pH of the liquid to move
toward a neutral pH of 7.0.
Normality: A measure of the concentration of a
solution.
Oxidation-Reduction: Reactions involving the
transfer of electrons, with oxidation being the loss
of electrons and reduction being the gain of elec-
trons. ORP, or oxidation-reduction potential, is the
qualitative measure of the state of oxidation in
metal waste treatment systems. ORP is used to
control the chemical addition to optimize the oxi-
dation of compounds such as cyanide or reduc-
tion of metals such as hexavalent chromium.
Parshall Flume: An open channel flow measuring
device with a constricted throat that produces a
head or water depth that is related to discharge.
Pass-Through: The passage of untreated pollut-
ants through a POTW which could violate appli-
cable water quality standards or NPDES effluent
limitations.
pH: The hydrogen ion (H
+
) concentration; the mea-
sure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solu-
tion on a scale from 0 (acidic) to 14 (basic).
Pollutants of Concern (POC): Compounds in waste-
water that pose a potential threat to the POTW or
its ability to comply with environmental standards.
Page 63
Appendix B: Glossary of Technical Terms
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Positive Displacement Pumps: Pumps that use
pistons, diaphragn action, etc., to convey liquid.
The discharge rate of these pumps does not vary
with inlet or outlet pressure.
Pretreatment Standard: Any regulation promul-
gated by the EPA in accordance with Sections
307(b) and (c) of the Clean Water Act, applying
to a specific category of industrial users and pro-
viding limitations on the introduction of pollut-
ants into POTWs. This term includes the prohib-
ited discharge standards under 40 CFR 403.5,
and includes local limits set forth under 40 CFR
403.3 (j).
Precipitation: Part of a treatment process that
takes dissolved pollutants out of solution to form
a precipitate that can be removed by filtration
or settling.
Printed Circuit Board: A circuit for electronic ap-
paratus made by depositing conductive material,
usually copper, on an insulating surface.
Process-Inhibition: The concentration of a pollut-
ant that will interfere with a biological treatment
process in the POTW.
Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW): A treat-
ment works which is owned by a state, municipal-
ity, city, town, special sewer district, or other pub-
licly owned and financed entity, as opposed to a
privately owned (industrial) treatment facility. This
definition includes any devices and systems used
in the storage, treatment, recycling and reclama-
tion of municipal sewage or industrial wastes of
liquid nature. It also includes sewers, pipes and
other conveyances only if they convey wastewater
to a POTW treatment plant. The term also means
the municipality (public entity) which has jurisdic-
tion over the indirect discharges to and the dis-
charges from such a treatment works.
Settling: The treatment process by which settle-
able or floatable solids are removed from waste-
water by gravity separation in a tank or other
vessel.
Sludge Quality Standard: Allowable concentration
or mass of a pollutant in POTW sludge, or biosolids,
used for land application.
Specific Gravity: (1) The weight of a particle, sub-
stance, or chemical solution in relation to the
weight of an equal volume of water. Water has a
specific gravity of 1.000 at 4C (39F). (2) The
weight of a particular gas in relation to an equal
volume of air at the same temperature and pres-
sure. Air has a specific gravity of 1.0. Chlorine, as
a gas, has a specific gravity of 2.5.
Total Suspended Solids (TSS): Residue (ex-
pressed as mg/ L) that is removed from a waste-
water sample by a standard laboratory filtration
procedure.
Turbine Meter: A positive displacement meter with
an internal turbine turned by the water flow. Flow
is proportional to the turbine rotation speed.
V-notch Weir: A triangular sharp-crested weir
for measurement of liquid discharge in open
channels.
Worker Right-to-Know Laws: Legislation that re-
quires employers to inform employees of the pos-
sible health effects resulting from contact with
hazardous substances. At locations where this
legislation is in force, employers must provide
employees with information regarding any hazard-
ous substances that they might be exposed to
under normal working conditions or reasonably
foreseeable emergency conditions resulting from
workplace conditions. OSHAs Hazard Communi-
cation Standard (HCS) (29 CFR Part 1910.1200)
is the federal regulation. There are also state stat-
utes that are called Right-to-Know Laws.
Page 65
A p p e n d i x C
Glossary of Management and Supervision Terms
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Acknowledgement/ Credit: Many of the terms
and definitions found in this glossary have
been taken from the 6
th
Edition of What Every
Supervisor Should Know,by L. Bittle and J.
Newstrom. These definitions are reproduced,
in part or in whole, with permission of The
McGraw-Hill Companies. Most of the remain-
ing terms and definitions have been taken
from the 1
st
Edition of Utility Management: A
Field Study Training Program, prepared by L.
Lindsay for the California State University Sac-
ramento Foundation. These definitions are
copyrighted and reproduced by permission of
the Office of Water Programs, CSUS.
Ability: The quality of being able to perform; a natu-
ral or acquired skill or talent.
Accident: Unplanned or uncontrolled event in
which action or reaction of an object, material, or
person results in personal injury.
Accountability: Non-assigned liability for the man-
ner in which an organizational obligation held by
a supervisor is discharged, either personally or by
subordinates.
Active listening: Conscious process of securing
information through full attention, intent listening,
and alert observation.
Affirmative Action: In-company program de-
signed to remedy current and future employ-
ment inequities.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Prohibits
employment discrimination based on a persons
mental or physical disability.
Appraisal interview: Meeting held between a
supervisor and an employee to review perfor-
mance rating and, using the evaluation as a
basis, to discuss overall quality of work performed,
and methods of improvement, if necessary.
Arbitration: Labor dispute or employee grievance
settlement by an impartial umpire selected
through mutual agreement by organization and
workers union.
Attrition: Gradual reduction in a work force due to
natural events and causes, (e.g., retirement,
death, resignation), as opposed to planned reduc-
tions (e.g., discharges, layoffs, early retirement).
Authority: The power needed to do a specific job,
or to carry out ones responsibilities, usually
handed down from immediate bosses or superior.
Body language: Nonverbal body movements,
facial expressions and/ or gestures that project or
reveal underlying attitudes and sentiments.
Budget: Plan, or forecast, especially of allowable
expenses in operation of a department.
Budgetary control: Planning and reporting system
incorporating standards for operating conditions
and results, as well as costs and expenses, within
a single document.
Certification Exam: An examination adminis-
tered by a state or professional association that
candidates take to indicate a level of profes-
sional competence.
Chain-of-Command: Formal channels in an orga-
nization that distributes authority from top down.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): A publication
of the United States Government that contains all
of the proposed and finalized federal regulations,
including environmental.
Collective bargaining: Process of give-and-take
engaged in by management and collective employ-
ees representatives to reach formal, written agree-
ment about wages, hours, and working conditions.
Communication process: Giving and receiving in-
formation and understanding, such as between a
supervisor and an employee, leading to a desired
action or attitude.
Appendix C: Glossary of Management and Supervision Terms
Page 66 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Computerized Maintenance Management System
(CMMS): A computerized system to assist with the
effective and efficient management of mainte-
nance activities through application of computer-
ized elements including: work orders, routine stan-
dard jobs, bills of materials, application parts, and
lists of numerous other features.
Competition: Relatively healthy struggle among
individuals or organizational groups to excel in
striving to meet mutually beneficial goals.
Conflict: Disruptive clash of interests, objectives,
or personalities, between individuals or groups
within an organization.
Control: To exercise authoritative influence over;
the authority or ability to manage and/ or direct.
Cost-benefit analysis: Technique for weighing pros
and cons of alternative actions, in which both in-
tangible benefits as well as costs are assigned
dollar values.
Cost variance report: Listing of allowable expenses
compared with actual expenses incurred.
Decision-making: Part of the problem-solving pro-
cess that entails evaluation of alternative solutions
and a choice of an effective action.
Delegation: The act in which power is given to
another person in the organization to accomplish
a specific job.
Differential treatment: The act of treating a mi-
nority or protected group member differently from
other applicants or employees.
Discipline: Imposition by managementin such a
manner as to encourage more constructive behav-
iorof a penalty on an employee for infraction of
a rule, regulation, or standard.
Discrimination: Managerial action or decision
based on favoring or disfavoring one person or
group member over another on the basis of race,
color, ethnic or national origin, sex, age, handicap,
Vietnam era war service, or union membership.
Division of work: Principle that performance is
more efficient when a large job is broken down
into smaller, specialized tasks.
Due process: Employees legal entitlement to a
fair hearing, usually before an impartial party and
with appropriate representation, before discipline
can be metered out.
Employee turnover: Measure of how many
people come to work for an organization and do
not remain employed by that organization, for
whatever reason.
Ergonomics: Study of how workers react to their
physical environment; used in design of more com-
fortable and productive workstations.
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO): System of
organizational justice, stipulated by law, that ap-
plies to all aspects of employment; intended to
provide equal opportunity for all members of the
labor force.
Feedback: Process of relaying measurement of
actual performance back to an individual or unit,
so that action can be taken to correct, or narrow,
the variance.
Gantt Chart: Chart that enables a planner to
schedule tasks in the most productive sequence,
and that also provides a visual means for observ-
ing and controlling progress.
Geographical Information System (GIS): An inte-
grated system of computer hardware, software,
and trained personnel linking topographic, demo-
graphic, utility, facility, images, and other resource
data that are geographically referenced.
Grievance: Job-related complaint stemming from
an injury or injustice, real or imaginary, suffered
by an employee, for which relief or redress from
management is sought.
Grievance procedure: Formalized, systematic
channel for employees to follow in bringing com-
plaints to the attention of management.
Hazard: Potentially dangerous object, material,
condition, or practice present in the workplace, to
which employees must be alert and from which
they must be protected.
Hostile Work Environment: Conditions such as ha-
rassment, offensive speech, or unwelcomed con-
duct, that are severe or persuasive enough to cre-
ate an abusive, antagonistic, or inhospitable work
place.
Information Management System (IMS): System
comprised of data processing devices, programs,
and people, that collects, analyzes, exchanges,
and delivers information to an organization in such
a manner as to aid managers in making the best
possible decisions.
Page 67
Appendix C: Glossary of Management and Supervision Terms
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Information: Dates, past or present facts, obser-
vations, or conclusions, collected in numbers and
words that have been selected, arranged, and
analyzed (processed) to make them useful for a
specific human (managerial) activity.
Injury Illness Prevention Plan: Plan required by
California Senate Bill (SB) 198 to establish,
implement, and maintain an effective program
helping assure employee safety while on the job.
It includes eight elements: management assign-
ments and responsibilities, safety communica-
tions system with the employees, system assur-
ing employee compliance with safe working
practices, scheduled inspections and compli-
ance system, accident investigation, health and
safety training and instruction, and record-keep-
ing and documentation.
J ob breakdown analysis: Segmentation of a job
into key elements, or steps, which require an em-
ployee to perform, induce, or supervise an action
that advances work toward completion.
J ob evaluation: Systematic technique for deter-
mining job worth, compared with other jobs in
an organization.
J ust cause: Reason for a disciplinary action that
is accurate, appropriate, well founded, deserved
and meets the test of prior notification of unac-
ceptable behavior and its penalty.
Knowledge: Information that can be learned
from reading, listening to an expert, or keenly
observing a situation; often a prerequisite to
skill development.
Management: Process of obtaining, deploying,
and utilizing a variety of essential resources in sup-
port of an organizations objectives.
Management by objectives (MBO): Planning and
control technique where supervisors and their im-
mediate superiors agree on goals to be attained
and/ or standards to be maintained.
Management development: Systematic program
for improving the knowledge, attitudes, and skills
of supervisors and managers.
Management principles: Set of guidelines estab-
lished for carrying out the management process.
Management process: General sequence of five
unique functionsplanning, organizing, staffing,
directing or activating, and controllingprovided
by managers for any organization.
Manager: An individual who plans, organizes, directs,
and controls work of others in an organization.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS): Sheets
providing information about manufactured
chemicals, as required by the Hazard Commu-
nication Rule (HCR).
Mentor: Knowledgeable, often influential, indi-
vidual who takes an interest in, and advises, an-
other person concerning that persons career.
Morale: Measure of the extent of voluntary coop-
erationas well as the intensity of desireto meet
common work goals, as demonstrated by an indi-
vidual or work group.
Motivation: Process that impels someone to be-
have in a certain manner in order to satisfy highly
individual needs.
Networking: Informal process of getting to know,
and create confidence among others who
through mutual exchangehelp advance ones
career.
Non-managerial employees: Workers who receive
direction from managers, who perform specific,
designated tasks, and who are responsible only
for their own performance.
Organizing: Deciding who does what work and
delegating authority to the appropriate person.
Organization: Structure derived from systemati-
cally grouping tasks to be performed, and
from prescribing formal relationships that
strengthen the ability of people to work together
more effectively.
Performance appraisal: Formal and systematic
evaluation of how well a person performs work and
fills an appropriate role in the organization.
Penalty: Punishment or forfeiture imposed as dis-
cipline by management on an employee .
Personality: An individuals unique way of be-
having and of interpreting events and the ac-
tions of others.
PERT Chart: Graphic technique for planning a
project in which a large number of tasks must be
coordinated, by showing the relationship between
tasks and critical bottlenecks that may delay
progress towards completion.
Appendix C: Glossary of Management and Supervision Terms
Page 68 Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Policies: Broad guidelines, philosophy, or prin-
ciples which management establishes and follows
in support of organizational goals.
Procedures: Methods, prescribed by manage-
ment, for the proper and consistent forms, se-
quences, and channels to be followed by individu-
als and units of an organization.
Productivity: Measure of efficiency that compares
operational output value with cost of resources
used.
Progressive Discipline: Providing increasingly
harsh penalties for substandard performance or
broken rules, as the condition continues or the
infraction is repeated.
Quid pro quo: An equal exchange or substitu-
tion; e.g., as applied to sexual harassment,
when a supervisor threatens to fire or not pro-
mote an employee if they do not provide sexual
favors in return.
Regulations: Special rules, orders, and controls
set forth by management, restricting the conduct
of units and or individuals within an organization.
Reprimand: Severe expression of disapproval or
censure by management of an employee, usually
written as well as oral, and retained in an
employees personal file.
Responsibilities: Those duties one is held account-
able for.
Responsibility: Duty or obligation to perform a pre-
scribed task or service or attain an objective.
Reverse discrimination: Notion that implementa-
tion of affirmative action deprives qualified mem-
bers of non-protected groups of their rightful op-
portunities.
Satisfaction: State that exists when motivating
factorssuch as interesting and challenging work,
full use of ones capabilities, or recognition for
achievementare provided.
Schedules: Detailed assignments dictating how
facilities, equipment, and/ or individuals are used,
according to times and dates, in accomplishment
of organizational objectives.
Sexual Harassment: Unwanted sexual ad-
vances, requests for sexual favors, or other vi-
sual, verbal, or physical conduct of a sexual
nature, which is conditioned upon an employ-
ment benefit, unreasonably interferes with an
individuals work performance, or creates an
offensive work environment.
Skill: The capacity to perform a job related action
by blending relevant knowledge and physical or
perceptual ability.
Specification: Collection of standardized dimen-
sions and characteristics pertaining to a product,
process, or service.
Stereotype: Characterization of an individual on
the basis of a standardized, oversimplified view
of characteristics believed to be held in com-
mon by a group to which the individual is as-
sumed to belong.
Supervisor: Manager who is in charge of, and co-
ordinates, activities of a group of employees en-
gaged in related activities within a department,
section, or unit of an organization.
Suspension: Temporary removal by management
of an employee privilege (such as the right to re-
port to work and receive pay for it) until proper
actions have been determined and imposed.
Time budget: Charting technique for planning the
systematic distribution of a supervisors time.
Theory X: Negative approach to human relations
in which a supervisor presumes most people
dont like to work and thus need to be pushed
or threatened.
Theory Y: Positive approach to human relations
whereby a supervisor presumes that, given mean-
ingful work, most people will try hard to achieve,
especially when there is an opportunity to improve
their self-regard.
Tolerance: Permissible deviation, or variance, from
a standard.
Type A individual: Person characterized by high
standards of achievement and an urgency to at-
tain them, who is especially susceptible to stress.
Unfair labor practices: Practices engaged in by
management or labor unions that are judged by
federal labor law to be improper, especially when
they interfere with the right to organize or when
they discriminate against labor union activities.
Page 69
Appendix C: Glossary of Management and Supervision Terms
Grade III Environmental Compliance Inspector
Unity of Command: Principle that each individual
should report to only one boss.
Unity of Direction: Principle that there should be
a single set of goals and objectives that unites
the activities of everyone in an organization.
Variance: Gap, or deviation, between actual per-
formance, condition, or result and a standard of
expected performance, condition, or result.
Warning: A reprimand so worded as to give for-
mal notice to an employee that repetition of a
particular form of unacceptable behavior will
draw a penalty.
Workers compensation: Financial reparations or
awards granted by an employer to an employee
who has suffered an on-the-job injury or illness
that is judged to have permanently restricted the
employees earning capacity.
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