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Soil Investigation Works


Method Statement


1.0 Objective

The purposes of Soil Investigation were:
a. To obtain geotechnical information at site
b. To explore the subsoil condition by exploratory boreholes
c. To carry out field Standard Penetration Test (SPT) to determine the natural bearing
resistance of the subsoil for the proposed of design
d. To obtain disturbed and undisturbed soil samples for carrying out the laboratory tests to
determine the physical properties of the subsoil
e. To obtain shear strength values
f. To measure ground water table at site

2.0 Field Exploration

2.1 Boring

Field exploration will be carried out by using multi speed Rotary Drilling machine. Casings of NW
and BW sizes shall be used to prevent the collapse of the borehole wall. A cutting tool is attached at
the lower end of the drilling rod. Drilling will be carried out continuously rotating the drilling rod
and pumping mud water through hollow rods into the bottom of the boreholes. The cutting shall be
washed out to the ground surface by the water under circulation.

The boring will be terminated at five (5) consecutive SPT, N > 5/300mm of hard layers or maximum
depth of 45m or encountered rock surface whichever reached earlier.





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2.2 Standard Penetration Test (SPT)

SPT will be carried out in accordance with clause 5.4 M.S 1056: Part 9:2005 and BS 5930:1999. The
test will be carried out at 1.50m interval or change of strata or as instructed. SPT samples will be
collected for the soil type identification.

Prepared the split barrel sample, drive rod and drive assembly. Clean out the borehole carefully to
the test elevation. Withdraw the drilling tools slowly. Lower the split barrel assembly to the bottom
of the borehole on the drive rods with the drive assembly on top.

Recorded the initial penetration under dead-weight and if penetration is over 450mm, record the N
value as zero. If less than 450mm, continue seating drive and test drive. The hammer will drop free
fall on to a drive head from a height of 760mm and recorded the number of blows to achieve
150mm penetration of 25 blows whichever is first reached as seating drive.

Count the number of blows required for a further penetration of 300mm and recorded as
penetration resistance (N) value.

2.3 Soil Sampling

Undisturbed sample will be taken in the soft and medium clay at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 m depths and
at 1.5 m intervals thereafter using a thin-walled sampler with dimensions conforming to standard
sampling tubes specification (ASTM D 1587).

Disturbed samples for very stiff clay to hard clay layer will be collected during Standard
Penetration Testing at 1.5 m intervals. (ASTM D 1586). Disturbed samples normally used for
identification and laboratory classification test. Representative portions of each sample is sealed in
polythene bags and labeled indicating sample numbers and depths taken, and sent to the
laboratory.

Undisturbed samples is collected by employing hydraulic thrust on thin wall sampling tubes of
60mm diameter.

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2.4 Mackintosh Probe

The probe consists of a cased harden steel pointer of 25mm diameter and 60
0
Cone. The pointer is
screwed on to the lower end of the rod. The rods are of 12mm diameter HY 55C steel, each of length
120cm.

The rods are connected to each other by 25mm outer diameter couplings. The couplings provide
the lateral support to the rods so as to prevent buckling during driving. The rods are threaded at
the ends after being built up to 14mm by welding. Heating of the rods before welding is necessary
to ensure that brittle failure due to welding stresses does not occur.

Driving is executed with a small hammer of 5kg in weight and falling through a fixed height of
280mm along a guided rod. In operations, the total number of blows required for the pointer to
penetrate a distance of 300mm is recorded. Maximum depth of penetration is about 12m of 400
blows/300mm, whichever arrives first. The rods and pointer can be withdrawn by extractor.

3.0 Field Testing/Measurement

3.1 Groundwater Measurement

Groundwater is one element that affects in the stability and foundation analyses. The water level in
each borehole is recorded while drilling was in progress and after the completion of the boreholes.
The measurement is taken before water (if any) was added to the borehole to stabilize it. The depth
of the borehole and the casing (if any) will also be recorded.
.
4.0 Laboratory Testing

Geotechnical laboratory tests will be performed on the soil samples to classify soil and to determine
their engineering characteristics. All laboratory tests will be conducted in accordance with ASTM
Standards and Malaysia Standards.


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4.1 Unconfined Compression Tests

Unconfined compression test will be conducted in accordance with ASTM D2166. The tests will be
performed by compressing cylindrical samples to failure. Failure generally occurs when the
greatest ratio of shear stress to shear strength occurs. The cohesion (c) of the sample is taken as
half the unconfined compressive strength.

4.2 Atterberg Limits

Atterberg limits will be determined (ASTM D 4318) on representative soil samples of cohesive soils.
The Atterberg limits refer to arbitrarily defined boundaries between the liquid and plastic states,
and between the plastic and brittle states of grained soils, expressed as water content, in
percentage.

The liquid limit is the water content at which a part of soil placed in a standard cup, cut by a
standard grooving tool, will flow together at the base of the groove when the cup is subjected to 25
standard shocks. The one-point liquid limit test is usually carried out and distilled water may be
added during soil mixing to achieve a desired consistency.

4.3 Particle Size Analysis

Particle size analysis will be performed by means of sieving (ASTM D 422). For oven-dry materials,
sieving is carried out for particles that are being retained on a 0.063 mm sieve. In sieve analysis, the
mass of soil retained on each sieve is determined and expressed as a percentage of the total mass of
the sample. The particle size is plotted on a logarithmic scale so that two soils having the same
degree of uniformity are represented by curves of the distribution plot. In Hydrometer analysis is
based on the principle of sedimentation of soil grains in water. When a soil specimen is dispersed in
water, the particles settle at different velocities, depending on their shape, size, and weight. For
simplicity, it is assumed that soil particles are spheres and the velocity of soil particles can be
express by Stokes law.



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4.4 Unit Weight and Water Content Determination

As a routine laboratory test, unit weights of soils will be determined based on the mass of soil in
a standard volume steel cylinder with cutting edge. The unit weight refers to the unit weight of the
soil at the sampled water content. The dry unit weight is determined from the mass and the water
content of the specimen.

Water content (ASTM D 2216)is determined by oven-drying a moist/wet soil at a constant
temperature of 105 C for 18 - 24 hours. The difference in mass before and after drying is used as
the mass of water in the specimen, while the mass of remaining material is used as the mass of solid
particles. The ratio between the mass of water and the mass of solid particles is the water content
of the soil material