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Austrian Society for Concrete-

and Construction Technology


Concrete Segmental
Lining Systems
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Austrian Society for Concrete-
and Construction Technology
Edition: February 2011
Publisher: Austrian Society for Concrete-
and Construction Technology
A-1040 Wien, Karlsgasse 5
Tel.: +43/1/504 15 95
Fax: +43/1/504 15 95-99
E-Mail: offce@ovbb.at
http://www.concrete-austria.com
Guideline
Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
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All rights reserved, especially the rights of reproduction and distribution
as well as translation.
No part of this publication may be reproduced
(by photocopying, micro-flming or any other means)
or stored, processed or copied by any electronic system without permission
in writing from the publisher.
If the document is purchased in electronic form, its storage on data carriers is permitted
as provided for in the licence agreement.
Although utmost care has been taken in drafting this publication, we are not able to guarantee the accuracy,
completeness and correctness of the information contained therein.
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Preface

In February 2006, the Working Group on Concrete in Tunnel Construction of the Austrian
Association for Concrete and Construction Technology (sterreichische Vereinigung fr Beton-
und Bautechnik, VBB) set up a Working Party on Concrete Segmental Lining Systems. This
working party was mandated to draft an VBB Guideline for Concrete Segments.

On the one hand, the new Guideline was to build on the findings of the VBB State-of-the-Art
Report on Segments, incorporating the most recent developments and practical experience. On the
other hand, it was intended as a normative document providing recommendations for construction
work.

To this end, a technical body comprising engineering consultants and staff members of engineering
offices, representatives of universities as well as testing and research institutions, contractors and
public clients was set up and tasked with elaborating the Guideline.

Besides the state of the art of relevant international guidelines and standards, the working party
took into account current findings and experience from Austrian projects successfully executed
with segmental lining systems over the last five years, such as the Wienerwald Tunnel, the
Perschling chain of tunnels, the upgrading of the Lower Inn Valley railway line, the Wiental
collector, the Vienna Underground and a number of power plant tunnels and galleries. Moreover,
international experience gained by Austrian tunnelling engineers in their work abroad was also
incorporated.

The present Guideline is intended as a practice-oriented set of rules and recommendations
following the tradition of the Austrian Association for Concrete and Construction Technology. The
members of the working party not only put in many hours of unpaid work, but also generously
shared their personal know-how and expertise with their colleagues in the interest of achieving a
high common engineering standard. Their efforts deserve our sincere thanks.

The frequent and often controversial technical discussions in the course of the drafting process
have shown that segmental lining is a complex subject that defies an easy one-fits-all solution.
Therefore, the Guideline had to be limited in both content and scope. This is all the more justified
as segment technology is advancing rapidly and it would be inappropriate to hinder this
development by adopting too rigid an approach. The very fact that the Guideline will continue to
evolve is an indication of its quality rather than a deficiency.

This Guideline, which is the product of the commitment and dedication of Austrian engineering
colleagues working in this field, is intended as a supporting instrument for the design and
implementation of segmental lining projects.


Johann Lemmerer Alois Vigl
Vienna, February 2009 Schruns, February 2009
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Contributors

Dipl.-Ing. Dietmar BACH
IGT Geotechnik und Tunnelbau ZT GmbH, Salzburg
Dipl.-Ing. Paul BONAPACE
ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH, Innsbruck
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Stefan L. BURTSCHER
Technische Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt GmbH, Vienna University of Technology
Dipl-.Ing. Dr. Arnold FINK
BB Infrastruktur Bau AG, Innsbruck
Dipl.-Geol. Thomas GANGKOFNER
BB Infrastruktur Bau AG, Innsbruck
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Kurt HECHENBLAICKNER
ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH, Innsbruck
Dipl.-Ing. Gerhard HOBIGER
Wiener Linien GmbH & Co KG, Vienna
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Johannes HORVATH
Alpine Bau, Salzburg
O.Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Hans Georg JODL
Vienna University of Technology
Dipl.-Ing. Hans KHLER
Porr Tunnelbau GmbH, Vienna
Dipl.-Ing. Dr.sc. Davorin KOLIC
Neuron Consult ZT, Pasching
O.Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Johann KOLLEGGER
Vienna University of Technology
Dipl.-Ing. Andreas LANGE
Strabag AG, Spittal/Drau
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Harald LAUFFER
Porr Tunnelbau GmbH, Vienna
Ing. Wolfgang LEHNER
Strabag AG, Vienna
Dipl.-HTL-Ing. Johann LEMMERER
BB Infrastruktur Bau AG, Vienna
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Wolfgang LINDLBAUER
Ingenieurbro Dr. Wolfgang Lindlbauer, Vienna
O.Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Walter LUKAS
University of Innsbruck
Dipl.-Ing. Alfred F. MAYERHOFER
PCD ZT-GmbH, Vienna
Dipl.-Ing. Vladislav MIHAYLOV
iC Consulenten ZT GmbH, Vienna
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Dipl.-Ing. Roland MURR
Pyry Infra GmbH, Strass i.Z.
Dipl.-Ing.(FH) Georg OCKERMLLER
Gerocret-Ockermller Betonwaren GmbH, Langenlebarnd
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Walter PICHLER
Material Consult, Hart
Dipl.-Ing. Patrick POSCH
Katzenberger Beton- und Fertigteilwerk Nfg GmbH & Co KG, Innsbruck
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Bernhard RABENREITHER
MABA Fertigteilindustrie GmbH, Sollenau
Dipl.-Ing. Christian RAUCH
Arge Bautech, Vienna
Dipl.-Ing. Robert SCHMIED
Wietersdorfer & Peggauer Zementwerke, Peggau
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Alfred SCHULTER
D2 Consult International GmbH, Linz
Dipl.-Ing Walter SKALA
Fritsch, Chiari & Partner ZT GmbH, Vienna
Dipl.-Ing. Michael STEINER
ASFINAG Baumanagement GmbH, Vienna
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Markus TESTOR
BB Infrastruktur Bau AG, Innsbruck
Dipl.-Ing. Gerhard URSCHITZ
Strabag AG, Vienna
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Alois VIGL
viglconsult ZT, Schruns
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Herbert WALTER
IGT Geotechnik und Tunnelbau ZT GmbH, Salzburg
Dipl.-Ing. Hanns WAGNER
BB-Infrastruktur Bau AG, Vienna
Dipl.-Ing. Oliver K. WAGNER
BB Infrastruktur Bau AG, Graz
Dipl.-Ing. Gerfried WANNEMACHER
Porr Tunnelbau GmbH, Vienna
Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang WEBER
Jger Bau GmbH, Schruns
Dipl.-Ing. Friedrich WIESHOLZER
Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology, Vienna


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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011

CONTENT

0 PRELIMINARY REMARKS .................................................................................................................... 1
1 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................ 2
2 DEFINITIONS ...................................................................................................................................... 2
2.1 Terminology ..................................................................................................................................... 2
2.2 Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................. 5
3 SEGMENTAL SYSTEMS ....................................................................................................................... 6
3.1 Building materials ............................................................................................................................ 6
3.2 Segmental lining systems ................................................................................................................ 6
3.2.1 Segmental systems with fixed diameter ........................................................................................ 6
3.2.2 Segmental systems with variable diameter ................................................................................... 6
3.2.3 Lining systems with invert segment ............................................................................................... 6
3.2.4 Single-shell segmental lining systems ............................................................................................ 6
3.2.5 Double-shell segmental lining systems .......................................................................................... 7
3.3 Segment geometry .......................................................................................................................... 7
3.3.1 Rectangular system ........................................................................................................................ 7
3.3.2 3.3.2 Trapezoidal system ................................................................................................................ 7
3.3.3 Rhomboidal system ........................................................................................................................ 7
3.3.4 Hexagonal system .......................................................................................................................... 8
3.4 Ring geometry ................................................................................................................................. 8
3.4.1 Parallel ring system ........................................................................................................................ 8
3.4.2 Parallel ring system with corrective rings ...................................................................................... 8
3.4.3 Right/left system ............................................................................................................................ 8
3.4.4 Universal ring system ..................................................................................................................... 8
3.5 Waterproofing function of the segmental lining ............................................................................. 9
3.5.1 Impermeable segment shell ........................................................................................................... 9
3.5.2 Functionally sealed segment shell .................................................................................................. 9
3.5.3 Drained segment shell .................................................................................................................... 9
3.5.4 Unsealed segment shell .................................................................................................................. 9
3.6 Mixed systems ................................................................................................................................. 9
3.7 System requirements depending on the construction method ...................................................... 9
3.7.1 General remarks ............................................................................................................................. 9
3.7.2 Segmental systems for shieldless (open) TBM drives (TBM-O) ...................................................... 9
3.7.3 Segmental systems for single-shield TBM drives (TBM-S) .............................................................. 9
3.7.4 Segmental systems for double-shield TBM drives (TBM-DS) ........................................................ 10
3.7.5 Segmental systems for shield machines with active face support (SM) ....................................... 10
3.8 Waterproofing requirements to be met by the segmental lining ................................................. 10
4 ACTIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 12
4.1 General remarks ............................................................................................................................ 12
4.2 Permanent actions ........................................................................................................................ 13
4.2.1 Deadweight .................................................................................................................................. 13
4.2.2 Rock load ...................................................................................................................................... 13
4.2.3 Water pressure ............................................................................................................................. 13
4.2.4 Swelling and expansion pressure ................................................................................................. 13
4.2.5 Recovery forces due to gaskets, bolt forces ................................................................................. 13
4.2.6 Buildings ....................................................................................................................................... 14
4.2.7 Future buildings / embankments / earth removal / neighbouring cavities .................................. 14

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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011

4.3 Variable actions (on finished structure) ........................................................................................ 14
4.3.1 Traffic loads in the tunnel ............................................................................................................ 14
4.3.2 Traffic loads above ground ........................................................................................................... 14
4.3.3 Pressure and suction load ............................................................................................................ 14
4.3.4 Temperature influences ............................................................................................................... 14
4.3.5 Internal water pressure ................................................................................................................ 14
4.4 Variable actions and combinations of actions during construction .............................................. 15
4.4.1 Loading of segments from production to installation .................................................................. 15
4.4.2 Installation and thrust forces ....................................................................................................... 15
4.4.3 Support pressure and annulus grouting pressure ........................................................................ 15
4.4.4 Rock load on the tunnel roof with partially bedded segment ring ............................................... 15
4.4.5 Uplift of the tunnel tube in grouting mortar ................................................................................ 15
4.4.6 Loading of the invert area by back-up equipment of the TBM and logistic systems .................... 15
4.4.7 Injection pressure due to post-injection and rock rehabilitation .................................................. 15
4.4.8 Buoyant forces due to concrete placement for the inner shell ..................................................... 15
4.5 Exceptional actions ........................................................................................................................ 15
4.5.1 Impact loads ................................................................................................................................. 15
4.5.2 Fire loads ...................................................................................................................................... 16
4.5.3 Earthquake ................................................................................................................................... 16
4.5.4 Flooding of the tunnel tube .......................................................................................................... 16
4.5.5 Explosion ...................................................................................................................................... 16
4.5.6 Other disaster scenarios ............................................................................................................... 16
5 CALCULATION AND DESIGN OF SEGMENTS ...................................................................................... 17
5.1 General remarks ............................................................................................................................ 17
5.2 Calculation methods and models .................................................................................................. 17
5.2.1 General remarks ........................................................................................................................... 17
5.2.2 Selection of the calculation method ............................................................................................. 17
5.2.3 Calculation methods for rock masses with bedding planes and discontinuities .......................... 17
5.2.4 Calculation of the tunnel shell ...................................................................................................... 17
5.2.5 Stiffness of the segment ring ........................................................................................................ 18
5.2.6 Structural consideration of radial joints ....................................................................................... 19
5.2.7 Tolerances and imperfections ...................................................................................................... 21
5.3 Combination of actions, design situations and partial safety factors ........................................... 21
5.4 Verification of load-bearing capacity ............................................................................................ 21
5.4.1 General remarks ........................................................................................................................... 21
5.4.2 Design of radial and circumferential joints .................................................................................. 22
5.4.3 Coupling forces ............................................................................................................................. 22
5.4.4 Indications for fire design ............................................................................................................. 22
5.5 Verification of serviceability .......................................................................................................... 22
5.5.1 General remarks ........................................................................................................................... 22
5.5.2 Limitation of crack width .............................................................................................................. 23
5.5.3 Limitation of deformations .......................................................................................................... 23
5.6 Structural design of segments ....................................................................................................... 23
6 CONCRETE ....................................................................................................................................... 24
6.1 General remarks ............................................................................................................................ 24
6.2 Requirements ................................................................................................................................ 24
6.2.1 Strength classification .................................................................................................................. 24
6.2.2 Exposure classification ................................................................................................................. 24
6.2.3 Early strength ............................................................................................................................... 25
6.2.4 Maximum grain size ..................................................................................................................... 25
6.2.5 Consistency ................................................................................................................................... 25
6.2.6 Surface characteristics ................................................................................................................. 25
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011

6.3 Constituent materials of concrete ................................................................................................. 26
6.3.1 Cement ......................................................................................................................................... 26
6.3.2 Mineral aggregates ...................................................................................................................... 26
6.3.3 Water ........................................................................................................................................... 26
6.3.4 Additives ....................................................................................................................................... 27
6.3.5 Admixtures ................................................................................................................................... 27
6.3.6 Fibres ............................................................................................................................................ 27
6.4 Testing ........................................................................................................................................... 27
6.4.1 Pre-construction testing ............................................................................................................... 27
6.4.2 Conformity testing ........................................................................................................................ 29
6.4.3 Identity testing ............................................................................................................................. 30
7 JOINT DESIGN .................................................................................................................................. 31
7.1 Types of joints and their structural design .................................................................................... 31
7.1.1 Radial joints .................................................................................................................................. 31
7.1.2 Circumferential joints ................................................................................................................... 31
7.1.3 Shapes of joints ............................................................................................................................ 32
7.1.4 Keystone joint ............................................................................................................................... 33
7.2 Joint sealing systems ..................................................................................................................... 34
7.2.1 Systems with unsealed joints ....................................................................................................... 34
7.2.2 Systems with mortar-filled joints (combined with injection) ........................................................ 34
7.2.3 Systems with waterproof lining .................................................................................................... 34
7.3 Centring aids and connectors ........................................................................................................ 36
7.3.1 Purpose of connectors and centring aids ..................................................................................... 36
7.3.2 Movable centring aids .................................................................................................................. 36
7.3.3 Dowels .......................................................................................................................................... 37
7.3.4 Bolts ............................................................................................................................................. 37
7.4 Joint inserts .................................................................................................................................... 38
7.5 Joint adjustment plates ................................................................................................................. 38
8 PRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 39
8.1 Production technology .................................................................................................................. 39
8.1.1 Mixing plant ................................................................................................................................. 39
8.1.2 Formwork ..................................................................................................................................... 39
8.1.3 Reinforcement .............................................................................................................................. 39
8.1.4 Concreting and curing process ..................................................................................................... 40
8.1.5 Production tolerances .................................................................................................................. 41
8.1.6 Joints / Gaskets ............................................................................................................................ 41
8.2 Handling and storage in the production plant .............................................................................. 41
8.3 Testing and production controls ................................................................................................... 42
8.3.1 Testing of building materials ........................................................................................................ 42
8.3.2 Testing of structural components ................................................................................................ 42
8.3.3 Concrete properties ...................................................................................................................... 42
8.3.4 Geometry ...................................................................................................................................... 42
8.3.5 Acceptance of segments produced .............................................................................................. 42
8.4 Repair during production (in plant) ............................................................................................... 43

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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011

9 INSTALLATION ................................................................................................................................. 43
9.1 General remarks ............................................................................................................................ 43
9.1.1 Storage ......................................................................................................................................... 43
9.1.2 Transport ...................................................................................................................................... 43
9.2 Building of the segment ring Mechanical engineering requirements ........................................ 44
9.2.1 General remarks ........................................................................................................................... 44
9.2.2 Thrust jacks .................................................................................................................................. 44
9.2.3 Segment gantry and erector ........................................................................................................ 44
9.2.4 Tailskin seal .................................................................................................................................. 45
9.3 Loads due to tunnel advance ........................................................................................................ 45
9.4 Segment control and inspection .................................................................................................... 45
9.4.1 At the construction site above ground ......................................................................................... 45
9.4.2 In the tunnel prior to installation underground ........................................................................... 46
9.4.3 Inspections after installation ........................................................................................................ 46
9.5 Repair of segments ........................................................................................................................ 46
9.5.1 Definition of the most frequent types of defects .......................................................................... 46
9.5.2 Types of defects ............................................................................................................................ 51
9.5.3 Repair of defects .......................................................................................................................... 52
9.5.4 Repair matrix ................................................................................................................................ 52
10 BACKFILLING OF THE ANNULUS ....................................................................................................... 56
10.1 General remarks ............................................................................................................................ 56
10.2 Support conditions, bedding principles and requirements ........................................................... 56
10.2.1 Support conditions ....................................................................................................................... 56
10.2.2 Bedding principles ........................................................................................................................ 56
10.2.3 Bedding requirements .................................................................................................................. 57
10.2.4 Monitoring and control of filling level and bedding ..................................................................... 59
10.3 Annulus grouting mortar ............................................................................................................... 60
10.3.1 Properties ..................................................................................................................................... 60
10.3.2 Mortar constituents ..................................................................................................................... 60
10.3.3 Checking and testing Mortar ..................................................................................................... 61
10.4 Pea gravel ...................................................................................................................................... 62
10.4.1 Requirements ............................................................................................................................... 62
10.4.2 10.4.2 Inspection and testing ....................................................................................................... 63
10.5 Sealing of joints ............................................................................................................................. 64
10.5.1 General remarks ........................................................................................................................... 64
10.5.2 Requirements to be met by joint mortar ...................................................................................... 64
10.6 Post-grouting of annulus backfill ................................................................................................... 64
10.6.1 Requirements ............................................................................................................................... 64
10.6.2 Constituent materials ................................................................................................................... 65
10.6.3 Inspection and testing .................................................................................................................. 65
10.7 Grout injections for rock improvement ......................................................................................... 66
11 GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCES OF THE SEGMENT ................................................................................ 67
11.1 Segment geometry ........................................................................................................................ 67
11.2 Setting of tolerances ...................................................................................................................... 69
11.2.1 Formwork tolerances ................................................................................................................... 69
11.2.2 Segment deformation tolerances ................................................................................................. 69
11.2.3 Tolerances for segment details .................................................................................................... 71
11.3 Measuring programme .................................................................................................................. 71
11.3.1 Manual measurements ................................................................................................................ 71
11.3.2 3D measurements ........................................................................................................................ 71
11.3.3 Test ring ....................................................................................................................................... 72
11.3.4 Test frequencies ........................................................................................................................... 72
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011

12 IMPERFECTIONS AND SYSTEM TOLERANCES .................................................................................... 73
12.1 Design phase .................................................................................................................................. 73
12.1.1 Influences on the structural analysis ............................................................................................ 73
12.1.2 Imperfections and eccentricities in the radial joint ...................................................................... 73
12.1.3 Imperfections and eccentricities in the circumferential joint ....................................................... 73
12.1.4 Interaction between connector sealing strip segment geometry ........................................... 73
12.1.5 Influences of deformations and tolerances .................................................................................. 73
12.1.6 Influences due to storage and installation ................................................................................... 74
12.2 Construction phase ........................................................................................................................ 75
12.2.1 Segment production ..................................................................................................................... 75
12.2.2 Transport and storage .................................................................................................................. 75
12.2.3 Installation ovalisiation ............................................................................................................. 75
12.2.4 Installation misalignment .......................................................................................................... 76
12.2.5 Installation open joint ............................................................................................................... 77
12.3 Tolerances based on system requirements ................................................................................... 77
12.3.1 Geometric system consistency ..................................................................................................... 77
12.3.2 Structural system consistency ...................................................................................................... 77
12.3.3 Functional system consistency ..................................................................................................... 78
13 STANDARDS, GUIDELINES, BIBLIOGFAPHY ....................................................................................... 79
13.1 Standards referred to in the text ................................................................................................... 79
13.2 Guidelines and regulations ............................................................................................................ 80
13.3 Additional standards to be taken into consideration .................................................................... 81
13.4 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................... 82

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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology Page 1
0 PRELIMINARY REMARKS
In order to eliminate barriers to trade within the European Economic Area, the following principles
have to be observed:
Products from Member States of the European Union as well as goods originating from EFTA
countries belonging to the European Economic Area (EEA), which are not in conformity with this
Guideline but have passed the tests and inspections performed and recognised in the Member States
concerned, are regarded as equivalent, including such tests and inspections, provided the level of
protection required in Austria in terms of safety, health and serviceability is reached and
maintained on a permanent basis.
The testing institutions concerned must provide adequate and satisfactory guarantees of their
technical qualification, their competence and their independence (e.g. according to VE/NORM
EN ISO/IEC 17025). The body inviting tenders may demand the submission of German-language
documents relating to tests and inspections performed as well as standards, technical guidelines and
regulations governing products and/or goods of EU or EEA origin.

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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 2 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
1 SCOPE
This Guideline applies to the production of the lining or parts of the lining of underground
structures from pre-cast concrete parts (segments).
In a single-shell lining system, the segmental lining assumes the function of initial ground
support for the excavation and, at the same time, serves as its inner lining.
In a double-shell lining system, the excavation is usually supported by a segmental lining system
with an additional cast-in-place inner lining. If initial ground support is already in place, a
segmental lining can also be installed as an inner lining.
Combinations of single-shell and double-shell linings, i.e. a single-shell lining for the invert
combined with a double-shell lining for the tunnel arch, are possible.
By analogy, this Guideline also applies to jacked pipes.

2 DEFINITIONS
2.1 Terminology
Support Support of the excavation. In a single-shell lining the support assumes the
function of the inner lining.
Tunnel lining Structure consisting of the ground support and the inner lining.
Thrust ring The thrust ring serves to transmit the thrust forces to the segment ring.
Single-shell lining A single lining system meets all load-bearing and structural requirements
(single-shell or single-pass method). No inner lining is applied (see also
VBB Guidelines Sprayed Concrete).
Single thrust jacks Individual thrust jacks or pairs of thrust jacks serving to transmit the thrust
forces to the segment ring and/or facilitating installation.
Extrados Outer surface of the segment or the segment ring on the mountain side.
Pre-cast part Structural element manufactured under controlled conditions at a place other
than the place of installation.
Joint End face of the segment and area of contact between segments.
Guide rails Assembly devices ensuring positive centring of the segments in the prepared
radial joints.
Stroke Length of advance section, usually corresponding to the width of the
segment.
Injection Filling of natural voids, fissures and cavities in the rock mass under pressure,
without essentially changing the structure of the rock mass. Unlike in
grouting, the pressure is kept constant over a pre-defined period of time.
Inner lining Two-dimensional inner structural element meeting structural and/or functional
requirements, not serving for direct tunnel support and installed outside the
driving area.
Inner tailskin seal Seal between the tailskin and the segment ring.
Outer tailskin seal Barrier between the tailskin and the rock mass.
Intrados Inner surface of the segment or the segment ring on the tunnel side.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology Page 3
Conicity of the segment ring
Difference of developed surface between the maximum and minimum
segment width in a ring, especially in tapered or conical rings.
Continuous (mechanised) driving
Tunnel driving by means of a tunnelling machine (tunnel boring machine,
shield machine, etc.), with the individual operations of excavation, mucking
and support installation being performed simultaneously. As a rule, the
tunnel is excavated by a circular cutter head equipped with cutting tools.
Radial joint Joint in approximately axial direction between the individual elements
(segments) of a segment ring.
Logistics The term logistics refers to the planning, installation and operation of a
tunnelling site. It covers all operations relating to the transport, storage and
handling of material, energy and products within and between construction
sites, including the transport of manpower at a tunnelling site.
Blowhole A surface irregularity resulting from the entrapment of air at the surface of
formed concrete (open pore).
Niche Lateral widening of the tunnel cross section (without connection to other
structures), usually in the wall area; the design of the cross section depends
on the function of the niche. Niches are provided for parking and turning,
emergency call, fire alarm, rescue and fire extinguishing facilities, or for the
installation of equipment and fittings, etc.
Ovalisation Deformation of an installed segment ring due to system-specific tolerances,
ground pressure, grout pressure, segment deadweight or uplift.
Pea gravel Single-size gravel, usually filled into the annulus through holes in the
segments behind the tailskin.
Test ring Complete segment ring, usually assembled in horizontal position, for test
purposes.
Test segment Segment produced for test purposes to assess the production conditions and
check the concrete formula determined through pre-construction testing
(mixer, consistency before placement, formwork, etc.).
Crosscut Connecting structure between two tunnel tubes or between the tunnel tube
and the shaft structure with special passages in the connecting area (standard
wall connection) of the main tube. The cross section of the crosscut depends
on its purpose. Crosscuts serve as vehicular and pedestrian passageways,
escape routes, general access routes to underground station structures, etc.
Circumferential joint Joint between two adjacent segment rings approximately perpendicular to
the tunnel axis.
Annular gap Space between the surrounding rock mass and the outer surface of the
segments.
Round grain Round mineral aggregate comprising more than 50% of naturally rounded
particles. The percentage of round grain is determined in percent by weight
in a sample of at least 200 grains.
Shield driving Tunnelling by driving a shield body into the rock mass, applying different
excavation methods and, if necessary, face-supporting measures.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 4 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
System-specific maximum internal water pressure
The system-specific maximum internal water pressure is the internal water
pressure determined by the system (e.g. maximum impounding level) that
cannot be exceeded.
Partial stroke Length of advance section as a fraction of segment width.
Segment Pre-cast part made of reinforced and non-reinforced concrete, steel or cast
iron, used as lining for tunnels, galleries and shafts.
Segment gasket Sealing system consisting of sealing strips placed in one or more layers
around the individual segment, ensuring permanent sealing of the tunnel tube
against the ingress of water from the surrounding rock mass.
Segmental system Lining system for tunnels, galleries and shafts consisting of individual lining
elements assembled into segment rings; in combination with the backfilling
of the annulus, it provides the necessary support for the cavity.
Connectors Devices for temporary or permanent connection of two segments or segment
rings in the radial and circumferential joints (e.g. bolts, dowels), working in
tension and in shear.
Grouting Filling of artificially created cavities in the rock mass with grout under
pressure.
Double-shell lining Tunnel lining consisting of two or more shell elements (double-shell or
double-pass construction method) meeting different static and structural
requirements (no bonding), installed in independent operations and by
different methods (e.g. outer shell made of sprayed concrete or segments,
inner shell made of in-situ concrete) (see also VBB Guideline on Sprayed
Concrete).
Cyclic (conventional) tunnelling
Tunnelling method in which the individual operations of excavation,
mucking and support installation are performed consecutively and by means
of different equipment. As a rule, the tunnel is excavated by drill and blast,
excavator or roadheader.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology Page 5
2.2 Abbreviations
AG Owner
AHWZ Prepared hydraulically active additives
AN Contractor
ATV Waste Water Technology Association (Abwassertechnische Vereinigung e.V.)
CEN European Committee for Standardisation
DIN German Institute for Standardisation
DVWK German Association for Water Management (Deutscher Verband fr
Wasserwirtschaft und Kulturbau e.V.)
DWA German Association for Water, Waste Water and Waste (Deutsche Vereinigung
fr Wasserwirtschaft, Abwasser und Abfall e.V., successor to ATV and DVWK
EPDM Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer
GW Ground water
ISO International Standardisation Organisation
NATM New Austrian Tunnelling Method
NT Neue sterreichische Tunnelbaumethode
BA Local construction supervision (by the owner)
QM Quality management
QSS Quality assurance system
SM Shield machine
TBM Tunnel boring machine
TBM-DS Double-shield tunnel boring machine
TBM-O Open tunnel boring machine
TBM-S Single-shield tunnel boring machine
TSI-SRT Technical Specification for Interoperability Safety in Railway Tunnels
WDI Waterproof inner lining
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 6 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
3 SEGMENTAL SYSTEMS
3.1 Building materials
The segmental systems currently in use in Austria are made of reinforced concrete. In other
countries, segments are also made of non-reinforced concrete, fibre-reinforced concrete or
combinations thereof.
3.2 Segmental lining systems
3.2.1 Segmental systems with fixed diameter
The tunnel shell is assembled entirely from segments. The radial joints are closed, which results in a
fixed outer diameter. The annular space between the segment tube and the surrounding ground or
rock mass is backfilled with appropriate annular filling material to ensure proper bedding of the
segment ring.
3.2.2 Segmental systems with variable diameter
The tunnel shell is assembled entirely from segments. The radial joint are of variable width, which
results in a variable outer diameter.
In the case of expanded segmental systems, the segments are pressed against the surrounding
ground and/or rock mass by means of expansion elements (keystone).
In the case of compressible segmental systems, the radial joint, which is initially open, narrows or
closes under the impact of the ground or rock mass load, which results in a reduction of the outer
diameter. The annular space between the segment tube and the surrounding ground or rock mass is
filled with appropriate material.
3.2.3 Lining systems with invert segment
A specially shaped invert segment is integrated into the tunnel shell, which provides immediate
stabilisation of the tunnel floor, serves as a transport route and a water ditch. As a rule, the invert
segment remains in place as part of the final lining.
When designing the segmental system with an invert segment, attention must be paid to the
existence of a stationary special element in the tunnel floor.
Lining systems with conventional support (steel support, sprayed concrete, in-situ concrete) and an
integrated invert segment only have a single pre-cast element incorporated in the tunnel floor,
which usually fulfils the function of a transport route with a drainage trench and is integrated into
the final lining as part of the load-bearing tunnel shell.
3.2.4 Single-shell segmental lining systems
On a medium-term basis and/or for the design lifetime of the structure, single-shell segmental
lining systems assume all functions regarding the:
stability of the excavation
load-bearing capacity of the tunnel structure
serviceability of the tunnel structure (tightness, durability)
quality requirements to be met by the tunnel structure (e.g. evenness, smoothness, ...)

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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology Page 7
3.2.5 Double-shell segmental lining systems
In double-shell lining systems consisting of an outer segment shell and a load-bearing inner shell,
the segmental support is combined with a cast-in-place concrete inner shell with full load-bearing
function. As a rule, the segmental support serves to:
support the excavation
ensure the stability of the tunnel structure (at least on a temporary basis)
In double-shell lining systems with a segment shell on the outside and a functional shell on the
inside the segmental support is combined with a cast-in-place concrete inner shell or a lining
performing a specific function (e.g. fire protection, waterproofing, impact protection,). As a rule,
the outer segment shell serves to:
support the excavation
ensure the stability of the tunnel structure
ensure the serviceability of the tunnel structure (tightness, durability)
In double-shell lining systems with an invert segment the latter is usually combined with a cast-in-
place or sprayed concrete inner shell. As a rule, the integrated invert segment assumes the
following functions:
immediate consolidation of the tunnel floor
supporting the excavation
stability of the tunnel structure
serviceability of the tunnel structure (tightness, durability)
3.3 Segment geometry
3.3.1 Rectangular system
Rectangular systems are assembled in rings of rectangular or slightly tapered segments (unilateral or
bilateral conicity) with a wedge-shaped keystone or a rectangular invert keystone (Swiss stacking
system). In general, the segments are assembled from bottom to top, alternating between left and
right.
Main application: unsealed and sealed segmental linings; Swiss stacking system
Advantages: simple radial joint geometry (no helix), possibly with staggered radial joints
Disadvantages: assembly slightly more time-consuming than with rhomboidal system
3.3.2 3.3.2 Trapezoidal system
Trapezoidal systems are assembled from trapezoidal segments, with the first row as an open-tooth
row and the second row inserted in the gaps to form a complete ring.
Main application: unsealed and sealed segmental linings
Advantages: non-continuous, staggered radial joints; every other segment acting as a keystone
Disadvantages: two sharp, exposed edges on each segment; alternating ring build (second row
inserted into gaps in first row)
3.3.3 Rhomboidal system
Rhomboidal systems are assembled from rhomboidal elements ring by ring, usually from bottom to
top; assembly of the ring starts with a trapezoidal element and is completed with another such
element as a keystone.
Main application: unsealed and sealed segmental linings
Advantages: non-continuous, staggered radial joints, continuous ring build from bottom to top
Disadvantages: two sharp exposed edges of each segment
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 8 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
3.3.4 Hexagonal system
Hexagonal systems are assembled continuously from hexagonal elements, alternating bottom/top
and left/right, forming a tube. Each element serves as a keystone.
Main application: unsealed single-shell segmental linings
Advantages: analogous geometry of all elements; each element acts as a keystone; no sharp
exposed edges; coupled stability of the tube through staggered circumferential joint; invert
segment can be incorporated
Disadvantages: space for 1.5-fold ring width needed within TBM tailskin; coupling demands
high-quality assembly (propagation of flaws)
3.4 Ring geometry
3.4.1 Parallel ring system
In parallel ring systems the tube is assembled from parallel rings. For directional corrections and
curves, packers are placed in the circumferential joints (shifting).
Main application: unsealed single-shell and double-shell segmental linings
Advantages: simple construction; invert segment can be incorporated
Disadvantages: limited suitability for curves
3.4.2 Parallel ring system with corrective rings
Parallel ring systems with corrective rings are assembled from parallel rings forming a tube.
Directional corrections and curves can be negotiated through the installation of corrective rings (up,
down, left, right).
Main application: unsealed single-shell and double-shell segmental linings
Advantages: simple construction; invert segment can be incorporated
Disadvantages: impermeability can only be achieved under certain conditions; different sets of
formwork required
3.4.3 Right/left system
Right/left systems are assembled from rings with one circumferential joint orthogonal to the tunnel
axis and the other one inclined to the tunnel axis. The sequence of right-tapered and left-tapered
rings produces a straight tunnel tube. A right/right ring sequence results in a curve to the right with
a minimum system radius. A sequence of left/left rings produces a curve to the left with a minimum
system radius. Upward and downward directional corrections are achieved through packers in the
circumferential joints (shifting) or through rotation of the tapered segment ring by up to 90.
Main application: unsealed and sealed single-shell and double-shell segmental linings
Advantages: simple construction
Disadvantages: different sets of formwork required
3.4.4 Universal ring system
Universal ring systems are assembled from rings with circumferential joints inclined to the tunnel
axis on one or both sides. Within the defined range of radii, spatial curves and changes in direction
can be combined through controlled rotation in the circumferential joint.
Orientation at the circumferential joints is guided by direction marks; as a rule, it is calculated in
advance by a ring-building software in combination with the TBM steering system.
Main application: sealed single-shell linings
Advantages: can negotiate curves and can be made impermeable
Disadvantages: incorporation of invert segment is not possible; keystone must also be installed
in invert area
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology Page 9
3.5 Waterproofing function of the segmental lining
3.5.1 Impermeable segment shell
Pressurised segment shells are assembled from segments fit for this purpose combined with a joint
sealing system to form an impermeable segmental lining.
Essential system components:
Segments fit for this purpose, manufactured to tight tolerances to ensure their suitability for the
intended use
Joint gaskets with the required characteristics
Ring assembly to the required degree of accuracy
Anchored connectors providing the required prestressing effect
3.5.2 Functionally sealed segment shell
Functionally sealed segment shells are assembled from segments fit for the intended use. The type
of sealing depends on whether backfilling and/or post-grouting of the annulus is required.
In general, functionally sealed systems do not qualify as impermeable.
3.5.3 Drained segment shell
Functionally sealed segment shells may require drainage for groundwater pressure relief. If the
permeability of the functionally sealed system is not sufficient for this purpose, drainage holes can
be drilled into the finished tunnel tube to drain the immediate surroundings of the tunnel.
3.5.4 Unsealed segment shell
Unsealed segment shells are assembled from segments fit for this purpose. In this case, closure of the
joints only serves to prevent leakage of the material used to backfill the annular space (pea gravel).
Impermeability to water or grout is not provided for.
3.6 Mixed systems
If waterproofing requirements vary along the length of the tunnel, one of the following options can
be chosen, depending on the characteristics of the individual sections:
Uniform segmental system with or without waterproofing
Different segmental systems for the individual sections with mostly uniform formwork
(formwork modifications)
Different treatment of the surrounding rock mass and installation of a uniform segmental system
Mixed systems
3.7 System requirements depending on the construction method
3.7.1 General remarks
Relevant system-specific relationships between the construction method used and the predominant
segmental systems are outlined in the following.
3.7.2 Segmental systems for shieldless (open) TBM drives (TBM-O)
As a rule, no other than invert segments are installed in shieldless TBM drives (TBM-O).
3.7.3 Segmental systems for single-shield TBM drives (TBM-S)
In general, segmental systems with fixed or variable diameter are used in single-shield TBM drives
(TBM-S). In a tunnel driven by means of a single-shield TBM (TBM-S), the thrust and steering
forces are transmitted to the segment ring, which therefore has to be designed accordingly.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 10 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
3.7.4 Segmental systems for double-shield TBM drives (TBM-DS)
In general, segmental systems with fixed diameter are used in double-shield TBM drives (TBM-
DS). However, the use of variable-diameter segmental systems is also possible.
If a double-shield TBM (TBM-DS) with grippers is used, the thrust and steering forces are
activated through the gripper bracing without being transmitted to the segment ring, except in
special cases. The segment rings can therefore be designed for different driving modes (with
potential cost savings). Moreover, tunnel sections with invert segments only, possibly with
additional local support elements (anchors, steel support, sprayed concrete), can be combined with
other sections with full segmental lining.
3.7.5 Segmental systems for shield machines with active face support (SM)
In general, impermeable segment shells are installed in tunnels driven by shield machines with
active face support. Use of a shield machine with active working face support requires the
transmission of thrust and steering forces to the segment ring, which therefore have to be designed
to absorb such forces.
3.8 Waterproofing requirements to be met by the segmental lining
Depending on the purpose and use of the structure, the requirements to be met by the support
system, consisting of the sum total of all individual segments and the joints, have to be specified
according to Table 3/1.
The design service life has to be determined for the entire structure. Depending on the requirements
to be met, the durability of the individual components of the support system is to be verified. As a
matter of principle, every effort should be made in the design and execution of the structure to use
low-maintenance components that are easy to repair.
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Require
-ment
Class
Short
design-
ation
Description of
concrete surface
Assessment of
moist spots
Permissible defects
Permissible
crack width
after
installation
Requirement to
be met by the
joint, max.
water ingress
Examples of
applications
AT1
Largely
dry
Individual moist
spots are visible
(max. dull
dark staining)
Upon touching with
dry hand (flat), no
traces of water
remain on the hand.
1 of component
surface allowed to be
moist. Shades of
moisture drying after
max. 20 cm.
0.2 mm Impermeable
Single-shell lining
meeting high
waterproofing
requirements.
Portal areas according to
Guideline on Inner Shell
Concrete
AT2
Slightly
moist
Individual shiny
spots of moisture
on the surface,
visible and
noticeable upon
touching
Quantity of leaking
water cannot be
measured. Upon
touching with dry
hand, traces of
water remain on the
hand.
1% of component
surface allowed to be
moist. Individual,
short shades of
water, drying on the
concrete surface.
0.25 mm
Moist, no
running water in
entire circum-
ferential joint or
individual radial
joints
Single-shell lining with
normal waterproofing
requirements.
Road and railway
tunnels (excluding
portal area)
AT3 Moist
Water drops
draining from the
surface, formation
of long streaks of
water
Draining water can
be collected in
vessels and its
quantity measured
Max. quantity of
water per defect must
not exceed 0.2 l/h
0.3 mm
Water dripping
from individual
spots
Single-shell lining
without waterproofing
function or double-shell
lining
AT4 Wet
Water running from
individual spots
Draining water can
be collected in
vessels and its
quantity measured
Max. quantity of
water must not
impair functionality
of the structure.
0.3 mm
Water running
in some places
Single-shell lining
without waterproofing
function or double-shell
lining as drained system

Tab. 3/1 Definition and description of the requirement classes to be met by the support system
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 12 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
4 ACTIONS
4.1 General remarks
The actions and environment influences on segments and segmental linings can be classified as
follows:
Permanent actions:
Deadweight
Rock load
Water pressure
Swelling and expansion pressure
Recovery forces from seals, bolt forces
Existing buildings on the surface
Future buildings on the surface / embankments/ earth removal / neighbouring cavities
Variable actions (finished structure):
Traffic loads in the tunnel
Traffic loads above ground
Pressure and suction forces
Temperature influences
Internal water pressure
Variable actions during construction:
Loading due to de-moulding, handling, storage and interim transport
Installation and thrust forces
Support pressure and pressure from annulus grouting
Rock load on crown area with segment ring partially bedded
Uplift of tunnel tube in grout
Loading of invert area through back-up equipment and logistic systems
Injection pressure due to post-grouting and rock mass rehabilitation
Uplift from concrete placement for inner lining
Actions due to intersections with crosscuts and the like
Exceptional actions:
Impact loads
Fire loads
Earthquake loads
Flooding of the tunnel tube
Explosion
Other disaster scenarios
Construction work
When determining the actions on the segmental lining, the relevant standards must also be taken
into consideration. In the case of a multi-layered support system, it is important to bear in mind that
different parts of the support can assume different functions. For calculation and design purposes,
the most unfavourable combinations of actions are to be assumed.
If jacking pipes are used, the ATV provisions (General Technical Contract Terms and Conditions)
apply additionally, as system-related constraints and thrust forces (above all in curves) must be
taken into consideration.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology Page 13
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4.2 Permanent actions
4.2.1 Deadweight
For deadweight calculation, a distinction must be made between deadweight loads during
construction and in the finished structure. Imposed loads, e.g. backfilling of invert, spring-mass
systems, intermediate ceilings, overhead line, have to be taken into consideration.
4.2.2 Rock load
The interaction between the rock mass and the support, which determines the states of stress and
deformation of the rock mass and the support during tunnelling, e.g. swelling, expansion and creep
of the rock mass, influence of dolines, karst formations and fault zones, should be modelled as true
to reality as possible.
Design case in soft ground:
The idealised ground strata of the individual design cross sections are to be calculated on the
basis of their deadweight and lateral tensioning, considering their geological history (coefficient
of earth pressure at rest). Above ground water level and/or in areas where the ground water level
has been lowered, the deadweight is to be calculated on the basis of wet bulk density. Below
ground water level, in an area of hydrostatic water pressure distribution, the bulk density is to be
calculated under buoyancy and, if possible, under flow pressure.
Design case in hard rock:
Anisotropic conditions in the surrounding rock mass, e.g. tunnel advance with strike, are to be
taken into consideration in the calculation of loads. In general, the possibility of an unstable
block forming along the strata and discontinuities above the tunnel crown (loosening zone) has
to be borne in mind. In the case of a shallow overburden, shear failure at low stress levels is a
possibility to be considered.
4.2.3 Water pressure
The calculation is to be performed on the basis of both minimum and maximum water pressure (i.e.
most favourable and least favourable effect).
The design water levels (separate for ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state) are to be
determined on the basis of appropriate stage hydrographs, considering the flood water levels of
receiving water bodies, if any. The hydro-geological situation as well as ancillary geo-technical
construction measures influencing the effect of ground water on the outer tunnel lining are to be
taken into consideration.
The most unfavourable assumption is to be calculated separately for each design cross section.
Project-specific features are to be taken into consideration.
As a matter of principle, the full hydrostatic water pressure is to be used as a basis for calculation.
In the case of waterproofing measures as well as in drained tunnels, the unfavourable effect of a
residual water pressure of at least 15 kN/m in subsoil layers that cannot be completely drained is to
be allowed for. In completely drainable subsoil layers, the possibility of the water level rising at
least 1.50 m above the drainage target must be taken into consideration.
4.2.4 Swelling and expansion pressure
Depending on site conditions (mineralogical conditions, presence of water, etc.) swelling and
expansion pressure has to be taken into consideration.
4.2.5 Recovery forces due to gaskets, bolt forces
In calculating the longitudinal strain on segments, the time-dependent recovery forces of the
gaskets and the bolt forces have to be taken into consideration.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 14 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
4.2.6 Buildings
If buildings are present on the surface, the actual permanent loads as well as their standard-
compliant live loads (allowing for standard-compliant reductions) have to be considered.
4.2.7 Future buildings / embankments / earth removal / neighbouring cavities
Future buildings / embankments / earth removal / neighbouring cavities within the range of influence
above or to the sides of the tunnel structure are to taken into consideration after consultation with the
Owner and/or determined on a project-specific basis. As a rule, future buildings should be at a
distance of at least one tunnel diameter from the outer side of the segment.
For example, the following can be specified for future residential buildings, following the model of
RVS 09.01.42 (Guidelines and Regulations for Road Construction):
number of stories according to construction class
plus basement
each storey: 10 kN/m floor load and 20 kN/m wall load (live loads included in these values)
4.3 Variable actions (on finished structure)
4.3.1 Traffic loads in the tunnel
The traffic loads on the tunnel invert have to be calculated according to the relevant standards.
4.3.2 Traffic loads above ground
Traffic loads have to be calculated according to the relevant standards. In case of an overburden of
3.50 m or more, the following simplified load assumptions, in analogy to RVS 09.01.42, are
permissible, as consideration of a dynamic coefficient is no longer required:
Road traffic and railways: substitute loads of 10 kN/m on all possible traffic areas
Tramway: substitute loads of 5 kN/m on all possible traffic areas
4.3.3 Pressure and suction load
Pressure and suction loading can be neglected in the design of the segmental lining system for road
tunnels. In railway tunnels the aerodynamic loads calculated for the project in question have to be
applied to all free surfaces, with due consideration of standard-compliant safety margins. In
double-shell systems, pressure and suction loading of the segment system can be neglected.
4.3.4 Temperature influences
Design values for temperature differences and/or temperature gradients have to be determined on a
project-specific basis for areas subject to major temperature differences due to climatic conditions,
depth (geothermal gradient), use (water) or ventilation. In other areas, there is no need to consider
temperature gradients and temperature differences.
4.3.5 Internal water pressure
The effect of internal water pressure and possible hydrodynamic loads are to be taken into
consideration. The effective external water pressure (ground water pressure), the possible action of
the surrounding rock mass and any pre-stress of the pre-cast lining relative to the surrounding rock
must also be included in the calculation.
If the joints in unsealed segmental systems open under internal pressure, the relief effect due to
pressure balance after the opening of the joints may be taken into consideration.
If the sealing function in sealed systems must be maintained also under internal pressure, the
effectiveness of the sealing system is to be verified under internal pressure.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology Page 15
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4.4 Variable actions and combinations of actions during construction
4.4.1 Loading of segments from production to installation
The loads acting on the segments during de-moulding, handling, storage and transport to the site of
installation have to be verified, taking account of the young age of the concrete.
4.4.2 Installation and thrust forces
The stresses and strains acting on the segment have to be verified.
Depending on the type of shield machine and the geological and hydro-geological conditions, the
thrust forces acting on the segments may vary. When calculating the introduction of forces into the
segments, the possibility of eccentric action of these forces, e.g. in curves, must be taken into
consideration.
4.4.3 Support pressure and annulus grouting pressure
Depending on the construction method, the annular gap is grouted with mortar or slurry. The
grouting pressure is to be determined as a function of the support pressure. The load from annular
gap grouting on the rock is strongest at the time of grouting.
4.4.4 Rock load on the tunnel roof with partially bedded segment ring
If tunnelling machines without active face support are used, the annular gap can be filled with pea
gravel or combinations of pea gravel and mortar and/or pea gravel and slurry in the crown and side
wall areas. It should be borne in mind that the segment ring is not yet fully bedded when ejected
from the shield and is likely to be loaded in partially bedded condition (e.g. blocks), see It. 4.2.2.
4.4.5 Uplift of the tunnel tube in grouting mortar
As a rule, this factor of influence is not to be taken into consideration; see Chapter 10 (Backfilling
of the Annulus).
4.4.6 Loading of the invert area by back-up equipment of the TBM and logistic systems
In the invert area, construction-related loads, such as TBM back-up equipment, and transport loads
are to be taken into account. Moreover, loading states from the installation of equipment in the
tunnel, e.g. positioning of mass-spring systems, compaction of road structures, transport of
machinery and equipment, have to be analysed.
4.4.7 Injection pressure due to post-injection and rock rehabilitation
Injection pressure due to post-injection has to be taken into consideration. Injections may impose
isolated, uniform or asymmetrical actions. The maximum injection pressure must be determined
according to the design specifications.
4.4.8 Buoyant forces due to concrete placement for the inner shell
Loads from the bracing forces of the formwork car during placement of the inner arch in the crown
area are to be considered, if applicable.
4.5 Exceptional actions
4.5.1 Impact loads
According to TSI-SRT, the impact of a derailed train is not sufficient to impair the load-bearing
capacity of the tunnel structure. Therefore, actions from impact loading do not have to be
considered.
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Page 16 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
4.5.2 Fire loads
The type and intensity of a potential fire load should be assessed on a project-specific basis. Fire
loads are covered by the VBB Guideline on Increased Fire Protection with Concrete for
Underground Traffic Structures and by RVS 09.01.45.
4.5.3 Earthquake
As a rule, the influence of earthquake loads does not have to be considered in Austria.
4.5.4 Flooding of the tunnel tube
If flooding of the tunnel tube is possible, this action is to be considered.
4.5.5 Explosion
Depending on the types of hazardous goods allowed to be transported in the tunnel, Austrian
Standard NORM EN 1991-1-7 applies or project-specific requirements have to be specified.
4.5.6 Other disaster scenarios
Other disaster scenarios, if any, have to be considered on a project-specific basis.

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5 CALCULATION AND DESIGN OF SEGMENTS
5.1 General remarks
The design of the segmental lining in transverse and longitudinal direction has to comply with
Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1. The requirements in terms of both load-bearing capacity
and serviceability have to be met. Special areas, such as intersections with crosscuts or niches, are
to be analysed separately.
5.2 Calculation methods and models
5.2.1 General remarks
The structural analysis is performed on the basis of representative design cross sections and/or
stress and displacement fields.
5.2.2 Selection of the calculation method
As a rule, the Finite Element Method (FEM) or the Finite Difference Method (FDM) (two-
dimensional or three-dimensional) is to be applied for the calculation of actions on the tunnel lining
in loose rock and in solid rock classified as partly homogeneous. If rock mass behaviour is
significantly determined by the properties of bedding planes and discontinuities, which usually
applies to rock mass behaviour types BT1 Stable and BT2 Stable with the potential of
discontinuity-controlled block fall according to the GG Guideline for the Geo-mechanical
Design of Underground Structures Excavated by Cyclic Driving, the above calculation methods
are not adequate. For these rock mass behaviour types, see Section 5.2.3. For high overburdens in
solid rock, the convergence confinement method may also be used for the calculation of actions.
The stress resultants of the tunnel lining can also be determined by the model of an elastically
bedded beam. Three-dimensional systems are only recommended for areas of intersection between
crosscuts and the main tunnel. For a continuous linear structure without sudden changes in cross
section or concentrated load flows, a two-dimensional approach is sufficient.
5.2.3 Calculation methods for rock masses with bedding planes and discontinuities
If the characteristics of the rock mass are significantly influenced by the properties of bedding
planes and discontinuities, in particular for rock mass behaviour types BT1 Stable and BT2
Stable with the potential of discontinuity-controlled block fall according to the GG Guideline
for the Geo-mechanical Design of Underground Structures Excavated by Cyclic Driving, the
potential of gravity-induced falling and sliding of blocks from the excavated cross section is to be
investigated by means of appropriate programmes (e.g. Block Stability Programme) or by
geometric models replicating the geometry and the essential properties of joints and bedding planes
at least in qualitative terms. The rock between discontinuities can be regarded as rigid. The actions
are determined on the basis of the volume of the relevant blocks.
5.2.4 Calculation of the tunnel shell
5.2.4.1 Calculation by means of FEM or FDM
In calculation methods based on a two-dimensional approach (e.g. two-dimensional FEM), stress
relief ahead of the tunnel face can be assumed [1].
The fields to be analysed have to be chosen in such a way that the influence of the cavity has
subsided at the edges of the field. (Recommendations of Working Group 1.6 Numerical Design
Methods in Geo-engineering Section 2 [2]). Support of the edges is linear (see Fig. 5-1).
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Page 18 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
To determine the stress resultants in the tunnel shell, the shell can be simulated together with the
numerical model of the surrounding rock mass and/or ground by means of shell or beam elements
and elastic constitutive laws.
The advantage of a three-dimensional model is due to the fact that it eliminates the need for an
advance estimate of the longitudinal load-bearing effect and the stress relief of the rock mass ahead
of the working face.
5.2.4.2 Determination of stress resultants by the bedded beam model
If a bedded beam is used, the actions determined by means of FDM, FEM or the convergence
confinement method can be applied to the bedded beam.
In the bedded beam model, the distribution of the spring elements over the circumference is
determined by the properties of the ground to be cut through. Subject to the elimination of
compressive forces, radial bedding can be calculated either as constant along the circumference or
variable over the lateral surface depending on the ground. The bedding modulus can be
approximated as k
r
= E
s
/R, with E
s
As a matter of principle, tensile springs or tensile stresses are to be excluded for the bedding.
Tangential bedding of the tunnel lining may be assumed in order to stabilise the computation [3].
being the stiffness modulus and R the outer radius of the
segmental lining.
5.2.5 Stiffness of the segment ring
The influence of articulation in the radial joints (see Joints, It. 5.2.6) must be realistically
incorporated into the calculation, as it diminishes the stiffness of the segment ring. Keystones of a
size < 20 % of the circumference of a standard segment need not be considered in detail in the
structural system and the design model.
For pre-design purposes or for the calculation of actions on the tunnel shell by means of FEM or
FDM, the reduction in stiffness of a segment ring consisting of several segments can be considered
via a reduced moment of inertia [4]:
2
.
4

+ =
m
I I I
N S abg

I
abg.
I
reduced moment of inertia of the segment
S
I
moment of inertia of the force transmission area
N
m number of segments must be > 4 (keystones of a size < 20 % of circumference not to be
counted)
moment of inertia of the standard cross section

Fig. 5-1 Calculation model
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5.2.6 Structural consideration of radial joints
In the detailed determination of stress resultants, the reduced stiffness of the radial joints is taken
into account via non-linear torsion springs and/or an active hinge.
For additional references to different types of joints, see Chapter 7.
5.2.6.1 Flat joints
The non-linear behaviour of radial segment joints is to be considered in the calculations for straight
joints via non-linear torsions springs according to Prof. Leonhardt/Reichmann Concrete
Hinges [5]. The findings described in these papers were confirmed by large-scale tests in the 4
th
The torsional stiffness depends, inter alia, on the normal force acting on the ring, the joint width,
the eccentricity of the normal force and the resulting joint gaping.

tube of the Elbe Tunnel [6].
The torsional stiffness of an over-compressed joint, assuming a contact area width b and a contact
area length of 1 m, is calculated as follows:
] / . [
12
2
rad m kN
b E
C
cm
D

=
with the contact area width b in m (see Fig. 5/2) and the modulus of elasticity E
cm
according to
Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1 in kN/m
2
] [
2
rad
b E
N
cm


. For the over-compressed joint the angle in
rad is calculated with the following equation [7]:

If there is a gap in the joint, the stress curve and the deformation are as shown in the following
diagram (see Fig 5/2):



Fig. 5-2 Stress curve with gaping joint
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
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Page 20 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
The stiffness of the torsion spring is calculated for a length of contact area of 1 m, assuming a
gaping joint:
] / . [
18
0
3
3
rad m kN
E
b N
C
D



N normal force [kN/m]
torsion angle [rad]
E
0
An approximation of this modulus of elasticity can be calculated according to DAfStb (German
Reinforced Concrete Committee), Issue 175 [5] with
modulus of elasticity of concrete as tangent modulus with = = 0.
10
18000000
0
w
E

= in kN/m.
w
here corresponding to the mean cube strength (20 cm edge length). The conversion of cube
strength determined on a 15 cm cube, according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1, is
possible with
cm cm w
f
15 ,
95 , 0 = .

In case of strong torsion, the moment does not increase linearly. This usually leads to overstraining
of the joint. For the calculation of such a hinge-type system, the
M- relation according to [7] can be considered through a bilinear approximation for torsional
stiffness according to Fig. 5/3. The torsional stiffness in the first part up to
5 , 3
0
=

N
E b

is equal to the initial stiffness of the over-compressed cross section; beyond that part, it is to be
considered with 1% of the initial stiffness.

5.2.6.2 Curved joints (rolling contact joints)
In the case of continuous radial joints parallel to the ring axis, curved joints are to be considered as
active hinges. In the case of staggered radial joints and radial joints not parallel to the ring axis, the
stiffness of curved joints is to be taken into account.

Fig. 5-3 Moment-torsion-angle diagram, dimensionless
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5.2.7 Tolerances and imperfections
The relevant combination of joint offset and angular torsion at the segment ring as well as the
tolerances according to Chapter 11 and the imperfections according to Chapter 12 are to be allowed
for in the design.
5.3 Combination of actions, design situations and partial safety factors
As a rule, partial safety factors have to applied for permanent and temporary and/or exceptional
design situations according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1.
Special rules apply to the following combinations of actions and/or construction states:
For the combination of actions Rock load on the tunnel roof with partially bedded segment
ring, see It. 4.4.4., a partial safety factor of
F
If the actual and/or required thrust of the TBM is known precisely, the partial safety factor of
the action applied to determine its design value can be reduced from that given in Austrian
Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1. In this case, the design value of the action can be determined
with a partial safety factor of
= 1.0 is to be applied. (Partial safety factors for
resistance remain unchanged.)
F
For the combination of actions System-limited maximum internal water pressure, see
Definitions, a partial safety factor of F = 1.0 is to be applied. (Partial safety factors for
resistance remain unchanged.)
= 1.2 and the maximum installed thrust. (Partial safety factors
for resistance remain unchanged.)
5.4 Verification of load-bearing capacity
5.4.1 General remarks
The load-bearing capacity has to be verified according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1
for slab structures.
If the percentage of dynamic actions is low (< 30% of permanent actions), the use of welded
reinforcement mesh is permitted.
The design rules for fibre-reinforced concrete and fibre-reinforced concrete with conventional
reinforcement are laid down in the VBB Guideline on Fibre-Reinforced Concrete.
To prevent brittle fracture, the minimum reinforcement according to Austrian Standard NORM
EN 1992-1-1 is to be provided for to cover all load cases during production and installation.
Reduction of the minimum reinforcement to 0.1%, in analogy with RVS 09.01.42, is permitted in
the longitudinal direction of the tunnel.
In agreement with the Owner, the minimum reinforcement may be reduced from that given in
Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1 to the structurally required amount, if quality and safety
management during production, transport and installation can ensure that no load cases other than
those verified will occur. Condition II (cracked concrete) is to be used as a basis for this
calculation. As regards the final state (structure in use), the provisions of Austrian Standard
NORM EN 1992-1-1 apply, with due consideration given to the permanent normal forces in the
segment. Segments without the minimum reinforcement according to EU 1992-1-1 are regarded as
non-reinforced or lightly reinforced structural components.
Tensile splitting forces in the segments, caused by thrust jacks and normal forces, have to be
verified according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1. The use of welded ladder stirrups
is permitted.
Compression of contact areas in the radial and circumferential joints it to be verified. In the case of
curved joints, the size of the contact area can be determined by means of Hertzs compression or
according to Janen [7] or through testing. Stress induced by limited contact areas has to be
verified according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1.
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Page 22 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
5.4.2 Design of radial and circumferential joints
In the design of radial joints, special attention is to be paid to the following:
Type and amount of effective internal forces to be transmitted (M, N, Q)
Amount and mode of action of the forces of the joint gasket to be transmitted
Amount and mode of action of forces from kinematic constraints to be transmitted
Efficiency and geometric allocation of forces to be transmitted through limited contact areas
Effects, if any, of segment production tolerances
Kinematics and imperfections or installation tolerances (ovality and joint misalignment) of the
segment ring
In the design of circumferential joints, special attention is to be paid to the following:
Distribution, location and type of load introduction of thrust and steering forces as well as
efficiency and geometric allocation of forces to be transmitted through limited contact areas
Amount and mode of action of sealing system forces to be transmitted
Effects, if any, of segment production tolerances
Amount and mode of action of possible load introductions via centring aids and/or connecting
devices related to the kinematics and imperfections or installation tolerances (ovality and joint
offset) of the segment ring
For details on the individual types of joints, see Chapter 7.
5.4.3 Coupling forces
There is a strong international trend to dispense with structurally effective coupling elements
(tongue-and-groove, cam-and-socket couplings) or to minimise their dimensions (cam-and-socket
coupling see Chapter 7). As a rule, computational verification is not required for couplings with a
usual slip of > 5 mm [8], provided that grouting of the annular gap is complete and performed
under constant pressure. Additional reserves to prevent mutual displacement of the segment rings
in the radial joint are provided by the shear strength of the backfill material in the annulus and the
activation of friction forces in the circumferential joint. For the combination of actions Rock load
in the tunnel roof area with partially bedded segment ring and certain exceptional actions (e.g.
flooding), the need for structurally effective coupling is to be verified.
5.4.4 Indications for fire design
For fire design, the provisions of RVS 09.01.45 (Road) or the VBB Guideline on Increased Fire
Protection with Concrete for Underground Traffic Structures are to be observed.
In a double-shell system with a fire protection lining, the interaction between the inner and outer
lining in case of fire is to be taken into consideration for fire design. Special attention is to be paid
to the following:
possible temperature transition between inner and outer lining
expansion of the fire protection lining and resulting load on the outer lining
slip due to possible presence of non-wovens between inner and outer lining
support of the fire protection lining
5.5 Verification of serviceability
5.5.1 General remarks
Serviceability is to be verified in accordance with Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1.
Verification of serviceability of fibre-reinforced concrete and fibre-reinforced concrete with
conventional reinforcement is dealt with in the VBB Guideline on Fibre-Reinforced Concrete.
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5.5.2 Limitation of crack width
The limitation of crack widths is to be verified for the segmental system under load. Crack widths
are to be determined for the tightness classes according to Table 3/1 (waterproofing requirements)
or on a project-specific basis.
5.5.3 Limitation of deformations
The tolerability of ring deformation and its impact on gasket frames and bolt connections in the
area of radial and circumferential joints is to be analysed, if waterproofing of the tunnel lining is
required.
As regards the limits of deformation for the entire ovalisation of the cross section, see Chapter 12
on Imperfections.
5.6 Structural design of segments
The rules of Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1 apply. For joint design, see Chapter 7.

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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
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Page 24 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
6 CONCRETE
6.1 General remarks
Subject to compliance with the required concrete properties, optimisation of the concrete used
results in a higher segment production capacity and ensures the necessary quality of the pre-cast
concrete parts. However, given the need for heat treatment of the concrete (see Item 8.1.4) as a
prerequisite for high-quality segment production, output can only be increased within certain limits.
As a matter of principle, segments are made from concrete according to Austrian Standard
NORM B 4710-1.
6.2 Requirements
The requirements to be met by the concrete are defined in terms of strength classes, exposure
classes and depending on the production method strength development during the first hours.
Besides the requirements to be met by concrete as a building material, the segment surface also has
to meet certain quality criteria (see Item 6.2.6).
6.2.1 Strength classification
The strength class of the concrete is defined in terms of minimum compressive strength according
to Austrian Standard NORM B 4710-1, which is to be verified at a specified point in time.
Depending on the method of segment production, high early strength is usually required. As a rule,
this means that the minimum compressive strength is significantly exceeded. This can be allowed
for either by specifying a high strength class (e.g. C40/50) or by limiting the maximum permissible
compressive strength at the specified point in time.
According to Austrian Standard NORM B 4710-1, it can be taken for granted that the concrete, if
appropriately worked and post-treated, meets the required properties, as verified through
conformity testing, also in the structural component. However, conformity testing usually only
covers the building material, i.e. the concrete produced, but not the structural component.
It is important to bear in mind that storage conditions in the case of heat treatment are different
from storage according to Austrian Standard NORM B 3303. Strength testing therefore has to be
performed on samples subject to the type of (heat) storage required for the production method
chosen. Steel is to be used as formwork material for the test specimens.
If strength testing is to be performed on the finished segment, the results are to be evaluated
according to Austrian Standard NORM B 4710-1. Testing on the basis of Austrian Standard
NORM EN 13791 is only permitted if agreed upon through a special provision in the contract.
6.2.2 Exposure classification
If segments are produced without heat treatment and the maximum temperature of the structural
component demonstrably does not exceed 55C, verification of exposure classes according to
Austrian Standard NORM B 4710-1 NAD 10 is permitted. If this is not the case, testing for
exposure classes XC3, XC4, XF and XM must be performed on hardened concrete according to
Austrian Standard NORM B 3303. It is important to bear in mind that storage conditions in the
case of heat treatment are different from storage according to Austrian Standard NORM B 3303.
Testing for exposure classes therefore has to be performed on samples subject to the type of (heat)
storage required for the production method chosen. Steel is to be used as formwork material for the
test specimens.
The frequency of testing within the framework of conformity testing and identity testing is to be
specified by the design engineer. In the absence of a specified test frequency, the test frequencies
indicated in It. 6.4 apply. For exposure class XA2, a water penetration depth of < 25 mm in
hardened concrete has to be demonstrated, in addition to the fresh concrete parameters. To ensure
corrosion protection of the reinforcement, concrete for reinforced segments, regardless of the
designated concrete class, must always meet at least exposure class XC2.
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6.2.3 Early strength
Depending on the production method, a very high level of strength may be required in young
concrete (usually 6 8 hours) to absorb actions such as deadweight and transport loads. The design
engineer has to specify the required uniaxial tensile strength at the time of de-moulding (usually
between 0.8 and 1.2 N/mm). As a rule, this is verified indirectly through compressive strength
testing. Within the framework of pre-construction testing, a correlation between tensile strength
and compressive strength at the time of de-moulding is to be established.
6.2.4 Maximum grain size
The design engineer has to specify the maximum grain size of the concrete, considering the
dimensions of the structural component, the amount of reinforcement, the cover to reinforcement
and the workability of the concrete.
6.2.5 Consistency
Workability of the concrete is essential in segment production. Given the fact that workability is
related to the production method chosen, the required consistency cannot be specified by the design
engineer. As a rule, the designation of the concrete grade therefore does not contain a reference to
the consistency class. (Deviating from Austrian Standard NORM B 4710-1, F45 does not apply in
the absence of a specified consistency class). The required consistency is to be established within
the framework of pre-construction testing and during production of the test segments.
If the segment production method chosen demands a stiff concrete consistency, consistency class C2
is sufficient for the pre-construction test. Within the framework of mix optimisation during
production of the test segments, adjustment of consistency to the next higher or lower consistency
class is permitted. If consistency differs from the class used in pre-construction testing by more than
one consistency class, pre-construction testing has to be repeated. The scope of the repeated pre-
construction test is to be determined by the competent external inspection body.
6.2.6 Surface characteristics
6.2.6.1 General remarks
Depending on the segmental system, it may be appropriate to differentiate between the concrete
surfaces on the mountain side, the cavity side and in the joint areas.
The porosity and structure of the segment surface can be defined according to the VBB Guideline
on Fair-Faced Concrete Formed Concrete Surfaces or on the basis of special, clearly defined
criteria.
The required surface characteristics on the mountain side of the segment are determined, inter alia,
by the following factors:
Durability in the presence of chemical attack
Effect on mechanical lifting devices
Dimensional accuracy requirements and tolerances (Chapter 11)
Type of tailskin seal
The required surface characteristics on the tunnel side of the segment are determined, inter alia, by
the following factors:
Durability in the presence of chemical or de-icing salt attack
Risk of cavitation in water tunnels
Waterproofing requirements
Requirements to be met by the segment surface as a base for paint coats and/or other coatings
Effect on mechanical lifting devices
Dimensional accuracy requirements and tolerances (Chapter 11)
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 26 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
The required surface characteristics of the joint areas of the segment are determined, inter alia, by
the following factors:
Durability in the presence of chemical or de-icing salt attack
Risk of cavitation in water tunnels
Waterproofing requirements
Dimensional accuracy requirements and tolerances (Chapter 11)
If very stiff concrete is used, the formwork may not be filled properly and nest formation may
occur, especially in corners. To avoid nest formation in corners, it is advisable to use appropriately
sized vibrators or to adjust the concrete consistency. Poorly maintained formwork or formwork
seals may also result in a loss of cement slurry and nest formation.
6.2.6.2 Blowhole formation
The risk of air being entrapped near the concrete surface is particularly acute if forms for segment
production are used in horizontal position, as blowholes at the formwork skin tend to form in
formwork parts that are only slightly inclined.
The maximum number of blowholes per unit of surface area is to be limited, as segments are lifted
by means of a vacuum device and proper sealing at the tailskin must be ensured. The maximum
depth of blowholes must not exceed 10 mm.
As regards surfaces to which waterproofing is to be applied, Items 7.2, 8.1.6 and 9.5.8.2 as well as
Chapter 11 apply.
As regards the cover to reinforcement, Items 8.1.3 and 9.5.1.6 apply.
6.2.6.3 Evenness
In the formwork filling area inadmissible deviations from the required measure of evenness may
occur, if stiff concrete is poorly struck off manually or if soft concrete is dented on the surface
during the downstream production process (for re-working, see also Item 8.1.4).
The allowable tolerances according to Chapter 11 must be taken into consideration.
6.2.6.4 Texture
If required, the texture is to be specified according to the qualify criteria of the VBB Guideline on
Fair-Faced Concrete Formed Concrete Surfaces, Table 5/5/2. The tolerances according to
Chapter 11 must be met.
6.3 Constituent materials of concrete
6.3.1 Cement
Cement has to meet all the requirements of Austrian Standard NORM EN 197-1 and the
requirements of Austrian Standard NORM B 3327-1 for class WT42, except for the temperature
class.
6.3.2 Mineral aggregates
Mineral aggregates have to meet the requirements of Austrian Standards NORM EN 12620 and
NORM B 3131. Aggregate grading class SK1 and frost class F1 must be complied with. An
assessment of the alkali aggregate reaction according to Austrian Standard NORM B 3100 is only
required for aggregates with an AAR potential that are used in combination with cement with a
total alkali content of > 0.6%.
6.3.3 Water
Austrian Standard NORM B 4710-1 applies to mixing water. As regards the assessment of
mixing water, the limits specified in Austrian Standard NORM EN 1008 apply.
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6.3.4 Additives
The only additives to be used are silica dust according to Austrian Standards NORM EN 13263-1
and NORM EN 13263-2 or prepared hydraulically active additives (AHWZ) according to
Austrian Standard NORM B 3309. Application of the k-value concept according to Austrian
Standard NORM B 4710-1 is permitted for these additives.
6.3.5 Admixtures
All admixtures have to meet the requirements of Austrian Standard NORM EN 934-2. If several
admixtures are used together, their compatibility according to Austrian Standard NORM B 4710-
1 has to be verified.
6.3.6 Fibres
Fibres must comply with the VBB Guideline on Fibre-Reinforced Concrete and/or the VBB
Guideline on Increased Fire Protection with Concrete for Underground Traffic Structures, Item
6.1.
6.4 Testing
Pre-construction, conformity and identity tests are to be performed according to Austrian Standards
NORM B 4710-1 and NORM EN 13369. If fibres are used, the VBB Guideline on Fibre-
Reinforced Concrete applies. For fire-resistant concrete, the VBB Guideline on Increased Fire
Protection with Concrete for Underground Traffic Structures is to be taken into account. Deviating
from and/or in addition to the above standards and/or VBB Guidelines, the provisions specified in
the following apply.
6.4.1 Pre-construction testing
Pre-construction testing serves to verify that all requirements are met with the constituent materials
and additives (e.g. fibres) used, with due consideration given to any intended heat treatment
programme. If plastic fibres are used to increase fire resistance, a heat treatment programme is
provided for or the temperature of the structural component exceeds 55C, verification of exposure
classes has to be performed in hardened concrete (see It. 6.2.2).
Prior to the beginning of mass production, test segments are to be produced from the concrete mix
established through pre-construction testing, using the plant and equipment as well as the moulds
intended for actual production. In this stage of the procedure the required consistency of the
concrete is determined. The test segments are used to verify if the structural component, the built-in
parts and the concrete surface are within the required tolerances. All documents according to Table
6/1 are to be summarised in a pre-construction test report on segment production. If a heat
treatment programme is provided for, the required pre-storage time is to be indicated.
The parameters required for quality control of the concrete are to be entered as target values in
Form 1 of Austrian Standard NORM B 4710-1.
In the event of any changes in the concrete composition, the constituent materials or the production
process, or any other changes that may significantly modify the product properties, the pre-
construction test is to be repeated. The need for repeat testing is to be established by the external
inspection body.

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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 28 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
Subject of testing Standard, Guideline
Indication
obligatory
If required
Concrete mixing plant with micro-processor
control
N B 4710-1 X -
Suitability of constituent materials of concrete It. 6.3 X -
Reinforcement, built-in parts, fastenings - X -
Fresh concrete
Consistency N B 3303 Sect. 6.1 X -
Air content N B 3303 Sect. 6.3 - X
Total water content N B 3303 Sect. 6.4 X -
W/B value N B 3303 Sect. 6.6 X -
Bulk density N B 3303 Sect. 7.1 X -
Fibre content and fibre distribution (PP fibres) VBB Guideline Annex
4
-
(1)

X
Fibre content and fibre distribution (steel fibres) VBB Guideline It. 10.3
-
(2)

X
Hardened concrete
Compressive strength at7d, 28d
and at specified point in time
*)

N B 3303 Sect. 7.2 X -
Flexural tensile strength at specified point in
time
N B 3303 Sect. 7.3 X -
Verification of exposure class depending on
requirements (see It. 6.2.2)
N B 3303 Sect. 7 - X
Verification L
300
N B 3303 Sect. 7.6 (for XF1 or XF3) - X
Verification L
300
N B 3303 Sect. 7.6 AF (for XF2 or XF4) - X
Modulus of elasticity N B 3303 Sect. 7.7 - X
Temperature increase in concrete without heat
treatment (if no heat treatment is performed)
N B 3303 Sect. 7.17 - X
Temperature increase in concrete with heat
treatment
- X -
Fibre-reinforced concrete class VBB Guideline -
(2)
X
Segment
Compressive strength after 28d and/or
at specified point in time
N B 3303 Sect. 7.2
**)

X -
Surface characteristics It. 6.2.6 X -
Stripping and lift-off strength It. 6.2.3 X -
Production tolerances of segment by segment
type
Chapter 11 X -
Tolerances of assembly parts by segment type Chapter 11 - X
Acceptance of reinforcement - X -
Concrete cover on segment in 40 cm grid, by
segment type
- X -
Graphic representation of temperature
development over min. 72 hours at 3 different
measuring points in core area, surface and air
temperature to evaluate limit parameters
according to It. 8.1.4, temperature indication:
minimum, mean, maximum
It. 8.1.4 X -
*) The test specimens are to be made from fresh concrete and have to be post-treated and stored for 24 hours under
factory conditions corresponding, as much as possible, to on-site conditions for the product.
**) Evaluation of the relationship between the strength of the structural component determined indirectly by means of
the rebound tester and the compressive strength of the test cube through indication of conversion factors.
(1) VBB Guideline Increased Fire Protection with Concrete for Underground Traffic Structures
(2) VBB Guideline Fibre-Reinforced Concrete

Note: Example of specified point in time: lift-off time
Table 6/1 Scope of pre-construction testing (footnotes also apply to Tables 6/2 and 6/3)
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Edition February 2011
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6.4.2 Conformity testing
Continuous monitoring of production control (regular production control) is performed by an
accredited inspection body (third-party inspection) according to Austrian Standard NORM
EN 13369.
The requirements for the assessment of conformity through continuous factory production control
(own control) are laid down in Table 6/2. The results of factory production control must be
documented and have to be reviewed and certified by the external inspection body. All quality-
relevant documents must be made available to the user of the segments.
Parameter Standard Test Test frequency
Constituent materials of concrete N B 4710-1 It. 9.9, Tab. 22 It. 9.9, Tab. 22
Fresh concrete
Delivery note N B 4710-1 It. 7.3 every delivery
Fresh concrete temperature 1 x daily
Consistency N B 3303 Sect. 6.1
every 50
th
Air content
segment,
but min. 1 x daily
N B 3303 Sect. 6.3 min. 1 x daily (if required)
Bulk density N B 3303 Sect. 7.1 min. 1 x daily
Total water content N B 3303 Sect. 6.4 1 x weekly
Fibre content and fibre distribution
(plastic fibres)
VBB
Guideline
Annex 4
(1)

up to 1000 segments 1 x every
250 segments, then min. 1 x
every 500 segments
Fibre content and fibre distribution
(steel fibres)
VBB
Guideline
It. 10.3
(2)

up to 1000 segments 1 x every
250 segments, then min. 1 x
every 500 segments
Hardened concrete
Compressive strength (7d, 28d
and/or at specified point in time)
*)

N B 3303 Sect. 7.2
up to 1000 segments 1 x every
100 segments, then 1 x every
200 segments
Verification of exposure class by
application (see It. 6.2.2)
N B 3303 Sect. 7
for every 500 segments
min. 1 x Verification L
300
N B 3303 (for XF3) Sect. 7.6
Verification L
300
N B 3303 and AF (for XF4) Sect. 7.6
Segment
Concrete compressive strength
(indirect method rebound tester)
N B 3303 Sect. 8
for every 100 segments
min. 1 x
Temperature development over 72
hours at 3 different measuring
points in core area, surface
temperature, air temperature
It. 8.1.4
by segment geometry: one in
20 segments up to 100
segments, then one in 200
segments
Acceptance of reinforcement It. 8.1.3 every segment
Concrete cover at min. 10 points
evenly distributed over the
segment, by segment type

one in 10 segments up to 100
segments, then one in 500
segments
Evaluation for surface
characteristics and blowholes
It. 6.2.6 every segment
(1) VBB Guideline Increased Fire Protection with Concrete for Underground Traffic Structures
(2) VBB Guideline Fibre-Reinforced Concrete
Table 6/2 Scope of conformity testing (footnotes in Table 6/1 apply)
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 30 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
6.4.3 Identity testing
The identity test is to be performed by an accredited inspection body on behalf of the client; the
entire documentation of the concrete producer relating to pre-construction and conformity testing
must be made available to the inspection body and the Owner/design engineer. If the segment
producer is not identical with the concrete producer, the segment producer is obliged to perform
identity tests in addition to the identity tests performed by the Owner/design engineer.
Parameter Standard Test Test frequency
General tests
Conformity test performed by
producer according to It. 6.4.2 for
plausibility

Retroactively covering the
period since last identity test
Reinforcement mesh in open
formwork
1 x in 500 segments
Fresh concrete
Fresh concrete temperature
1 x in 500 segments
Consistency N B 3303 Sect. 6.1
Air content N B 3303 Sect. 6.3
Bulk density N B 3303 Sect. 7.1
Total water content N B 3303 Sect. 6.4
Fibre content and fibre distribution
(PP fibres)
VBB
Guideline
Annex 4
(1)

1 x in 1000 segments
Fibre content and fibre distribution
(steel fibres)
VBB
Guideline
It. 10.3
(2)

1 x in 1000 segments
Hardened concrete
Compressive strength (7 d, 28 d,
and/or at specified point in time)
*)

N B 3303 Sect. 7.2 1 x in 500 segments
Verification of exposure class in
hardened concrete, by requirements
It. 6.2.2 1 x in 1000 segments
Segment
Indirect concrete compressive
strength (rebound tester)
N B 3303 Sect.8 1 x in 50 segments
Concrete cover at min. 10 relevant
points for each segment type
1 x in 1000 segments
Evaluation for surface
characteristics and blowholes
It. 6.2.6 1 x in 1000 segments

* The test specimens are to be made from fresh concrete and have to be post-treated and stored for 24 hours under
factory conditions corresponding, as much as possible, to on-site conditions for the product.
Table 6/3 Scope of identity testing (footnotes of Table 6/1 apply)
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7 JOINT DESIGN
7.1 Types of joints and their structural design
7.1.1 Radial joints
Function of and stress on radial joints:
Radial joints essentially serve to close the load-bearing segment ring and, if required, hold a
segment gasket. They transmit the internal forces (M, N, Q) of the structural system of the segment
ring and/or the segment shell resulting from external and internal loads as well as the prestress
forces required to obtain the sealing effect.
Structural design of radial joints:
As regards the structural design of radial joints, special attention must be paid to the following:
Concentration of load-transferring contact in areas that can be covered by structural
reinforcement.
Stress relief for areas (corners and edges) that cannot be covered by structural reinforcement
through appropriate geometric shapes (setbacks).
Avoidance of notches and notch effects in the load-transferring joint area.
If possible, centric arrangement of load-transferring joint areas.
Sufficient gaps between the gasket and the flanks of the groove to ensure safe introduction of
prestress forces.
Consideration of production and installation tolerances, depending on specific requirements.
7.1.2 Circumferential joints
Function of and stress on circumferential joints:
The circumferential joints essentially serve to transfer longitudinal thrust forces, coupling forces
and steering forces and, if required, to hold a segment gasket. Moreover, the circumferential joint
also serves to translate alignment corrections and/or curves of the TBM, which may result in
unequal load introduction and in the case of alignment corrections made by means of packers
stress induced through limited contact areas.
Structural design of circumferential joints:
In the structural design of circumferential joints, special attention must be paid to the following:
Stress relief for areas (corners and edges) that cannot be covered by structural reinforcement
through appropriate geometric shapes (setbacks).
Consideration of compatibility between centring aids and/or connectors and joint kinematics.
Sufficient gaps between the gasket and the flanks of the groove to ensure safe introduction of
the prestress forces in order to obtain a tight joint.
Compliance with production and installation tolerances, depending on specific requirements,
with special consideration given to alignment corrections.
Circumferential joint geometry considering joint inserts and joint inlays and their
compressibility.

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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
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Page 32 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
7.1.3 Shapes of joints
7.1.3.1 Completely flat joints
Design features of completely flat joints:
Flat joint (usually a circumferential joint), possibly with gasket groove and/or bevelled edges.
Stress relief for areas (corners and edges) that cannot be covered by structural reinforcement
through appropriate geometric shapes (setbacks).
Designing completely flat joints:
Generally non-loaded or temporarily loaded joints.
Design for eccentric load introduction with asymmetric load distribution (effect of moments) in
a load-transferring radial joint.
Design for introduction of press forces through limited contact areas, as well as stress induced
through limited contact areas due to packers in a circumferential joint.
If appropriate, design for introduction of forces from segment gasket.
7.1.3.2 Partially flat joints
Design features of partially flat joints:
Structural arrangement of a plane, centrally positioned load transfer area that can be covered by
reinforcement.
Stress relief for areas (corners and edges) that cannot be covered by structural reinforcement
through appropriate geometric shapes (setbacks).
If combined with one or several gasket grooves, centric positioning of load transfer area is
advisable.
Designing partially flat joints:
Special consideration is to be given to a possible additional moment from joint kinematics due
to planeness.
7.1.3.3 Curved joints
Design features of curved joints:
Structural arrangement of a load transfer area with radius R, arched in the direction of the joint,
which supports central load transfer through the mutual joint geometry and can be covered by
structural reinforcement (primarily radial joint).
Concave/convex joints: R
konkav
/R
konvex
High-load joint concave/convex: R
1.2 segment thickness
konvex
High-load joint convex/convex: R
1.0 segment thickness
konvex
Self-centring curved joint concave/convex: R
510 segment thickness
konvex
Stress relief for areas (corners and edges) that cannot be covered by structural reinforcement
through appropriate geometric shapes (setbacks).
0.5 segment thickness
If combined with one or several gasket grooves (high-load joint convex/convex), central
positioning of the load transfer area is advisable.
Designing curved joints (see also It. 5.4.1):
Verification of stress induced through limited contact areas
Consideration of imperfections (ovalisation, joint misalignment)
Consideration of superposition of internal forces of the ring and forces from the segment gasket

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7.1.3.4 Coupling joints
Mechanical coupling can be achieved through a tongue-groove system (Fig. 7/1) in circumferential
and radial joints and/or a cam-socket system (Fig. 7/2) in circumferential joints.
Cam-and-socket and/or tongue-and-groove connections are to be designed with the plane of
weakness in the cam and/or tongue; thus, the tightness of the segmental lining remains intact in
case of damage. The clearance between the cam and socket and/or the tongue and groove should be
greater than or equal to the installation tolerance. To avoid notch stresses, cavettos should be
rounded rather than sharp-edged. To protect the flanks of coupling elements from damage during
installation, a layer of plastic material, e.g. Kaubit strips, is to be inserted. The reinforcement is to
be designed so as to protect the cam and/or groove flanks.
The coupling systems can be designed to cover catastrophic scenarios. For curved joints the design
indications of It. 7.1.3.3 apply.
7.1.4 Keystone joint
Structural design wedge-shaped keystone
The above references to radial joints apply.
Taper 811 for trapezoidal and rhomboidal shapes
Taper 1721 for hexagonal shapes
Stress relief for load-bearing areas (corners and edges) that cannot be covered by structural
reinforcement through appropriate geometric shapes (setbacks).
Free choice of joint shapes
Sliding back of the wedge-shaped keystone during installation of the ring can be prevented
through appropriate choice and arrangement of connectors.
Positive locking is important to prevent slip-through.
Structural design keystone with parallel radial joint:
The above references to radial joints apply.
Free choice of joint shapes, completely flat joints should be avoided.

Fig. 7-1 Tongue and groove joint system Fig. 7-2 Cam and socket joint system
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 34 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
Positive locking is important to avoid slip-through.
Designing keystone joints:
The usual design indications apply to keystone joints.
7.2 Joint sealing systems
7.2.1 Systems with unsealed joints
Waterproofing of the segment ring is not provided for (AT
4
Depending on project-specific requirements, the joints have to be designed to ensure permanent
discharge of ground water entering the tunnel structure.
according to Tab. 3/1). Joint sealing is
only required to reliably prevent a loss of segment bedding.
7.2.2 Systems with mortar-filled joints (combined with injection)
Basically, conditions are the same as for unsealed joints. However, by filling the joint with mortar
it is possible to create the prerequisites for contact grouting of the annulus and, if necessary,
injection of the surrounding rock (Fig. 7-3 and Fig. 7-4).
The shape of the joint must such as to allow the filling material to penetrate to a depth that ensures
sufficient bonding of the mortar or to create conditions of positive locking. The groove of the
mortar-filled joint must not interfere with the structurally relevant load transfer width of the radial
joint. Low-shrinkage mortar and a suitable degree of stiffness are essential.
7.2.3 Systems with waterproof lining
The tightness of the structure is guaranteed by the individual components of the support system,
consisting of the segments and the segment gasket. The individual elements of the support system
have to be adapted to each other. Gaskets positioned around the individual segment like a frame
ensure the tightness of the joint. If high waterproofing requirements have to be met, a double gasket
frame can be used, with webs between the individual frames arranged in such a way as to prevent
water from flowing along the joint between the sealing frames. As a rule, T-bar joints in the
segment lining are to be avoided for AT1 and AT2. Elastomer gaskets are placed along the joint
flanks of the segment and held in the groove by means of adhesive or concreted. Elastically
compressible gaskets are used most frequently, whereas swellseal strips are rarely applied. It is also
possible to combine both systems, with the swellseal strip integrated into the elastomer gasket.
7.2.3.1 Gasket groove
The all-round groove holds the gasket in place during installation and enables it to resist the
prevailing water pressure in the finished structure. It has to be adjusted to the shape of the gasket. It
must be positioned far enough from the outer edge of the segment to prevent spalling of the
concrete at the groove flanks under the recovery forces of the compressed gasket. Computational
verification is required to show that spalling will not occur, especially at the corners of the frame.

Fig. 7-3 Example of mortar-filled curved joint Fig. 7-4 Example of mortar-filled flat joint
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The base and the flanks of the grooves must be even and free of visible blowholes. For
waterproofing requirements classes AT1 to AT2 it may be necessary to seal the base and the flanks
of the groove (e.g. by means of epoxide resin).
7.2.3.2 Swellseal strips
Swellseal strips can be used in the presence of low water pressure, but must never dry out
completely. The suitability of swellseal strips, depending on the chemical properties of the ground
water, must be demonstrated through testing. Early swelling of the seal is to be prevented. The use
of swellseal strips is only permitted for requirements class AT3.
7.2.3.3 Elastomer gaskets
For structures with high waterproofing requirements (requirements classes AT1 and AT2) closed-
cell elastomer gaskets are used most frequently. The gasket strips are glued into the groove at a
defined pre-stress of ca. 1% to 3%. The gasket is to be chosen according to the required durability
(relaxation), the specified safety margin, the permissible installation tolerances and the prevailing
water pressure. Tightness of the gasket is to be demonstrated through testing. The ratio of gasket
width at the groove base to gasket height should be at least 2:1 in order to prevent tilting of the
gasket during installation. The recovery force of the gasket depends on its height and width and on
the shape of the cross section (number of cells). The recovery force and the top width of the gasket
essentially determine the tightness of the joint, depending on the maximum prevailing water
pressure.
To ensure compression of the gaskets towards the ends of the tunnel section, permanent
longitudinal pre-stressing by means of bolts or similar devices is to be provided for over a
verifiable length, at least over the length of one tunnel cross section. This also applies to other areas
in which the possibility of segment rings being displaced longitudinally cannot be excluded, e.g. on
either side of crosscut openings, before and after shafts, widened station areas, etc.
The gasket is to be manufactured as a closed frame to the required degree of dimensional accuracy
in the gasket manufacturing plant, with due consideration given to the segment geometry,
especially angles at corners. The increased tightness requirements to be met by T joints in the
corners of the frame must be taken into consideration.
Prior to installation of the gasket frame, any repair measures to be performed on the groove base
and groove flanks must be completed and the materials used must be completely cured. The groove
area must be dry, free of dust and grease, and the adhesive used must be compatible with the gasket
material. The conditions of installation specified by the manufacturer, such as temperature,
humidity, etc., must be complied with.
To avoid damage to the gasket through shearing at the groove base during installation of the
segment, especially the keystone, covering or coating the gasket with a lubricant is recommended.
Anchored gaskets can be used to meet high waterproofing requirements. The gasket, which is
equipped with special anchoring devices on the underside, is directly embedded in concrete in the
process of segment production. Thus, the seepage path of any water is prolonged and the gasket is
held safely in place during installation.
The requirements to be met by the gasket are to be determined on the basis of the design water
pressure, considering the safety factor specified according to [9] Item 4. The test is performed
according to [9] Item 5. If a double sealing frame is used, all requirements must be met by a single
frame.
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7.2.3.4 Pre-sealing
To protect the segment gasket, installation of an all-around pre-seal, sheltering the joint from
contact with mortar from the annular gap or soil entering on the mountain side, is recommended.
Moreover, the pre-seal prevents the entry of tailskin sealing grease into joints as well as the spread
of sealing grease and annular gap mortar along the radial joint underneath the tailskin seal. The pre-
seal has no function in the finished structure. Adhesive bonding of the pre-seal must be strong
enough to prevent it from being dislodged through normal manipulation of the segment (Fig. 7/5).
7.3 Centring aids and connectors
7.3.1 Purpose of connectors and centring aids
The segments are temporarily or permanently connected in the radial and circumferential joints by
means of connecting devices, e.g. bolts or high-strength dowels, in order to ensure a certain degree
of stability during installation, to prevent displacement of the segments, and to keep the gaskets
compressed during construction and, if necessary, in the finished structure. Centring aids serve to
facilitate precise segment installation.
7.3.2 Movable centring aids
7.3.2.1 General remarks
Guide rods and dowels can be used as movable centring aids.
Centring aids fulfil the functions of guidance, centring during segment installation and, possibly,
positive locking. Guide rods are able to absorb shear forces in the radial joint, whereas dowels
absorb shear and tensile forces, if any, in the circumferential joint. Absorption of shear and tensile
forces is to be demonstrated through testing.
7.3.2.2 Construction and design
A guide rod in the radial joint serves to improve the precision of segment installation. Both joint
surfaces have a semi-circular recess. The guide rod with a diameter of ca. 25-50 mm is fastened
on one side by means of an adhesive. Usually, guide rods are used in combination with dowels in
the circumferential joint; however, they can also be used in combination with other connecting
devices (e.g. bolts) (Fig. 7/6 and Fig. 7/7).

Fig. 7-5 Joint design with pre-seal, gasket frame and joint insert
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The material and the dimensions of the guide rod should be such as to prevent the build-up of
constraining forces in the closed joint. The edges of the recess should be bevelled on both sides
of the rail in order to facilitate fastening of the rail in the recess. The allowable installation
tolerance depends on the necessary compression of the gasket and has to be verified separately.
7.3.3 Dowels
7.3.3.1 Positioning of dowels
Dowels in circumferential joints not only serve as centring aids, but also absorb tensile and shear
forces. Due to compression by the TBM jacks, no further bolt connection is required. It is
important to note that dowels keep segment installation tolerances low; however, subsequent ring
offset to compensate for imperfections is not possible. Dowels are suited for all segment
geometries, but can only be used in circumferential joints.
7.3.3.2 Dowel design
Dowel connections must be designed to absorb the acting tensile and shear forces. The dowel-
segment interaction as well as the dowel-segment-seal-strip interaction must be taken into account.
The forces to be absorbed by the dowel have to be verified through testing or computation.
When inserting the dowel, care must be taken not to entrap any air or water behind the dowel,
which might result in loosening of the dowel.
7.3.4 Bolts
The use of bolts for segment connection primarily serves to hold the segment in place provisionally
during assembly and to ensure compression of the gaskets. Bolts absorb tensile and shear forces
during installation, but can also absorb forces in the finished structure. Bolts are used in both
circumferential joints and radial joints. They have to be placed immediately upon installation of the
individual segment after application of the thrust jacks and, as a rule, are removed after
approximately 2 tunnel diameters. In waterproof systems with double gasket frames, the holes from
temporary bolt connections and/or the entire bolt system in case of permanent bolt connections
have to be sealed, considering the design water pressure.
As a rule, the bolts are applied in inclined position from inside out (see Fig. 7/8), with the load
being introduced from the bolt head via the bolt pocket into the segment. The bolt ends in the
socket of the neighbouring segment. Washers have to be used with all bolts. In radial joints the
bolts should be arranged in opposite directions in order to avoid unilateral radial forces.
Circumferential joints can also be permanently connected by means of tensile elements across the
entire segment (through-tensioning), which are introduced from the free face of a newly installed
segment and connected with the previous ring by means of a sleeve, a coupling or a socket
(Fig. 7-9).

Fig. 7-6 Plastic guide rod in the longitudinal joint Fig. 7-7 Guide groove with guide rod in the
longitudinal joint
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Page 38 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
7.3.4.1 Requirements to be met by the connectors
The number and size of connectors depend on the construction method, the segment size and the
recovery force of the gasket. The gasket should be completely compressed by the TBM presses
before the bolts are tightened so that the necessary pressure can be applied and/or maintained.
Connecting devices remaining in the structure must be corrosion-proof to meet the requirements of
the project (e.g. resistance to exhaust gases or chloride).
The need to seal the bolt pockets (e.g. with cement mortar or prefabricated parts) depends on the
project-specific requirements.
The bolt holes must be enlarged at least by the allowable installation tolerance.
7.3.4.2 Bolt dimensioning
The torque to be applied by the impact wrenches used to tighten the connectors is to be indicated.
The bolts are to be dimensioned as a function of the design forces. The relevant forces in the radial
joint and the circumferential joint are to be applied to the connectors and the segments. The bolt-
segment interaction as well as the bolt-segment-gasket interaction must be taken into consideration
in the dimensioning of the segment. In waterproof systems the pre-stress force generated by the
connectors must be designed at least for the recovery force of the gasket frames upon complete
compression of the segment joints at ambient temperature.
For plastic sockets embedded in concrete, tests must be performed to demonstrate that the pre-
stress of the bolts, as a function of their intended lifetime, is not lost through creep and that the
threads of the bolt do not come loose as a result of vibrations from construction work.
7.4 Joint inserts
To avoid direct contact of the concrete surfaces in the circumferential joint and to smooth out any
slight manufacturing unevenness on the load transfer areas, joint inserts can be placed on the
circumferential joint on the side of the segment facing away from the working face. If joint inserts
are used, they must be fastened reliably on the joint surfaces. The thickness of the insert prior to
installation and after absorption of all loads is to be taken into consideration for segment design.
The inserts have to meet high requirements, as they must be sufficiently resilient without
deforming in an uncontrolled manner. In particular, they must not act as a sliding surface, as this
would cause inadmissible offset in the circumferential joints.
7.5 Joint adjustment plates
To adjust for curves, joint adjustment plates are inserted in the circumferential joints of segment
ring systems with parallel joints. The thickness of these adjustment plates, made from wood
material or plastic, depends on the curve radii.



Fig. 7-8 Example of segment connection Fig. 7-9 Continuous straight bolt connection in
by means of inclined bolt circumferential joint (through-tensioning)
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8 PRODUCTION
8.1 Production technology
8.1.1 Mixing plant
The mixing plant must meet the requirements of a mixing plant with micro-processor control
according to Austrian Standard NORM B 4710-1, It. 9.6.2.3. Moreover, the mixing plant must
have an automatic system to measure and document the temperature of the fresh concrete. The
plant is to be designed to meet the peak daily demand. Unless otherwise indicated in the following,
segments are to be produced according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 13369.
8.1.2 Formwork
Formwork design is based on the required load cycles (durability) and the allowable tolerances for
the segment. As a rule, stationary or mobile formwork (carousel) is used for segment production.
Formwork usually consists of the following components:
Mould base
Side wall
Front wall
Mould top, counter formwork (possibility of working on the back on the segment)
Base elements for fastening of assembly parts
Gaskets
Vibration equipment
As a rule, formwork must be adjustable. A test schedule is to be drawn up for maintenance and
checks of dimensional stability. The test schedule is to be adapted to the requirements of
production tolerances. See also Chapter 11 on Geometric Tolerances.
Formwork has to meet specified criteria in terms of durability, resistance and dimensional
accuracy. The dimensional accuracy of the formwork must be significantly higher than that of the
part to be produced. To verify compliance with this requirement, credentials have to be provided by
the formwork manufacturer.
8.1.3 Reinforcement
The dimensional stability of the reinforcement is essential for the durability of the segments.
Besides the usual method of reinforcement tying, welded cages are also used for segment
reinforcement. The transmission of forces has to be demonstrated through testing. It is important to
make sure that all the welders employed are sufficiently qualified. Welded reinforcement must
meet the requirements of It. 5.4.1.
To guarantee the cover to reinforcement provided for in the design, the number of spacers has to be
optimised as a function of cage design. For segment surfaces likely to have an increased number of
production-related blowholes (e.g. extrados of segments cast in horizontal formwork) the nominal
cover to reinforcement, deviating from Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1, is increased by
the permissible blowhole depth. Thus, the nominal concrete cover equals the sum total of the
minimum concrete cover (according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1), the allowance
for tolerances (according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1) and the permissible
blowhole depth (according to It. 6.2.6.2). In areas of load introduction (front faces, edges of
exterior surfaces) and around bolt pockets, the nominal cover to reinforcement is to be determined
without considering potential blowholes. The minimum cover to reinforcement must be observed in
any case.
Increased structural fire protection requirements (VBB Guideline on Increased Fire Protection
through Concrete in Underground Traffic Structures) have to be considered separately. If this
results in an increased concrete cover, there is no need to consider blowhole depth.
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The minimum cover to reinforcement, the permissible blowhole depth and the allowance for
tolerances are to be specified (Fig. 8/1). If welded cages are used, the requirements of Austrian
Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1 are to be complied with. If tied cages or reinforcement optimised
for the specific load case (reduced to the structurally necessary amount according to It. 5.4.1) are
used, the number of spacers is to be increased because of the instability of the cage. The
arrangement of spacers is to be specified by the manufacturer of the pre-cast parts.

8.1.4 Concreting and curing process
The concreting process depends on the method of production (stationary formwork/carousel).
Either concrete is transported to the formwork (stationary formwork) or the formwork is
transported to the concrete (carousel).
As regards the cleaning of formwork, a schedule with specified cleaning and maintenance
frequencies as well as regular checks of dimensional stability is to be drawn up. The allowable
formwork tolerances are to be indicated.
Reworking of the concrete surface is to be planned as a function of the required segment evenness,
porosity and dimensional stability. It is important to bear in mind that in formwork parts positioned
at a very flat angle there is always a risk of air being entrapped along the (upper) outer radius. This
can be remedied by opening the mould top after pouring of the concrete and subsequently
reworking the surface.
If the consistency of the concrete is very stiff, there is a risk of the specified dimensions being
exceeded around the filling area of the formwork after the concrete surface has been struck off.
If stripping times (4 7 hours) are reduced through heat treatment, the rise in temperature due to
the build-up of heat of hydration is to be taken into account. As a rule, heat treatment is to be
discontinued at a core temperature of 40 50C, as any further temperature increase might result in
the concrete temperature rising above 50 55C due to the heat of hydration of cement.
The development of temperature is to be documented at three different measuring points,
distributed over the cross section of the segment, to verify the maximum temperature difference
against ambient temperature (usually for up to 72 hours).


Fig. 8-1 Cover to reinforcement according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1
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The following values must not be exceeded:
max. temperature difference core surface 25 K
max. temperature difference surface ambient temperature 25 K
upon delivery to open-air storage site (If this value is exceeded,
testing is required to demonstrate resistance against cracking in state I)
max. permissible rate of cooling at the surface 10 K/h

If the segment is subject to a heat treatment programme, the following additional parameters must
be established:
max. concrete temperature in the core 55 C
max. rate of heat build-up 20 K/h
max. permissible fresh concrete temperature 30 C
If heat treatment is applied, pre-storage of the segments for at least one hour is necessary. If the
segment has to meet very demanding requirements in terms of durability and exposure to water,
additional measures have to be taken, e.g. prolongation of pre-storage to 3 hours, use of C
3
A detailed description of the curing process both with and without heat treatment is to be
attached to the pre-construction test report. The maximum permissible fresh concrete temperature,
the duration of pre-storage, the maximum rate of heat build-up and the maximum surface cooling
rate are to be indicated.
A-free
cement, or verification that secondary ettringite formation is excluded. For post-treatment of the
concrete after formwork removal, use of a post-treatment agent is recommended, applied
immediately after stripping and meeting the requirements regarding the barrier coefficient and the
increased base temperature (RVS 11.06.42). Compatibility of the post-treatment agent with
subsequent coatings, if any, should be ensured.
8.1.5 Production tolerances
The allowable segment production tolerances depend on the type of support (single-shell or double-
shell lining) and the requirements class according to Chapter 3, Table 3/1 Definition and
Description of Requirements Classes for Support Systems (see also Chapter 11).
8.1.6 Joints / Gaskets
The design of the joints and/or the gaskets is based on the allowable tolerances and the type of
support (single-shell or double-shell lining) as well as the segment type.
In this context, special attention should be paid to the groove and its preparation (see It. 7.2.3.1 and
It. 9.5.1.8).
8.2 Handling and storage in the production plant
As a rule, prefabricated elements are manipulated by means of a gripper or a vacuum lifter with or
without swivel mechanism. Shocks during handling and transport must be avoided. The
compressive strength of the concrete required to absorb loads due to transport (bending moment of
the young prefabricated element) is to be indicated by the design engineer and must be verified
through testing by the manufacturer.
To ensure their traceability, the segments must be marked as follows:
Segment type (concrete grade/type of reinforcement)
Production date
Formwork number
Batch number on day of production
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Page 42 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
On the basis of this continuous marking system, it must be possible to unmistakeably trace the
formwork and reinforcement checks performed, the concreting and stripping times, and the
corresponding dimensional checks. A project-specific system of quality assurance must be in place.
If an underlying, continuous batch numbering system ensures complete traceability of the segments
produced, indication of the batch number on the day of production is not obligatory. The specific
requirements of storage and assembly logistics must be observed.
Specific requirements for segment storage (e.g. bearing points, stacking height) are to be indicated
by the design engineer and verified by the manufacturer. Markings on the individual segments
facilitate the verification of appropriate storage.
The level of compressive strength of the concrete to be achieved prior to installation is to be
indicated by the design engineer; compliance with the required strength class is to be verified.
Furthermore, the requirements specified under It. 9.1.1 apply.
8.3 Testing and production controls
8.3.1 Testing of building materials
The production controls to be performed on the concrete are listed in Chapter 6.
8.3.2 Testing of structural components
Testing of structural components in the course of production serves to verify the specified
properties of the pre-cast parts, acceptance of the reinforcement and the concrete cover,
dimensional stability (geometry), acceptance of other assembly parts, such as the gasket frame, the
pre-seal and the joint inserts, as well as the identification of possible defects.
8.3.3 Concrete properties
The verification of the structural component properties as a function of the material properties is
dealt with in Chapter 6.
8.3.4 Geometry
The stripped segments must be measured according to a specified schedule. As a rule, deviations in
excess of the allowable tolerances result in elimination of the segment; the formwork used for
production of the non-compliant segments is inspected and, if necessary, readjusted. The necessary
test instruments, e.g. templates, dial gauges, calliper squares, precision measuring tapes, precision
rulers or 3D measuring devices, must be available for use (see Chapter 11). Adequate space and
logistic prerequisites are to be provided for the control measurements.
The test frequencies for different systems (with and without waterproofing) are indicated in It.
11.3.4. The measuring procedures and the measuring frequencies for segments and formwork as
well as the tests to be performed on the closed segment ring are listed non-exhaustively.
8.3.5 Acceptance of segments produced
After production and prior to further use, the segments are subjected to an evaluation process and
either accepted or eliminated.
The quality control documents must be available; a visual inspection for spalling, imperfections,
condition of gaskets and cracks is to be performed. Acceptance of the segments is to be
documented.
Interim evaluations of any kind are to help the manufacturer save unnecessary transport, handling
and storage costs.
A further inspection prior to installation (It. 9.4.1) is to be provided for.
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8.4 Repair during production (in plant)
Repairs in the course of production (in plant) are to be performed in line with the provisions
applicable to repairs during transport/installation (It. 9.5).

9 INSTALLATION
9.1 General remarks
To avoid damage to the segments during transport from the production plant to the site of
installation, a quality management system (QMS) should be provided for. Basically, the provisions
of Austrian Standard NORM EN 13369 apply. As a minimum requirement, the QMS should
cover the aspects referred to in Items 9.1.1 and 9.1.2 as well as 9.4 and 9.5.
9.1.1 Storage
The segments are to be stored in such a way as to protect them from detrimental climatic
influences. Loads as well as deformations during storage are to be considered.
Segments can be stored either by segment ring or by segment type.
In the case of storage by ring, the segments forming one ring are stacked on top of each other.
Grouping for transport to the tunnel site is not necessary. The rings are to be stacked in the order
of their installation.
In the case of storage by type, segments of the same type and approximately the same age are
stored together. Damaged segments can easily be removed without restacking. If segments are
transported by type, transport capacities can be utilised more efficiently.
For storage of segments at the construction site or an interim storage site, the following additional
aspects need to be considered:
The logistics of arrival at and departure from the site must be well organised; sufficient space
must be available for loading and unloading.
The requirements to be met by the segment storage site have to be accurately defined. In
particular, the total storage area required, the facilities needed at the storage site and the load-
bearing capacity and evenness requirements of the area must be defined.
If segments are to be stored horizontally, the dimension of and distance between the wooden
stacking supports (as statically required for stacked segments) need to be indicated.
The number of segments that can be stacked on top of each other (statically determined!) must
be indicated for both horizontal and vertical storage.
A suitable lifting device (e.g. distance between forks, distance between loops) is to be chosen
for segment transport.
If need arises, finishing work on the segments can also be performed at the storage site.
9.1.2 Transport
The requirements for segment transport (e.g. stackability of segments for transport, maximum
transport weight and other traffic restrictions, strength of concrete at the time of transport) are to be
considered.
As regards the transport of segments from the production plant to the storage site and/or from the
storage site to the site of installation, special attention must be paid to the availability of additional
interim storage or handling sites (e.g. reloading of segments from wheel-bound to track-bound
vehicles in the portal area). These interim storage sites also have to meet specific requirements.
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Page 44 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
9.2 Building of the segment ring Mechanical engineering requirements
9.2.1 General remarks
The mechanical engineering requirements depend on the geological conditions of the site, the
ingress of water to be expected, the segmental system used and the need for support of the
excavated cavity and the tunnel face. All equipment used must be designed to prevent damage to
segment surfaces and edges and to ensure installation of the segments in the correct position. The
introduction of thrust forces must be such as to prevent damage to or displacement of the segments
beyond the specified tolerances.
9.2.2 Thrust jacks
The number and arrangement of thrust jacks and the segment design must be adjusted to each
other. The capacity of the thrust jacks is to be determined as a function of the entire thrust required.
The eccentricity of force application is to be taken into consideration. The design and control of the
individual thrust jacks or groups of thrust jacks must be such as to permit individual hydraulic
jacking during the installation of the segment ring. For certain types of segmental systems (e.g.
Swiss stacking system to It. 3.3.1), the use of a thrust ring is necessary. In this case, special
installation measures must be provided for (see Chapter 10).
The jacking pads must be designed for smooth and unconstrained force introduction into the
segments.
9.2.3 Segment gantry and erector
The segment gantry and the erector are to be designed for the expected maximum segment weight,
with due consideration given to dynamic loads (Chapter 4).
The design of the segment gantry must be such as to permit unconstrained segment take-up and
unimpeded transport from the point of unloading to the segment feeder.
Except for the keystone, the erector has to ensure constraint-free take-up and form-fitting
installation of the segments. The erector must be able to perform the following motions
independently of each other:
shifting in the longitudinal tunnel direction
rotation around the shield axis by 360
radial extension and retraction
tilting of the erector head along and across the tunnel axis
tilting of the erector head across the tunnel
swivelling of the erector head
A precision control system must be available for all the above motions. For segment systems with
guide dowels and guide rods, the degrees of freedom at the erector should be freely variable in
order to avoid assembly-related constraints.
The control panel of the segment gantry and the erector must be arranged in such a way as to
permit a direct view of the segment during transport and installation. Segments are picked up by
means of suction plates or pick-up pins.
In the case of sealed segments, the working range of the erector must be wide enough to allow repair
work to be carried out on the tailskin seal (larger working range in the direction of the tailskin seal).
Adjusted to the segmental system used, the erector must be designed to allow complete pre-
stressing of the gaskets in the segment joints during assembly.
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9.2.4 Tailskin seal
9.2.4.1 Inner tailskin seal
The tailskin seal, which seals the annular gap between the inside of the tailskin and the segment
ring, prevents leaking of pea gravel, mortar or grout from the annular gap. It is to be designed in
such a way as to ensure tight closure of the gap even if the segment ring is in an eccentric position.
Depending on specific requirements, a system with multiple seal rings may be required. Replacing
and repairing the seal from the inside must be possible.
A tailskin seal is to be provided for and maintained in good condition, if the segments must be fully
bedded immediately behind the shield tunnelling machine to guarantee the stability of the segment
ring.
9.2.4.2 Outer tailskin seal
The outer tailskin seal serves to seal the annular gap between the outside of the tailskin and the
rock mass against the entry of pea gravel and/or mortar or grout into the shield area. In particular,
seals of this type are required in side wall areas, if the wall segment needs to be fully bedded
immediately behind the shield.
9.3 Loads due to tunnel advance
Depending on the type of shield machine used, the thrust is introduced either directly into the
segments or via gripper pads into the rock mass.
As the machine advances, the segments are subject to substantial loads. The introduction of forces
should be such as to ensure a centric, uniform and wide distribution of thrust forces in order to
avoid spalling as a result of overloading.
In the presence of squeezing rock or other constraining forces, it may be necessary to increase the
thrust force substantially over a short period of time in order to free the machine. This is likely to
result in damage to exposed segments. The level of thrust to be applied and the repair measures to
be taken are to be agreed upon with the Owner.
9.4 Segment control and inspection
Prior to installation, the segments are subjected to a general evaluation based on the contact
provisions and examined in detail on the basis of the criteria of release for transport; on that basis,
they are either accepted or rejected. Interim evaluations of any kind are to help the segment
manufacturer avoid unnecessary expenses for transport, handling and storage, but their results are
without prejudice to the final inspection outcome. For segments not subject to conformity testing
(according to It. 6.4.2, Table 6/2) or identity testing (according to It. 6.4.3, Table 6/3), special
provisions are to be included in the contract by the tendering authority. In the interest of cost-
efficiency, it is recommended that individual non-compliant segments be subjected to a technical
evaluation with regard to their fitness for use and, provided they are fit for use, their installation be
permitted subject to a special provision (quality discount).
9.4.1 At the construction site above ground
Final acceptance takes place on the basis of the interim inspection performed and the manufacturers
own production control, including final visual inspection at the last storage site before transport into
the tunnel. To prevent delays during installation in the tunnel, defects of segments and gaskets should
be identified in time through joint inspection by the Owner and the Contractor prior to transport into
the tunnel. Every segment must be identified and visually inspected for inadmissible defects.
If defective segments are identified, the procedure according to It. 9.5.4 applies.
Moreover, the age of the segments, as an indication of the level of compressive strength to be
expected, is to be checked.
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9.4.2 In the tunnel prior to installation underground
Together, the Owner and the Contractor have to identify any defects due to transport from the
storage site to the place of installation. If the defects cannot be repaired, the segments concerned
are to be eliminated.
9.4.3 Inspections after installation
Segment defects (e.g. due to installation, thrust forces, forces from back-up equipment, rock
pressure, etc.) are to be identified by the Owner and the Ccontractor; a detailed documentation of
the defects identified is to be kept by the Contractor.
Similarly, compliance with the permissible values specified in the contract for segment
misalignment, joint width, water ingress through leaking joints and segment leakages is to be
established jointly by the Owner and the Contractor and documented by the Contractor.
Ovalisation of the tunnel is to be verified through deformation measurements performed by the
Contractor.
9.5 Repair of segments
Frequent types of defects are described in the following. Defects are classified by location, as the
possibility of repairing a defect essentially depends on where it is located. Given the fact that the
elimination of defective segments has a major impact on manufacturing costs, the criteria for
elimination must be clearly described.
Very small defects (below the limits of the matrix in Table 9/1 and/or 9/2) with no impact on the
durability and serviceability of the segment are not defined as defects for the purposes of this
Guideline.
9.5.1 Definition of the most frequent types of defects
9.5.1.1 General remarks
Defects requiring the repair of segments not complying with the specified parameters are described
in the following.
9.5.1.2 Nest formation
Nests are defects in the segment caused by partly insufficient compaction of the concrete or
leakage of cement paste from leaking moulds (Fig. 9-1, Fig. 9-2).


Fig. 9-1 Example 1: nest formation defect Fig. 9-2 Example 2: nest formation defect
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9.5.1.3 Missing concrete parts
Missing concrete parts are defects due to insufficient filling of the mould with concrete (Fig 9/3).
9.5.1.4 Inadmissible blowholes
Inadmissible blowholes are defects on the concrete surface caused by air entrapped in the
formwork (usually at the counter-formwork) and exceeding the specified depth and permissible
frequency (Fig. 9-4).
9.5.1.5 Tear-off and spalling
Tear-off and spalling defects in hardened concrete are caused by de-moulding at insufficient
concrete strength, inappropriate transport or installation (Fig. 9-5, Fig. 9-6, Fig. 9-7).


Fig. 9-3 Example of defect: Fig. 9-4 Example of defect: inadmissible
missing concrete part blowhole with concrete cover
below the required minimum

Fig. 9-5 Example: spalling, torn edge Fig. 9-6 Example: spalling, torn edge
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 48 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
9.5.1.6 Inadequate cover to reinforcement
For structural reasons, the concrete cover to reinforcement must not be less than the required
minimum (Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1). If the concrete cover is sufficient to ensure
bonding with the reinforcement, but insufficient in view of the prevailing environmental conditions
(Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1), the measures specified in It. 9.5.4 apply.
9.5.1.7 Inadmissible cracks
As a rule, cracks in installed segments (Fig. 9-9, Fig. 9-10), waterproof or permeable, are
inadmissible, if their width exceeds the limits specified in Table 3/1. Specifications for segments
before and after installation are to be indicated by the design engineer (see Tables 9/1 and 9/2).


Fig. 9-7 Example: spalling of installed segment Fig. 9-8 Separation crack

Fig. 9-9 Separation crack Fig. 9-10 Permissible crack
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9.5.1.8 Gasket and gasket groove
9.5.1.8.1 Crack
Cracks in the groove base must not be wider than 0.15 mm and/or extend over more than 30% of
the groove base.
Cracks over the entire groove width of the sealing frame are inadmissible (Fig. 9-11)
9.5.1.8.2 Blowholes
Prior to the assessment of blowholes, the base and flanks of the groove must be cleaned by means
of a steel brush. The repair of blowholes extending over more than 30% of the groove base is not
permitted. The total area of blowholes must not exceed 3P (0.9% relative to the groove base area
on each segment face). The repair of blowholes extending over a length of more than 15 mm in the
groove flank is subject to agreement by the Owner. If the Owners agreement is not obtained, the
segments concerned must be eliminated (Fig. 9-12 and Fig. 9-13).


Fig. 9-11 Inadmissible crack Fig. 9-12 Repair of blowholes after
consultation with Owner

Fig. 9-13 Blowhole width > 1/3 Fig. 9-14 Inadmissible nest formation
of groove base area in gasket area
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
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Page 50 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
9.5.1.8.3 Nests
Nests are not acceptable (Fig. 9-14).

9.5.1.8.4 Tear-off and spalling
Tear-off and spalling is not permissible (Fig. 9-15, Fig. 9-16, Fig. 9-17).,


Fig. 9-15 Inadmissible spalling Fig. 9-16 Inadmissible spalling
during production during transport

Fig. 9-17 Inadmissible spalling Fig. 9-18 Loose gasket frame
during installation
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9.5.1.8.5 Gasket frame
Damage to the gasket frame and defective bonding are not acceptable (Fig. 9-19).
9.5.1.9 Other defects
Other defects are defects resulting from necessary operations, such as core drilling, dowelling, etc.
As a rule, such defects are to be closed (Fig. 9-20).
9.5.2 Types of defects
The repair measure to be taken depends on where the defect has occurred. Defects may either be
due to the production process or result from damage to segments during transport or during and
after installation.
Due to time constraints, damage to segments caused during transport from the portal to the place of
installation or during installation can only be repaired to a limited extent.
9.5.2.1 Types of defects occurring during production:
Nest formation
Missing concrete parts
Inadmissible blowholes
Tear-off and spalling
Concrete cover below required minimum
Cracks
Gaskets
cracks
blowholes
nest formation
tear-off and spalling
gasket frame
Cracks
Other defects
9.5.2.2 Types of defects due to handling and transport
Cracks
Spalling
Gasket damage

Fig. 9-19 Damaged gasket frame Fig. 9-20 Spalling at dowel hole
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 52 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
9.5.2.3 Types of defects due to damage during and after installation
Spalling
Cracks
Gasket damage
Other defects
9.5.3 Repair of defects
The need for repair of concrete defects depends on the requirements to be met by the segment as
specified in the design documents. The type of repair measure to be taken depends on the origin of
the defect and its location on the segment. Not all segment defects can or must be repaired. The
criteria for eliminating defective segments are to be specified in the design documents.
A repair plan, complete with working instructions, is to be drawn up. As a minimum, it has to cover
the following items:
Types of defects
Criteria for repair
Repair measures
Products used for repairs
Documentation (segment number, type of defect, etc.)
Demanding requirements have to be met in terms of staff qualifications and the products used. Staff
qualifications have to be documented through training certificates and/or credentials from prior
experience.
The repair of segments must be performed in accordance with the VBB Guideline on the
Maintenance and Repair of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structures. Moreover, for
segments meeting the requirements of increased fire protection, the VBB Data Sheet on
Protective Coatings for Increased Fire Protection for Underground Traffic Structures applies.
Products used for segment repair must comply with these Guidelines. Deviating from the
provisions of the VBB Guideline on the Maintenance and Repair of Concrete and Reinforced
Concrete Structures, the quality of repair is verified through testing of trial segments (e.g. test
segment according to It. 6.4.1) and random sampling. The scope of testing is to be indicated by the
design engineer.
9.5.3.1 Repair during production
If the repair is performed immediately after de-moulding, it must be demonstrated through testing
that the products used are suitable under these conditions (e.g. high segment temperature).
9.5.3.2 Repair at the site of installation
As a rule, segment repair at the site of installation is only provided for if segments have been
damaged during transport from the portal to the site of installation. Owing to time constraints, the
possibilities of repair are limited. Segments which cannot be repaired prior to or after installation
must not be installed.
9.5.3.3 Repair after installation
As a rule, segment repair after installation is only provided for if segments have been damaged
during transport from the portal to the installation site or during or after installation. The repair of
defects after installation is only possible on the inside (air-side) of the segment.
9.5.4 Repair matrix
9.5.4.1 General remarks
The following definitions and explanations apply to the matrix below:
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Defects are classified by the design engineer by type of defect (e.g. crack), location and
extent (e.g. x = 0.3 mm for segment without waterproofing measure 2).
For a definition of type of defect, see It. 9.5.2
Defects are classified by location, as the effect of defects may vary with their location on the
segment.
The extent of the defect (x, y, z) is to be specified by the design engineer on a project-specific
basis. x, y, z refer to a measure of width (e.g. crack width) or length, an area or a verbal
description to be specified as a limit for the corresponding measure by place of origin (Fig. 9-
21).
As a rule, the specifications in the following tables for measures by place of origin apply
(Table 9/1 and Table 9/2).




Fig. 9-21 Classification of defect types by area in sealed segments
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 54 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
Measures by place of origin are defined as follows:
1 no repair required
2 repair measures required
3 no repair permitted (segment to be eliminated)

9.5.4.2 Unsealed segmental system
Defects Measure by origin of defect
Note
Type of defect Area Extent Production Transport Installed
Nests Load transfer
area
x 2 - -
y 3 - -
Other areas
x 2 - -
y 3 - -
Missing
concrete parts
Load transfer
area
x 2 - -
y 3 - -
Other areas
x 2 - -
y 3 - -
Blowholes
Load transfer
area
x 1 - -
y 2 - -
z 3 - -
Other areas
x 1 - -
y 2 - -
Tear-off and
spalling
Load transfer
area
x 2 2 2
y 3 3 2
Other areas
x 1 1 1
y 2 2 2
Concete cover Load transfer
area
x 2 - - cm permissible
repair surface y 3 - -
Other areas x 2 - -
Cracks Load transfer
area and other
areas
x 1 1 1
y 2 2 2
z 3 3 2
Other defects
(e.g. core
drilling)
Load transfer
area
2 - 2
Other areas 2 2 2
Core drilling
during
production
Table 9/1 Treatment of defects in unsealed segmental systems
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9.5.4.3 Sealed segmental system
Defects Measure by origin of defect
Note
Type of defect Area Extent Production
Transpor
t
Installed
Nests Load transfer
area
x 2 - -
y 3 - -
Gasket area - 3 - -
Other areas - 2 - -
Missing
concrete parts
Load transfer
area
x 2 - -
y 3 - -
Gasket area - 3 - -
Other areas - 2 - -
Blowholes Load transfer
area
x 1 - -
y 2 - -
Gasket area
x 1 - -
y 2 - -
z 3 - -
Other areas
x 1 - -
y 2 - -
Tear-off and
spalling
Load transfer
area
x 2 2 2
y 3 3 2
Gasket area - 3 3 2
Other areas
x 1 1 1
y 2 2 2
Concrete
cover
Load transfer
area
x 2 - - cm permissible
repair surface y 3 - -
Gasket area - 3 - -
Other areas - 2 - -
Cracks Load transfer
area and other
areas
x 1 1 1
y 2 2 2
z 3 3 2
Gasket area
x 2 2 2
y 3 3 2
Other defects
(e.g. core
drilling)
Load transfer
area
2 - 2
Gasket area 3 - 2
Other areas 2 2 2
Core drilling
during
production
Gasket
Damaged frame 2 2 2
Frame to be
replaced if
damaged during
transport and
production
Bonding 2 2 2

Table 9/2 Treatment of defects in sealed segmental systems
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 56 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
10 BACKFILLING OF THE ANNULUS
10.1 General remarks
The stability of the segment system is achieved through the interaction of the ring of pre-cast
concrete parts with the annulus backfill. Backfilling of the annular gap serves to embed the
segment ring in the surrounding rock mass. Timely backfilling of the annular gap between the
outside face of the segment ring and the excavated cavity is of utmost importance in a tunnel
construction with segmental lining. For impermeable segmental systems, tunnelling without
grouting of the annulus through appropriate measures is inconceivable.
10.2 Support conditions, bedding principles and requirements
10.2.1 Support conditions
Different rock mass types, such as solid rock and loose ground in combination with rock and/or
ground water, demand different types of tunnel boring machines (TBM) as well as appropriate
segmental systems and annulus backfilling methods.
The principle of ensuring immediate and sufficient bedding of the segment ring applies to all types
of machines and segmental systems.
Sufficient bedding of the segment ring immediately behind the tailskin must be ensured.
In shield machines (SM), the backfilling material is usually fed via grouting tubes in the tailskin
area under permanent volume and pressure control.
In tunnel boring machines (TBM-S and/or TBM-DS) the backfilling material for the invert area
(mortar) is applied via grouting tubes or holes. In all other areas, backfilling material (pea gravel
and/or mortar) can be fed via backfilling holes in the segments. The rate of backfilling of the
annulus depends on the rate of advance.
In drained tunnel structures the backfilling material should not interfere with the functioning of the
permanent drainage system. When selecting the type of backfilling material, special care should be
taken to keep sinter formation at a minimum.
Erosion of the backfill must be prevented.
If segment joints have a role to play in the drainage system, they must not lose their permanent
drainage function.
In the presence of large quantities of water and/or potential sinter formation, the drainage capacity
of the joints on the inside face of the segments may have to be increased. If the backfill material in
the annular gap is subsequently grouted, the possibility of water drainage from the finished
structure after closure of the joints must be maintained (possibly through relief borings).
10.2.2 Bedding principles
10.2.2.1 TBM-O and TBM-DS without segmental support
In these cases, the tunnel is built with a conventional support system, i.e. shotcrete, reinforced steel
mesh, rock bolts, arches, etc., possibly with an invert segment for the tunnel floor. The gap
underneath the segment must be fully backfilled with mortar.
10.2.2.2 TBM-S and TBM-DS with segmental support
In the process of backfilling the annular gap, conditions may occur under which the segment ring is
only partially bedded immediately behind the tailskin. Special attention must be given to such
conditions in the process of planning, structural analysis and execution.
If pea gravel is used, bedding may be insufficient behind the tailskin, as gravel keeps flowing into
the gap while the machine advances. This is due to the fact that a flowing medium does not ensure
adequate bedding. The stability of the backfill material can be improved by using a mix of pea
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gravel and mortar (see It. 10.2.3.3). Therefore, pre-stressing of the partially bedded areas in the
longitudinal direction of the tunnel by means of the thrust jacks and/or other means of longitudinal
pre-stressing is necessary. Prior to pre-stress relief, complete bedding according to It. 10.2.3.2 must
be ensured.
In the absence of an outer tailskin seal, care must be taken in narrow curves to prevent the entry of
pea gravel into the shield, which would cause problems for shield driving and shield steering.
Backfilling of the crown area with pea gravel is only possible at a distance of approx. 2/3 D.
If mortar is used to backfill the annular gap in hard rock, vibrations caused by the advancing
machine may result in even relatively stiff mortar mixes penetrating into the shield area. In the
event of a longer machine standstill, there is a risk of mortar stiffening and blocking the shield.
10.2.2.3 Shield machine SM (hydro shield, earth-pressure shield, etc.)
When shield machines are used, especially in loose ground and under ground water pressure, the
annulus is backfilled continuously as the machine advances. The annulus is filled all around via
grouting tubes in the tailskin under controlled pressure (with the volume being documented), so
that the segment rings can always be bedded and positively locked.
The grouting mortar is to be prepared and distributed in such a way as to ensure sufficient bedding
of the tunnel tube, i.e. to prevent any uplift of the tube. Displacement (subsidence) of the segment
rings must be prevented.
The theoretical calculation of the required grout quantity also has to consider the possibility of
grout penetrating into rock fissures and cavities from rock falls.
10.2.3 Bedding requirements
10.2.3.1 General requirements
The requirements regarding bedding of the segment ring are to be specified. The bedding stiffness
is to match the surrounding rock mass.
The mortar must be sufficiently flowable and must not stiffen prematurely in the grouting tubes.
Through discharge of filtration water into the surrounding rock mass, the support action of the
grain skeleton of the mortar should be activated.
The required compressive strength of the mortar backfill is to be specified.
The early strength properties are to be adjusted to the requirements of construction operations.
10.2.3.2 TBM-O
The quality of bedding to be achieved through backfilling of the space between the invert segment
and the rock mass is largely determined by the demands of construction operations, early loading of
the invert segment through back-up equipment and track-bound transport.
10.2.3.3 TBM-S and TBM-DS
The requirements to be met by backfilling of the annulus in permeable systems can be defined as
follows:
Invert area
Up to an opening angle of max. 100 the annular gap is to be grouted with mortar. In the case of
large TBM diameters ( 9 m), grouting is performed via grouting tubes in the tailskin as the
machine advances. With smaller TBM diameters (< 9 m), grout can also be introduced through
grout holes in the invert. If pea ravel is backfilled into the annular gap in the side wall area, it
cannot be prevented from penetrating to the shield and/or into the annulus of the invert not yet
grouted. Reducing the opening angle for mortar backfilling is permitted, if complete filling of
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 58 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
this area with pea gravel can be guaranteed. If a smaller TBM is used, the holes for backfilling
have to be positioned in such a way as to allow backfilling of the annulus to begin as soon as the
TBM starts to advance.
Backfilling of side wall and crown areas with pea gravel
A sufficient number of backfilling holes, especially in the wall-to-crown transition area, must be
provided for.
In parallel with the advance of the shield, backfilling of the side wall areas with pea gravel must
be started. 2/3 D behind the tailskin, at the latest, the backfill must come up to the tunnel crown.
Project-specific exceptions, i.e. less demanding requirements in stable rock (e.g. later
backfilling) or more demanding requirements in weak rock (e.g. tunnel advance and backfilling
in partial strokes), are to be decided by the design engineer, depending on rock mass conditions
and/or the purpose of the structure.
If complete filling of the crown area is not possible after 2/3 D (e.g. rotating ring system or
clogged filling holes), an additional step may be required to complete backfilling with pea
gravel or grouting with mortar.
If the TBM is equipped with a thrust ring, the following applies:
As soon as the segment ring has been ejected from the tailskin, the side wall area is to be filled
with pea gravel up to a height to be specified by the design engineer (e.g. 50 cm below the
radial joint between the side wall and crown segments); filling must be guaranteed upon
withdrawal of the thrust ring.
Side wall and crown area with additional mortar backfill
If complete backfilling of the annulus with pea gravel cannot be guaranteed due to subsidence
of the rock mass and/or blockage of the annulus, the annular gap has to be grouted with mortar.
Another possibility consists in filling the annulus with a gavel/mortar mix, with mortar being
fed into the pea gavel flow by compressed air via a y-branch pipe (Fig. 10-1).
If the annulus backfill needs to be post-grouted (see It. 10.6), backfilling with mortar may not
always be required.
Side wall and crown area fully grouted with mortar
See It. 10.3.2.4.
The penetration of mortar into the shield is to be prevented by means of an outer tailskin seal.
Loosened rock mass in the crown area
If a tendency of the rock mass to subside is observed at the shield or foamed cavities have been
documented, core drillings are to be made in the crown to verify the presence of loose rock
and/or cavities above the crown, in which case the rock mass is to be pressure grouted.

Fig. 10-1 Backfilling with gavel/mortar mix Fig. 10-2 Backfilling with round-grain
through y-branch pipe pea gravel
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In addition, the following requirements have to be met for impermeable systems:
In particular, complete bedding of the segment ring is essential to ensure permanent pre-
stressing of the gaskets of the radial joints. If necessary, permanent pre-stressing of the gasket is
to be ensured through the use of connectors.
10.2.3.4 SM shield machine with face support (earth pressure shield, hydro shield)
The backfill material must be continuously injected into the annulus through ducts in the tailskin
area as the machine advances. The equipment used for grouting of the annulus must ensure an even
distribution of the grout (grouting mortar) over the entire circumference of the segment ring. Given
the risk of excessive strain on the segment ring, special care must be taken to ensure a continuous
grouting procedure without major variations in grouting pressure.
As a rule, the pressure to be applied for annulus grouting is more or less the same as the support
pressure in the excavation chamber.
10.2.4 Monitoring and control of filling level and bedding
The dimensional stability of the segment ring during backfilling must be guaranteed. Crack
formation in the crown segment may be an indication of insufficient bedding and/or rock loads
imposed on the crown segment.
If bedding of the side wall segment in pea gravel and/or mortar after its ejection from the tailskin
cannot be guaranteed, alternative means of support, e.g. adjusting screws, mortar bags with instant
cement, etc., can be used to remedy the situation.
10.2.4.1 Checking the filling level
The filling level in the annulus has to be checked continuously while material is being backfilled
into the gap. As a rule, the filling level is checked by comparing actual material consumption with
the annular gap volume.
Due to vibrations of the advancing machine, post-compaction of the backfill material may occur.
Therefore, the filling level has to be checked continuously also in the back-up area; if necessary,
additional pea gravel and/or mortar have to be filled into the gap. In impermeable systems with
mortar grouting, monitoring and control systems must be in place to provide for grouting pressure
and volume control.
10.2.4.2 Checking the quality of bedding
Chord measurements (e.g. by hand-held laser device, theodolite or scanner) have proved to be
useful indicators of the quality of bedding and/or the need for additional mortar grouting or
backfilling with pea gravel in crown and/or side wall areas; they also facilitate monitoring of crack
formation and misalignment.

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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 60 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
10.3 Annulus grouting mortar
10.3.1 Properties
As a rule, annulus grouting mortar has to have the following properties:
Volumetric stability in hardened condition
Positive locking between the support and the rock mass
No harmful effect on ground water
Good workability
Good pumpability
High settling stability
Stiffness adjusted to rock mass
Compressive strength > 0.12 N/mm after 24 hours
Erosion resistance in the presence of flowing ground water
The minimum compressive strength after 28 days is to be specified. The strength development of
the backfill is to be adjusted to the bedding conditions behind the shield.
The test procedures are indicated in It. 10.3.3.
For special cases, e.g. compressible mortar [10], special requirements are to be defined.
10.3.2 Mortar constituents
10.3.2.1 Standard requirements
Cement
The cement used has to meet the requirements of EN 197-1; sulphate-resistant cement has to
comply with Austrian Standard NORM B 3327-2.
Additives
Products admissible for use as additives must meet the requirements of Austrian Standard
NORM B 3309 (AHWZ), Austrian Standard NORM EN 450 (fly ash), Austrian Standard
NORM EN 13263 (silica dust) and Austrian Standard NORM EN 12620 (rock meal).
Mineral aggregate
The mineral aggregate must be in accordance with Austrian Standard B 3131 and/or meet the
requirements of Austrian Standard NORM B 4710-1 for the required exposure class. As a rule,
the maximum grain size is 4 mm.
CaCO
3
Make-up water
content < 10 %, if necessary (problem of sintering)
Make-up water has to meet the requirements of Austrian Standard NORM EN 1008.
Admixtures
Plasticisers and, if necessary, air-entraining agents, accelerators, retardants and stabilisers are
used as admixtures. All admixtures must meet the requirements of Austrian Standard NORM
EN 934-2.
Bentonite
Bentonite must meet the requirements of German Standard DIN 4127.
10.3.2.2 Mortar containing accelerator (two-component process)
If immediate strength development of the mortar is required, the process can be speeded up through
the addition of an accelerator. A mature technology for mixing and dosing of the accelerator was
not yet available when this Guideline was drafted.
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10.3.2.3 Sulphate-resistant mortar
Mortar exposed to chemical attack must meet the requirements of Austrian Standard NORM
B 4710-1. In the case of sulphate attack, sulphate-resistant cement according to Austrian Standard
NORM B 3327-2 is to be used. Lime-containing additives (limestone meal) must not be used
(thaumasite formation).
10.3.2.4 Problems of sintering in the annulus
In drained tunnel structures special care must be taken in the selection of aggregates and binders to
prevent sintering. The optimum binder is CEM III/B cement, or in the case of sulphate attack -
C
3
A
free
cement without limestone, but with prepared hydraulically active additives according to
Austrian Standard NORM B 3309. The CaCO
3
10.3.3 Checking and testing Mortar
content of the binder must not exceed 5 %.
Pre-construction test
The composition of the mortar is to be established through pre-construction testing. The following
information is to be included in the pre-construction test report:
Client
Testing institute
Date of testing
Constituent materials used
Verification of suitability of constituent materials
Composition for 1 m of mortar
Fresh mortar properties:
Setting according to ASTM C 403
W/B value
Bulk density according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 12350-6
Slump and slump flow according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 12350-5 for the
specified workability time
Void content according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 12350-7 (if necessary)
Settling behaviour (1000 ml cylinder, after 2 hours) according to Austrian Standard NORM
B 4452
Filtration water according to Austrian Standard NORM B 4452
Mortar properties:
Compressive strength after 24 hours, 7 and 28 days according to Austrian Standard NORM
B 4452
Exposure classes (to be specified by the design engineer)
Pinhole test according to Austrian Standard NORM B 4452
Conformity tests
Conformity testing of the properties of mortar has to include the following:
Constituent materials:
Continuous monitoring of supply chain
Fresh mortar:
Void content, slump (and/or slump flow), bulk density daily
Bleeding and water content every 100 m
Mortar
Every 250 m, from 1000 m every 500 m, compressive strength testing after 24 hours (if
required), 7 and 28 days.
Exposure classes every 1000 m (if required)
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
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Page 62 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
Identity tests
An identity test is to be performed every 2000 m, covering the following:
Checking the grading lines of the mineral aggregate
Fresh mortar
Void content (if required)
Slump and/or slump flow
Bleeding
Bulk density
Water content
Mortar
Compressive strength after 24 hours (if required) and 28 days
Exposure classes (if required)
10.4 Pea gravel
10.4.1 Requirements
Pea gravel is single-size gravel. Preferably, pea gravel consists of washed round grain with grain
diameters ranging between a minimum of 4 mm and a maximum of 16 mm (Fig. 10/2). The grain
fraction, which depends on the conditions of application and a possible need for post-grouting, is to
be determined by the design engineer, with due consideration given to the percentages of oversized
and undersized grains. The 8/11 fraction has particularly favourable properties (see also It. 14.1).
Grain with more than 50% of its surface naturally rounded is called round grain. The percentage of
round grain is to be determined in a sample of at least 200 grains in weight by volume.
The minimum requirements to be met by pea gravel are specified as follows (see also Austrian
Standard NORM EN 12620):
Percentage oversized grain < 10 % to next larger screen
Percentage undersized grain < 10 % to next smaller screen
SI
Frost class F2
15

f
LA
1,5

95 % rounded grain
30

If post-grouting of the backfill material in the annulus is to be performed, pea gravel has to meet
the following requirements:
AS
0,8
Constituents that change the setting behaviour of concrete must not be used.
(limitation of sulphate content in mineral aggregates according to Austrian Standard
NORM EN 12620)
If sintering is to be expected, gravel with a low calcification potential containing < 10 % CaCO
3
In special cases, angular pea gravel can be used. However, it should be borne in mind that its
workability properties are less favourable. The requirements to be met are the same as for round-
grained pea gravel, except for the percentage of round grain. Special crushers can be used to
improve the grain shape of pea gravel.
by
weight is to be used in drained tunnel structures for reasons of maintenance.

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Furthermore, the following requirements apply:
Grain size:
The grain size must be such that, depending on the angular grain available, unobstructed filling
of the annulus (no clogging) is possible.
Degree of compaction:
The composition of the angular grain mix must be such as to obtain the lowest possible
compactibility in order to prevent damage to the segmental system (shifting, load
rearrangement, etc.) through subsequent compaction, e.g. due to vibrations caused by tunnel
driving.
If angular grain is to be blown into the annular gap under compressed air, the following additional
measures may have to be taken:
The addition of water improves the distribution of the filling material. This is only permissible
if the water added does not have a negative impact on the surrounding rock mass.
The increased wear and tear of the conveying equipment as well as the blowlines and hoses is to
be borne in mind.
10.4.2 10.4.2 Inspection and testing
Pre-construction test
Testing and classification (except for the percentages of oversized and undersized grains) has to be
performed according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 12620. Bulk density testing is to be
performed according to Austrian Standard NORM EN 1097-3.
The following information is to be included in the pre-construction test report:
Client
Testing institute
Date of testing
Manufacturer and plant
Parameters:
Grading line
Fines content
Grain shape
Bulk density
Percentage of round grain
Resistance against crushing
Frost class
CaCO
3
Acid-soluble sulphate
if required
Content of retarding admixtures
Conformity tests
Conformity tests to verify the properties of pea gavel have to be performed every 500 m, covering
the following:
Monitoring of the supply chain
Grading line
Fines content
Grain shape
Bulk density
Frost class
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Edition February 2011
Page 64 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
Percentage of round grain
Content of retarding admixtures
CaCO
3
Identity tests
if required
An identity test is to be performed every 2000 m, covering the following:
Parameters:
Grading line
Fines content
Grain shape
Bulk density
Percentage of round grain
Resistance against crushing
Frost class
CaCO
3
Acid-soluble sulphate
if required
Content of retarding admixtures
10.5 Sealing of joints
10.5.1 General remarks
Depending on the requirements to be met by the surface of the tunnel lining (e.g. water tunnel,
single-shell tunnel, etc.), joint sealing may be necessary.
Prior to post-grouting of the annulus backfill material with low-viscosity grout, the segment joints
have to be sealed (possibly from the back-up area). The joints must be cleaned before being sealed.
Defects in the joint area must be repaired.
By applying joint mortar either manually or by means of a nozzle or spray jet, the joint must be
filled completely with mortar. The surface must be smooth and flush with the adjacent segments.
If water is present in and around the joints, a suitable type of mortar must be used which adheres to
the joint despite being wet. In the presence of large quantities of water, the joint is to be sealed by
draining the water though hoses and subsequently grouting the openings.
10.5.2 Requirements to be met by joint mortar
Joint mortar must have the right consistency and suppleness to adhere to the joint and not to come
loose when applied overhead. The joint mortar must have a stability corresponding to the exposure
class of the segment concrete and be shrink-compensated. The required compressive strength is to
be specified and must be verified, unless otherwise indicated, in 4 x 4 x 16 cm prisms in analogy to
EN 196-1.
10.6 Post-grouting of annulus backfill
10.6.1 Requirements
Under certain geological and geo-technical conditions, as well as in cases of holes being cut into
the finished segment ring for niches, crosscuts, emergency exits, etc., post-grouting of the pea
gravel backfilled into the annulus is necessary. In variable stable rock formations (e.g. flysch), in
which complete bedding cannot be guaranteed in the long run, or in areas of overloaded, subsiding
rock and/or rock falls from jointed rock mass in which complete bedding through pea gravel and/or
mortar alone cannot be guaranteed, post-grouting is required.
Moreover, grouted cut-off structures may be required for hydro-geological reasons, e.g. to reduce
the flow of rock/ground water.
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In any case, post-grouting work should be performed behind the back-up system, with equipment
separate from the TBM advance. All the equipment required for post-grouting should be contained
in a separate unit.
Additional borings may have to be provided for. In permeable systems, the segment joints have to
be sealed in advance. Post-grouting is performed through the holes already used for backfilling
with pea gravel at a minimum pressure of 0.5 bar at the crown packer.
For post-grouting, the following criteria are to be specified:
Properties of the grout, such as strength, settling behaviour and stability
Grouting procedure
Determination of grouting sequence (which grout holes are to be grouted and in which order)
and grouting pressure to be reached (e.g. 0.5 bar grouting pressure in the crown, measured at the
grout hole) and/or the maximum pressure to avoid damage to the segmental system
Checks to be performed:
Documentation of grout penetration (grout exiting from neighbouring packers) and core
drillings
Documentation:
Recording of grout quantities, grouting pressure and grout propagation relative to the grout hole
10.6.2 Constituent materials
Cement
Cement has to meet the requirements of Austrian Standard NORM EN 197-1 and/or Austrian
Standard NORM B 3327-1; for sulphate-resistant cement Austrian Standard NORM B 3327-
2 applies.
Additives
All products used as additives must meet the requirements of Austrian Standard NORM
B 3309 (AHWZ).
Rock meal (filler)
The filler must meet the requirements of Austrian Standard NORM EN 12620. In the case of
sulphate attack or a risk of sinter formation in drainage lines, the CaCO
3
Make-up water
content must be
< 10 %.
Make-up water must meet the requirements of Austrian Standard NORM EN 1008.
Admixtures
Grouting aids and, if necessary, stabilisers are to be used as admixtures. Admixtures must meet
the requirements of Austrian Standard NORM EN 934-2.
Bentonite
Bentonite must meet the requirements of German Standard DIN 4127.
If sintering is to be expected in drained tunnel structures, grout with a CaCO
3
content of < 10 %,
relative to the solid matter, is to be used. The use of cement consisting mainly of limestone is not
permitted. The optimum binder to be used is CEM III/B cement or cement with an appropriate
AHWZ value according to Austrian Standard NORM B 3309. The percentage of CaCO
3
In case of sulphate attack, C
in the
binder must not exceed 5%.
3
A
free
If necessary, grouting aids are to be added to the grout.
cement is to be used in the binder.
10.6.3 Inspection and testing
Grout is to be tested daily and/or once a month according to Table 10/1 within the framework of
pre-construction testing and conformity testing:
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 66 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
Parameter Test method Limit Frequency
Grout settling in 2 hours
DIN V 4126-100
3 %
pre-construction test,
then daily
Marsh time
to be determined in
pre-construction test
Density
Uniaxial compressive
strength (1 d, 7 d and 28 d)
NORM B 4452
to be specified by
design engineer
pre-construction test,
then once a month
Erosion resistance
(at compressive strength
< 5 N/mm after 28 days)
Annex A,
NORM B 4452
in a period of
28 days max. 5 %
increase of flow rate
pre-construction test
only
Chemical resistance
(in special cases only)
same as in erosion
test, but with test
liquid

If bentonite is used as a grout constituent, bentonite slurry produced especially for this purpose is to
be tested for the following parameters both in the pre-construction test and every time a new lot is
delivered (Table 10/2):
Test method Tolerances
Filtration water discharge at 7 bar in 7.5 min
DIN V 4126-100
20 %
Marsh time 2 s
Density 20 g/l
Liquid-flow limit (ball harp) 1 ball
Water absorption capacity DIN 18132 20 %
10.7 Grout injections for rock improvement
If fault zones and/or yield zones are encountered during tunnel driving, subsequent consolidation of
the surrounding rock mass may be necessary for certain tunnel structures (e.g. pressure tunnels) in
order to ensure positive locking of the tunnel with the rock mass. Under certain conditions, the rock
mass may have to be injected to diminish the discharge of water into the tunnel and to create an
impermeable or less permeable structure. As far as possible, existing holes in the segments (e.g. for
backfilling) should be used for injection bores.
It is important to bear in mind that the injection pressure results in loads (point loads or
asymmetrical loads) being imposed on the segment rings. These loads must be taken into
consideration in segment design, or otherwise maximum pressure values have to be specified.
Testing of injection equipment and injection slurry is to be performed according to It. 10.6.3 and/or
agreed upon with injection specialists.


Table 10/1 Pre-construction testing of grout
Table 10/2 Pre-construction testing of bentonite
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11 GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCES OF THE SEGMENT
Tolerances are the allowable deviations of the actual dimensions of a structural component from its
design dimensions. The definition of tolerances is necessary in order to achieve the highest possible
level of accuracy, circularity (all curvatures in the cross section and the alignment of the tunnel)
and quality of the finished tunnel. The tolerances described below are to be examined and specified
on a project-specific basis by the design engineer, considering the computational and empirical
analysis of the segment ring.
The individual tolerances are independent of each other, some of them are specified as a function
of segment size.
The tolerances specified should not be unjustifiably tight in order not to drive costs up through
exaggerated demands in terms of accuracy.
11.1 Segment geometry
Essentially, the segment geometry is described in terms of the reference dimensions indicated
below.
Given the accuracy of formwork geometry, all reference dimensions relevant to segment tolerances
are to be measured on the inside of the segment.
Typical reference dimensions are listed in Table 11/1.


Fig. 11-1 Reference dimensions relevant to segment tolerances
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 68 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
Code Designation Description Influences/Effect
Ao
Centre distances,
openings, assembly
parts
Position and dimensions of
openings and assembly parts
Handling and installation
As Facing length
Inner chord between the radial
joints
Radius, curvature,
interconnection
B Segment width
Segment width(s) between the
circumferential joints
Ring width, circumferential
joint
Dg
Gasket groove
geometry
Depth (Dg-T) and width
(Dg-B) of gasket grooves
Sealing function
Dl Diagonal length
Diagonal inner chord between
segment corners, difference
Ring circumference, ring
diameter, ring width, cross
section, angular deviations
Fe Evenness of joints
Evenness of radial and
circumferential joints (delta
between highest and lowest
point along any control line)
Quality of load transfer
area (limited contact area)
and function of gaskets
Fk Joint conicity
Angular dimension of radial
and circumferential joints
deviating from orthogonal
angle
Quality of joints, segment
geometry and function of
gaskets
Fv Joint interconnection
Angular dimension of radial
joint relative to axis of
segment ring
Quality of joints, segment
geometry and function of
gaskets
Pp Plane parallelity
Parallelity of radial and
circumferential joints relative
to theoretical joint surface
Quality of joints, segment
geometry and function of
gaskets
Ri Radius inside Inner radius
Ring circumference, ring
diameter and cross section
Td Segment thickness
Radial distance between
outside and inside surface of
the segment
Load-bearing capacity,
cover to reinforcement,
surface characteristics
Ul Circumferential length
Developed outside surface
parallel to circumferential joint
(extrados)
Ring circumference, ring
diameter and cross section
Wa-F
Angular deviation of
joint conicity
Angle of joint conicity in axial
direction
Quality of load transfer
area (limited contact area)
and function of gaskets
Wa-V
Angular deviation,
interconnection angle
Angle of joint interconnection
in radial direction
Quality of load transfer
area (limited contact area)
and function of gaskets

Table 11/1 Definitions of typical reference dimensions for segment geometry
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11.2 Setting of tolerances
Tolerances are set to allow for the conditions of segment production and for factors of influence
after production (during storage and transport, before installation in the tunnel).
A distinction is made between formwork tolerances and segment deformation tolerances.
The tolerances and parameters described below are to be examined and specified on a project-
specific basis by the design engineer, considering the computational and empirical analysis of the
segment ring.
11.2.1 Formwork tolerances
The precision of the moulds used has an influence on the precision of the segments produced.
Formwork tolerances are therefore set and checked on a project-specific basis.
11.2.1.1 Tolerances of steel formwork
To guarantee the required tolerances, the moulds used for segment production are to be inspected
and re-adjusted on a regular basis.
The range of tolerance for the reference dimensions indicated in Fig. 11/1 for high-precision steel
moulds is between 0.1 and 0.3 mm at an ambient temperature of +18 C 2K and depends on
the size of the individual segments.
11.2.1.2 Tolerances of concrete formwork
Concrete formwork is rarely used and primarily serves for the production of segments having to
meet less demanding requirements in terms of serviceability.
The tolerances for concrete formwork are less stringent than those for steel formwork; for the
reference dimensions shown in Fig. 11/1, they range between 0.3 and 1.0 mm at an ambient
temperature of +18 C 2K and depend on the size of the individual segments.
11.2.2 Segment deformation tolerances
Segment deformation is influenced by temperature, shrinkage, creep, deadweight, storage, transport,
installation and the production process itself. Therefore, the tolerances for segments must be more
generous than those for formwork.
The extent of segment deformation depends on the segment geometry.
11.2.2.1 Influences of temperature, shrinkage and creep
Temperature differences and shrinkage have a significant impact on the geometrical parameters of
the segments, whereas the influence of creep is negligible from the point of view of tolerances.
Influence of temperature dT:
Changes in segment length due to temperature fluctuations during production, storage, transport
and installation are unavoidable.
Depending on the application of the segment, a temperature range from -30C to +45C may
have to be considered when fixing temperature-dependent tolerances. Thus, assuming a
production temperature of +18C, an effective temperature difference of dT = +27 and dT = -
48 has to be taken into account for a possible expansion and/or shortening of the finished
segment.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 70 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
Shrinkage dSw:
Shrinkage is calculated on the basis of Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1. Essentially,
the shrinkage value depends on the thickness of the segment, relative humidity and the age of
the concrete (according to Fig. 8 and 9 of Austrian Standard NORM EN 1992-1-1, concrete at
the age of one year has reached approx. 60% to 70% of its final shrinkage value).
A relative humidity of 70% is proposed for the determination of the shrinkage value.
11.2.2.2 Influences of deadweight during storage, transport and installation
Segment deformations due to the influence of deadweight dEg during storage, transport and
installation have to be taken into consideration in the interpretation of control measurements.
Storage conditions and the age of concrete (modulus of elasticity) have a significant influence on
deformation. Project-specific storage conditions have to be considered when setting the respective
tolerances.
The deformations identified in the segments are elastic, which means that no significant changes in
segment geometry resulting in installation problems are to be expected.
11.2.2.3 Production tolerances dH
Production tolerances are set to allow for the influence of temperature on formwork, deformation
of moulds during segment production and mould wear and tear. The reference values indicated in
Table 11/1 thus change in the course of production. Production tolerances must be set at least as
high as the maximum formwork tolerances (see It. 11.2.1).
11.2.2.4 Determination of segment tolerances
The theoretical overall tolerance is the sum total of the individual tolerances mentioned above (see
[equation 1]).
dL = dT + dSw + dH (+ dEg) [equation 1]
The overall tolerance to be observed must always be larger than the calculated theoretical overall
tolerance (see [equation 2]):
GT > dL [equation 2]
in which:
dL sum total of deformations/distortions of a reference value (according to Table 11/1)
dT deformation due to temperature
dSw deformation due to shrinkage
dH deformation due to production process
dEg deformation due to deadweight (if summation is appropriate for total deformation)
GT overall tolerance to be observed (for each reference dimension)

The overall tolerances are to be set for each individual project according to the above equation 2.

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11.2.3 Tolerances for segment details
11.2.3.1 Influences of connecting devices and joint design details
The positioning and size of connecting devices must be chosen with a view to the overall tolerances
as well as the installation tolerances of the segments.
Holes for bolt connections must be larger than the bolt diameter by at least the allowable
installation tolerance.
The diameter tolerance of dowel holes for dowel pins has to be set to suit the dowel to be used. The
dowel positioning tolerance in the segment must compensate for the segment installation tolerance
to permit the dowel to be inserted.
The groove for guide rails in the radial joint as well as coupling systems (groove-and- tongue and
cam-and-socket systems) have to be produced to a tolerance of + 2 mm in dimension and position.
The positioning and installation tolerances of the segment must be allowed for in the design of
connecting systems.
11.2.3.2 Influences of gaskets
The design of the segment gasket has to allow for the installation tolerance and the positioning
tolerance of the groove base for the preformed gasket. The usual tolerances for the depth and width
of the groove base are 0.5 to 1.0 mm. These values have to be chosen with reference to the
segment sealing system used.
11.3 Measuring programme
The measuring programme provides for
measurements on the segment or
measurements on the segmental system (test ring)
The following measuring methods can be applied:
manual measuring (use of measuring tapes, templates, etc.)
3D measuring
The measuring programme, including the measuring methods to be applied and the frequency of
measurements, is to be specified by the design engineer. The detailed measuring sequence is to be
proposed by the Contractor and agreed upon with the Owner (local construction supervision).
11.3.1 Manual measurements
Reference dimensions are usually checked by means of templates. As a rule, the templates are
made of steel and have to be readjusted repeatedly in the course of quality control.
Additionally, calliper squares and precision measuring tapes are used.
11.3.2 3D measurements
3D measurements record a point cluster of the segment produced and calculate a theoretical
mean segment on that basis, which is then compared with the ideal segment. The deviations have
to be indicated.
This accurate measuring method (depending on the number of points) also has to be applied to
segment moulds for the purposes of acceptance and regular quality control.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 72 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
11.3.3 Test ring
The test ring is used to measure the reference dimensions, on the one hand, and the system
tolerances according to Chapter 12, on the other hand. Depending on the requirements of the
system, the test ring may be either a single ring or a double ring. The bottom test ring is to be
measured completely. If the results are not within the given tolerances, appropriate measures have
to be taken to meet the quality requirements and, above all, to achieve the required level of
serviceability.
The test ring is to be produced before the go-ahead is given for segment production. Further tests
according to It. 11.3.4 are to be performed during production.
Sealed systems must be demonstrated to meet the tolerances in the closed ring, without the
elastomer gasket in place, in order to avoid recovery forces.
Reference dimensions to be verified on the assembled test ring:
outer diameter (at least in 2 axes)
inner diameter (at least in 2 axes)
circumferential length of the segment system (to be measured in three planes)
joint opening
joint misalignment
11.3.4 Test frequencies
The individual segments have to be measured in the factory hall when the segments are ready for
delivery to the outdoor storage area. The test frequency depends on the test object and the
segmental system (Table 11/2). The measuring programme (dimensions), the means of testing
(equipment, precision, calibration) and the scope of testing (test interval) have to be determined on
a project-specific basis. Moveable formwork parts and/or formwork exposed to higher wear and
tear are to be measured more often than stationary formwork parts (gasket groove, erector grip
points, bolt pockets, etc.).
Test object Unsealed systems Sealed systems
System-relevant
formwork parts
every mould
before production is started,
after 100
th
segment,
then after every 500
th
every mould
before production is started,
after 10
segment
th
Test ring
segment,
then after every100th segment
before production is started,
subsequent intervals according to
requirements
before production is started,
subsequent intervals according to
requirements
Segments
every mould
1
st
- 10
th
segment every
segment,
11
th
- 500
th
segment every 50
th

segment,
subsequently every 250
th
every mould
segment
1
st
- 10
th
segment every segment,
from 11
th
segment every 50
th


segment
If essential inadmissible deviations are detected, testing is to be restarted at the initial frequency
according to Table 11/2.
Table 11/2 Examples of test frequencies for conformity testing
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12 IMPERFECTIONS AND SYSTEM TOLERANCES
Imperfections will always occur when the individual segments are assembled to form a segment
ring and/or a segmental system. These imperfections are to be accommodated by the design and
construction tolerances of the system.
It is important to note that system tolerances should not be unnecessarily tight, as exaggerated
requirements in terms of accuracy would result in significant cost increases.
12.1 Design phase
12.1.1 Influences on the structural analysis
The structural analysis of the segment ring for the prevailing rock and groundwater pressure yields
the compressive forces acting on the segment ring and the design torsion angles as the most
important parameters for the dimensioning of the radial joints.
Assuming the usual ground stiffness values, the design torsion angles (Fig. 12/2) mostly remain
below 0.5% and therefore do not need to be considered in the calculation up to this limit.
12.1.2 Imperfections and eccentricities in the radial joint
The radial joint is exposed to loading due to inaccuracies of the segment as well as ring installation
inaccuracies (e.g. misalignment and deviations from plane parallelity of the contact areas of
adjacent segments).
12.1.3 Imperfections and eccentricities in the circumferential joint
The circumferential joint is also affected by inaccuracies of the segment as well as ring installation
inaccuracies (e.g. ovalisation, misalignment and deviations from plane parallelity of the contact
areas of adjacent segments, eccentric loading of the segments by the machine in the tailskin).
12.1.4 Interaction between connector sealing strip segment geometry
Contact between adjacent segments activates the recovery forces of the sealing strip, which tend to
open the joint. These recovery forces have to be allowed for in the design and are to be absorbed by
the connectors (generally on a temporary basis).
In segmental systems with gaskets, imperfections, misalignment and joint opening are only
permissible to an extent that does not impair the sealing function.
In segmental systems without gaskets, greater imperfections are allowed.
Inaccuracies in segment geometry have to be allowed for in the verification of contact areas
between adjacent segments.
12.1.5 Influences of deformations and tolerances
The undesirable torsion angles of the contact areas, e.g. due to production, assembly and annulus
grouting (Fig. 12/1 and Fig. 12/2), are of great importance. The torsion angles 1 and/or 2
can be limited to values of significantly less than 0.3% though continuous and precise checking of
the dimensions of the steel moulds and the finished segments.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 74 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
If individual installed segments deviate for the circular shape of the ring by f, this leads to a
change of the torsion angles 1 and/or 2 and results in so-called ovalisation. Through
careful assembly by means of the erector, these torsion angles can be kept below 0.5%.
Deviations in segment width by b result in an uneven distribution of longitudinal compressive
stresses on account of high thrust forces and/or a gap in the radial joint. The effect of these
inaccuracies depends on the segmental system, since:
sealed systems tolerate hardly any gap in the circumferential joint, whereas
unsealed systems allow a larger gap in the circumferential joint and are not significantly
affected by deviations in segment width.
The difference of the dimensional deviations of the diametrical diagonals results in torsion and
additional angular deviations. The influence of these deviations on the overall tolerance has to be
evaluated in combination with all other tolerances.
Torsion angles due to the ovalisation of the segment tube are problematic. Problems may occur if
grouting of the annulus results in an uneven pressure distribution around the circumference of the
tube and the necessary bedding effect is not produced in time. Such phenomena not only increase
the strain on the radial joints, but may also significantly affect the tightness of both radial and
circumferential joints.
12.1.6 Influences due to storage and installation
During storage and installation, the segments and the entire ring are subject to different loads, with
inaccuracies and eccentricities playing an essential role in the loading of individual segments. Such
load cases must be allowed for in the design, and the segments have to be dimensioned
accordingly.
The segment reinforcement is significantly influenced by the following:
Positioning of supports for segment storage and the eccentricities thus caused.
Any eccentric pressure exerted by the thrust jacks on individual segments during tunnel driving.
Steering of the shield machine exerts pressure on different parts of the ring. These additional
loads must be taken into consideration in the analysis.

Fig. 12-1 Production tolerances of segments, Fig. 12-2 Effect of production tolerances of
arch length, width and plane parallelity segments and their assembly
in the joint [11] inaccuracies, torsion angle
of the radial joint [11]
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12.2 Construction phase
Geometrically true segment production is the prerequisite for constraint-free installation of the
segments. Allowable deviations are to be agreed on a project-specific basis.
12.2.1 Segment production
The production of segments within the allowable tolerances is guaranteed through the quality
control system. After inspection, the segments are moved to the storage area.
12.2.2 Transport and storage
The segments are to be stored at the storage site or on temporary interim storage areas, as provided
for in the planning documents.
12.2.3 Installation ovalisiation
The ovalisation of tunnel linings assembled from pre-fabricated elements is a frequent
phenomenon, which is mostly due to the following causes:
assembly (deadweight of the segments) and loading by the back-up system (construction-related
causes),
annulus grouting and uplift of the tunnel tube (causes related to the bedding of the segment ring)
Ovalisation is considered to be unavoidable. The measure of ovalisation as an allowable deviation
from the diameter is to be specified.
Project-specific tolerances are to be defined for the segment ring, relating to the allowable
deviations from the torsion angle as well as deviations from arch length and ring width (Fig. 12/3).
In sealed single-shell segmental linings, construction-related ovalisation normally is less
pronounced on account of the bedding technology applied (grouting of annular gap), whereas
unsealed systems (with backfill material blown into the annulus by means of compressed air) show
a greater tendency towards ovalisation.



Fig. 12-3 Example of ovalisation of the tunnel cross section due to widening of torsion angles
[11]
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 76 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
12.2.3.1 Construction-related causes
As a rule, ovalisation occurs during segment assembly (deadweight of segments). The causes are
either construction-related (e.g. joint design) or due to yielding of joint connectors (e.g. bolt or pin
connections).
In order to avoid construction-related ovalisation, a method of controlled ring assembly has to be
applied. When determining the permissible tolerances for joint design and the corresponding
connectors, the tolerances permissible for segment production must be taken as a basis for
reference.
Self-guiding connectors and systems (e.g. guide rails and dowels) have been found to facilitate
controlled assembly.
12.2.3.2 Bedding-related causes
Ovalisation of the segment ring may also occur if the ring is unevenly bedded in the backfill
material in the annulus. Yielding and/or articulated segmental systems are particularly sensitive to
uneven bedding, as their radial joints are subject to uncontrolled torsion and their circumferential
joints tend towards misalignment.
Besides the negative impact of ovalisation on quality in general and on the rate of advance, the
tightness of both radial and circumferential joints may be affected.
The type of connection between the individual rings, designed either as a toothed coupling system
or a smooth joint, has a major impact on the tendency of the rings towards ovalisation. After a
certain initial deformation (slip), the ovalisation of the tunnel cross section activates coupling of
adjacent rings and increases the bending stiffness of the segment ring (Fig. 12/4). The magnitude of
the coupling forces is directly related to the total deformation of the tunnel tube. The larger the total
deformation, the greater the differences at the misaligned radial joints (Fig. 12/5).
12.2.4 Installation misalignment
The maximum permissible joint misalignment depends on the system and its respective boundary
conditions (e.g. allowable tolerance for joint design, connecting devices, geometry of sealing strips,
etc.).
The usual order of magnitude in sealed single-shell systems is 0.5 cm (tolerance for tunnel
diameters ranging from 3.08.0 m). The extent of misalignment is to be adjusted to the permissible
misalignment of the sealing strip.

Fig. 12-4 Ovalisation of adjacent rings Fig. 12-5 Convergences of a segment ring
(superelevated) [11] (superelevated) [11]
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In unsealed systems, many of which are double-shell systems with an inner lining made from in-
situ concrete, the usual misalignment range is 10 50 mm (tolerance for tunnel diameters of 3.0
8.0 m).
12.2.5 Installation open joint
Inaccurate installation may result in gaping of the circumferential joint. These inaccuracies, which
are greater in (unsealed) systems without bolt connections than in (sealed) systems with bolt
connections, may cause problems for the installation of subsequent segments and segment rings, as
the inaccuracies tend to accumulate.
Usually, these imperfections in installation can be offset by joint inserts used to fill the gap. In
extreme cases, corrective rings have to be installed in order to ensure continued correct installation
of subsequent segments and segment rings.
12.3 Tolerances based on system requirements
Based on the requirements to be met by the segmental system, tolerances are set to ensure the
inherent consistency of the system in geometric as well as structural and functional terms.
12.3.1 Geometric system consistency
Geometric system consistency is a prerequisite for the buildability of the system and its conflict-
free execution. This includes, in particular, compliance with the geometric requirements regarding
the main system dimensions and the coupling, connecting and fastening elements.
In general, geometric system consistency provides the frame of reference for the maximum
tolerances. These tolerances, which apply in any case, will be reduced if special structural and/or
functional requirements are to be met by the segmental system and call for tighter tolerances.
The relevant reference parameters are: circumferential length, inner radius, segment width, segment
thickness, diagonal length, axial distances (openings, assembly parts), dimensions of fixed
connecting systems (cam/socket, tongue/groove).
12.3.2 Structural system consistency
Structural system consistency ensures that the system can be built within the framework of its
design concept.
12.3.2.1 Structural system consistency and segment tolerances
For segment tolerances, the requirements of structural system consistency mean that:
load-induced closure of the load-transferring joint must not result in harmful stress peaks
(compression of edges in case of angle deviation, stresses induced by limited contact areas due
to unevenness),
the differentiation between load-transferring contact areas and structurally stress-relieved areas
(exposed surfaces, edges and ducts) must be maintained also if the permissible tolerances are
fully utilised.
The essential reference parameters are: evenness of joints, angular deviation of joint conicity,
angular deviation of joint interconnection.
12.3.2.2 Structural system consistency and ring assembly tolerances
For ring assembly tolerances, the requirements of structural system consistency mean that:
the distortion of joints (edge compression and eccentricity) allowed for in the structural design
must not be exceeded within the framework of the ring assembly tolerances,
the joint misalignment (eccentricity, limited contact areas) allowed for in the structural design
must not be exceeded within the framework of the ring assembly tolerances.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 78 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
The essential reference parameters are: ovality/joint distortion, joint misalignment, ring inclination
(saw tooth).
12.3.3 Functional system consistency
To ensure achievement of the functional objectives of segmental systems, particular attention has to
be paid to the following requirements:
12.3.3.1 Functional requirements to be met by systems with a gasket frame
In systems sealed by means of a gasket frame, compliance with segment and ring assembly
tolerances is essential to ensure that the gaskets can fulfil their function in the joints. Of the total
tolerance (compression, misalignment) allowed for in the gasket design, one quarter to one third is
taken up by the segment, while the remainder is at the disposal of the finished segment ring.
The essential reference parameters are: all geometric main dimensions, all angular deviations, joint
misalignment and ovality.
The tolerances essentially depend on the type and properties of the gasket frame (section, material,
frame construction) and have to be determined on an individual basis.
12.3.3.2 Functional requirements to be met by unsealed systems or systems with mortar-filled joints
In unsealed systems or systems with mortar-filled joint, compliance with maximum allowable joint
openings and joint misalignments is particularly important with a view to the possibility of
subsequent joint sealing (mortar-filled joints).
The essential reference parameters are: joint misalignment, angular deviations of the joints, joint
opening.
12.3.3.3 Functional requirements in terms of surface evenness (inner wall of segmental lining)
The segmental system has to meet certain requirements with a view to subsequent operations (e.g.
evenness of base for waterproofing or surface friction).
For water transfer tunnels, flow resistance is an essential parameter (hydraulic roughness).
Therefore, a higher tolerance is allowable in the radial joints (e.g. 30 mm) than in the
circumferential joints. Mortar-sealing of joints has an influence on the allowable misalignment.
The essential reference parameters are: misalignment of radial joints, misalignment of
circumferential joints.
12.3.3.4 Functional requirements to be met by the ring geometry
Compliance with ring assembly tolerances is essential also with a view to the required clearance
profile, subsequent installation of an inner lining, etc.
The essential reference parameters are: ovality, joint misalignment.


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13 STANDARDS, GUIDELINES, BIBLIOGFAPHY
13.1 Standards referred to in the text
NORM B 3100 Beurteilung der Alkali-Kieselsure-Reaktivitt im Beton; Ausgabe 08/08.
NORM B 3131 Gesteinskrungen fr Beton Regeln zur Umsetzung der NORM
EN 12620; Ausgabe 10/06.
NORM B 3303 Betonprfung; Ausgabe 09/02. (Anmerkung: Ab Erscheinen der
ONR 23303 gelten die entsprechenden Abschnitte der ONR).
NORM B 3309 Aufbereitete hydraulisch wirksame Zusatzstoffe fr die Betonherstellung
(AHWZ); Ausgabe 02/04.
NORM B 3327-1 Zemente gem NORM EN 197-1 fr besondere Verwendungen
Teil 1: Zustzliche Anforderungen; Ausgabe 07/05.
NORM B 3327-2 Zemente gem NORM EN 197-1 fr besondere Verwendungen
Teil 2: Erhht sulfatbestndige Zemente; Ausgabe 09/01.
NORM B 4452 Erd- und Grundbau Dichtwnde im Untergrund; Ausgabe 12/98.
NORM B 4710-1 Beton Teil 1: Festlegung, Herstellung, Verwendung und Konformitts-
nachweis (Regeln zur Umsetzung der NORM EN 206-1 fr Normal
und Schwerbeton); Ausgabe 10/07.
NORM EN 196-1 Prfverfahren fr Beton Teil 1: Bestimmung der Festigkeit;
Ausgabe 04/05.
NORM EN 197-1 Zement Teil 1: Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und Konformitts-
kriterien von Normalzement; Ausgabe 10/08.
NORM EN 450-1 Flugasche fr Beton Teil 1: Definition, Anforderungen und
Konformittskriterien; Ausgabe 08/05.
NORM EN 450-2 Flugasche fr Beton Teil 2: Konformittsbewertung; Ausgabe 08/05.
NORM EN 934-2 Zusatzmittel fr Beton, Mrtel und Einpressmrtel Teil 2: Betonzusatz-
mittel Definitionen, Anforderungen, Konformitt, Kennzeichnung und
Beschriftung (konsolidierte Fassung); Ausgabe 03/06, Normentwurf 01/09.
NORM EN 1008 Zugabewasser fr Beton Festlegungen fr die Probenahme, Prfung
und Beurteilung der Eignung von Wasser, einschlielich der bei der
Betonherstellung anfallendem Wasser, als Zugabewasser fr Beton;
Ausgabe 10/02.
NORM EN 1097-3 Prfverfahren fr mechanische und physikalische Eigenschaften von
Gesteinskrnungen Teil 3: Bestimmung von Schttdichte und
Hohlraumgehalt; Ausgabe 08/09.
NORM EN 1991-1-7 Eurocode 1 Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke Teil 17: Allgemeine
Einwirkungen Auergewhnliche Einwirkungen; Ausgabe 04/07.
NORM EN 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2 Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und
Spannbetontragwerken Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln und
Regeln fr den Hochbau; Ausgabe 11/05.
NORM EN 12350-5 Prfung von Frischbeton Teil 5: Ausbreitma; Ausgabe 04/00.
NORM EN 12350-6 Prfung von Frischbeton Teil 6: Frischbetonrohdichte; Ausgabe 04/00.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 80 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
NORM EN 12350-7 Prfung von Frischbeton Teil 7: Luftgehalte Druckverfahren;
Ausgabe 10/00.
NORM EN 12620 Gesteinskrnungen fr Beton; Ausgabe 09/08.
NORM EN 13263-1 Silikatstaub fr Beton Teil 1: Definitionen, Anforderungen und Kon-
formittskriterien; Ausgabe 11/05; nderung A1; Normentwurf 09/08.
NORM EN 13263-2 Silikatstaub fr Beton Teil 2: Konformittsbewertung; Ausgabe
11/05; nderung A1; Normentwurf 10/08.
NORM EN 13369 Allgemeine Regeln fr Betonfertigteile; Ausgabe 05/08.
NORM EN 13791 Bewertung der Druckfestigkeit von Beton in Bauwerken oder in Bau-
werksteilen; Ausgabe 08/07.
VE/NORM EN ISO/IEC 17025 Allgemeine Anforderungen an die Kompetenz von Prf- und
Kalibrierungslaboratorien; Ausgabe 01/07 (konsolidierte Fassung).
DIN 4127 Erd- und Grundbau; Schlitzwandtone fr sttzende Flssigkeiten; Anfor-
derungen, Prfverfahren, Lieferung, Gteberwachung; Ausgabe 08/86.
DIN 18132 Baugrund, Versuche und Versuchsgerte Bestimmung des Wasserauf-
nahmevermgens; Ausgabe 12/95.
DIN V 4126-100 Schlitzwnde Teil 100: Berechnung nach dem Konzept mit Teil-
sicherheitsbeiwerten; Ausgabe 04/96.
13.2 Guidelines and regulations
VBB-Richtlinie Sichtbeton Geschalte Betonflchen; Grndruck 06/09.
VBB-Richtlinie Innenschalenbeton; Ausgabe 10/03.
VBB-Richtlinie Spritzbeton; Ausgabe 07/04.
VBB-Richtlinie Erhhter Brandschutz mit Beton fr unterirdische Verkehrsbauwerke
inkl. Sachstandsbericht Brandeinwirkungen Strae, Eisenbahn und
U-Bahn; Ausgabe 07/05.
VBB-Merkblatt Schutzschichten fr den erhhte Brandschutz fr unterirdische
Verkehrsbauwerke; Ausgabe 11/06.
VBB-Richtlinie Erhaltung und Instandsetzung von Bauten aus Beton und Stahlbeton;
Ausgabe 07/07.
VBB-Richtlinie Faserbeton; Ausgabe 07/08.
RVS 09.01.42 Tunnel Tunnelbau; Konstruktive Ausfhrung: Geschlossene Bauweise
im Lockergestein unter Bebauung; Ausgabe 05/04, letzte nderung 08/04.
RVS 09.01.43 Innenschalenbeton; Ausgabe 05/04; letzte nderung 03/06.
RVS 09.01.45 Tunnel Tunnelbau; Konstruktive Ausfhrung: Baulicher Brandschutz
in Straenverkehrsbauten; Ausgabe 09/06.
RVS 11.06.42 Qualittssicherung Bau Prfungen: Beton, Nachbehandlungsmittel fr
Beton; Ausgabe 12/85.
GG Richtlinie Richtlinie fr die geomechanische Planung von Untertagebauten mit
zyklischen Vortrieb, 2. berarbeitete Auflage 2008.
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HL-Richtlinie Richtlinie fr das Entwerfen von Bahnanlagen Hochleistungsstrecken;
Anlage 4: Baulicher Brandschutz in unterirdischen Verkehrsbauten von
Eisenbahn-Hochleistungsstrecken; Ausgabe 10/04.
ASTM C 403 Standard-Test-Methode fr die Einstellung der Beton-Mischungen
durch Eindringwiderstand; Ausgabe 2008.
ATV-A161 Statische Berechnung von Vortriebsrohren, Herausgeber: Abwasser-
technische Vereinigung e.V. /ATV); Ausgabe 01/90; Verlag: DWA,
ISBN: 978-3-933693-32-7.
DAUB-Richtlinie Empfehlungen fr statische Berechnungen von Schild-Vortriebs-
Maschinen, Deutscher Ausschuss fr unterirdisches Bauen
Arbeitskreis Schildstatik, Tunnel; Ausgabe 07/05.
TSI-SRT Richtlinie 96/48/EG ber die Interoperabilitt des transeuropischen
Hochgeschwindigkeitsbahnsystems, Teilbereich Sicherheit in Eisen-
bahntunneln; Ausgabe 12/07.
13.3 Additional standards to be taken into consideration
NORM B 1991-1-2 Eurocode 1 Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke Teil 1-2: Allgemeine
Einwirkungen Brandeinwirkungen auf Tragwerke Nationale
Festlegungen zu NORM EN 1991-1-2; Ausgabe 12/03.
NORM B 1991-1-7 Eurocode 1 Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke Teil 17: Allgemeine
Einwirkungen Auergewhnliche Einwirkungen Nationale Fest-
legungen zu NORM EN 1991-1-2; Ausgabe 04/07.
NORM B 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2 Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und Spann-
betontragwerken Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln und Regeln
fr den Hochbau Nationale Festlegungen zu NORM EN 1992-1-1,
nationale Erluterungen und nationale Ergnzungen; Ausgabe 02/07.
NORM B 1992-1-2 Eurocode 2: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und Spann-
betontragwerken Teil 1-2: Allgemeine Regeln Tragwerksbemessung
fr den Brandfall Nationale Festlegungen zur NORM EN 1992-1-2
und nationale Erluterungen; Ausgabe 04/07.
NORM B 1992-2 Eurocode 2: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und
Spannbetontragwerken Teil 2: Betonbrcken Bemessungs- und
Konstruktionsregeln Nationale Festlegungen zu NORM EN 192-2,
nationale Erluterungen und nationale Ergnzungen; Ausgabe 08/02.
NORM B 2203-1 Untertagebauarbeiten Werkvertragsnorm Teil 1: Zyklischer Vortrieb;
Ausgabe 12/01.
NORM B 2203-2 Untertagebauarbeiten Werkvertragsnorm Teil 2: Kontinuierlicher
Vortrieb; Ausgabe 01/05.
NORM EN 1991-1-2 Eurocode 1 Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke Teil 1-2: Allgemeine Ein-
wirkungen Brandeinwirkungen auf Tragwerke; Ausgabe 05/03.
NORM EN 1992-1-2 Eurocode 2: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und Spann-
betontragwerken Teil 1-2: Allgemeine Regeln Tragwerksbemessung
fr den Brandfall; Ausgabe 02/07.
NORM EN 1992-2 Eurocode 2: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und Spann-
betontragwerken Teil 2: Betonbrcken Bemessungs- und Konstruk-
tionsregeln; Ausgabe 09/07.
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Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
Edition February 2011
Page 82 Austrian Society for Concrete and Construction Technology
NORM EN 13501-1 Klassifizierung von Bauprodukten und Bauarten zu ihrem Brandverhalten
Teil 1: Klassifizierung mit den Ergebnissen aus den Prfungen zum
Brandverhalten von Bauprodukten; Ausgabe 05/07; nderung A1:
Normentwurf 12/07.
NORM EN 13501-2 Klassifizierung von Bauprodukten und Bauarten zu ihrem
Brandverhalten Teil 2: Klassifizierung mit den Ergebnissen aus den
Feuerwiderstandsprfungen, mit Ausnahme von Lftungsanlagen;
Ausgabe 01/08; nderung A1: Normentwurf 12/07.
13.4 Bibliography
[1] Schweiger, H.F.; Some remarks on 2-D-models for numerical simulation of
Schuller, H.; Pttler, R.: underground constructions with complex cross sections,
Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics,
Yuan (ed.) 1997 Balkema Rotterdam.
[2] Meiner, H.: Empfehlungen des Arbeitskreises "Numerik in der Geotechnik"
der Deutschen Gesellschaft fr Erd- und Grundbau e.V.,
Geotechnik 14 (1991), S. 1-10
[3] Maidl, B.: Handbuch des Tunnel- und Stollenbaus, Band II, S.107ff.
[4] Muir Wood A. M.: The circular tunnel in elastic ground. Geotechnique 25.
No. 1, (1975), S. 115127.
[5] Leonhardt, F., Reimann, H.: Betongelenke. Versuchsbericht, Vorschlge zur Bemessung
und konstruktiven Ausbildung; Deutscher Ausschuss fr
Stahlbeton (DAfStb), Heft 175, Beuth Verlag, Berlin 1965
(siehe auch in Der Bauingenieur 41 Heft 2 (1966)).
[6] Hestermann, U.: Eignungsprfungen 4. Rhre Elbtunnel Groversuche:
Umsetzung der Ergebnisse in Planung und Konstruktion;
Band 38, S. 108-112, Unterirdisches Bauen 2000: Heraus-
forderungen und Entwicklungspotentiale, Tagungsband
STUVA-Jahrestagung 1999 in Frankfurt/M.
ISBN 3-87094-640-7.
[7] Janen P.: Tragverhalten von Tunnelausbauten mit Gelenktbbings;
Dissertation (Bericht-Nr.83-41/Prof. Duddeck) Technische
Universitt Braunschweig 1983.
[8] Winselmann, D.; Stding, A.; Aktuelle Berechnungsmethoden fr Tunnelauskleidungen
Holzhuser, J.: Babendererde, S.; mit Tbbingen und deren verfahrens-
technische Voraussetzungen, Deutsche Gesellschaft fr
Geotechnik e.V. (DGGT), Baugrundtagung Hannover 2000.
[9] STUVA: Empfehlung fr die Prfung und den Einsatz von
Dichtungsprofilen in Tbbingauskleidungen, Autorenteam
STUVAtec; 2007 Studiengesellschaft fr unterirdische
Verkehrsanlagen e.V.
[10] Schneider, E.; Spiegl, M.: Convergency compatible support systems, Tunnels &
Tunnelling International, June 2008.
[11] VBB-Sachstandsbericht: Sachstandsbericht Tbbinge, Ausgabe 12/2005.

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Hefte der Schriftenreihe und Richtlinien sind bei der Geschftsstelle der sterreichischen Vereinigung
fr Beton- und Bautechnik gegen Kostenersatz erhltlich.
VERFFENTLICHUNGEN DER
STERREICHISCHEN VEREINIGUNG FR BETON- UND BAUTECHNIK

Richtlinien
Guideline Concrete Segmental Lining Systems
(Edition 2011)
Richtlinie Befahrbare Verkehrsflchen in Garagen und
Parkdecks (Ausgabe 2010)
Merkblatt Braune Wannen (Ausgabe 2010)
Richtlinie Erhaltung und Instandsetzung von Bauten
aus Beton und Stahlbeton (Ausgabe 2010)
Richtlinie "Tunnelentwsserung (Ausgabe 2010)
Richtlinie Spritzbeton (Ausgabe 2009)
Merkblatt Weiche Betone (Ausgabe 2009)
Richtlinie Sichtbeton Geschalte Betonflchen inkl.
Gtezeichen Fachbetrieb fr Sichtbeton
(Ausgabe 2009)
Richtlinie Schildvortrieb (Ausgabe 2009)
Richtlinie Tbbingsysteme aus Beton
(Ausgabe 2009)
Richtlinie Bewertung und Behebung von
Fehlstellen bei Tunnelinnenschalen (Ausgabe 2009)
Merkblatt Beton fr Klranlagen
(Ausgabe 2009)
Richtlinie "Wasserundurchlssige Betonbauwerke
Weie Wannen" (Ausgabe 2009)
Merkblatt Herstellung von faserbewehrten
monolithischen Betonplatten (Ausgabe 2008)
Richtlinie Faserbeton (Ausgabe 2008)
Richtlinie Injektionstechnik Teil 1 (Ausgabe 2008)
Richtlinie Erhaltung und Instandsetzung von Bauten
aus Beton und Stahlbeton (Ausgabe 2007)
Richtlinie Konstruktive Stahleinbauteile in Beton und
Stahlbeton (Ausgabe 2006)
Merkblatt Schutzschichten fr den erhhten
Brandschutz fr unterirdische Verkehrsbauwerke
(Ausgabe 2006)
Merkblatt Kreisverkehre mit Betonfahrbahndecken
(Ausgabe 2006)
Guideline Inner Shell Concrete (Edition 2006)
Guideline Sprayed Concrete (Edition 2006)
Richtlinie Stahl-Beton-Verbundbrcke - inkl.
Musterstatik (Ausgabe 2006)
Sachstandsbericht Tbbinge (Ausgabe 2005)
Richtlinie Erhhter Brandschutz mit Beton fr
unterirdische Verkehrsbauwerke inkl.
Sachstandsbericht "Brandeinwirkungen - Strae,
Eisenbahn, U-Bahn" (Ausgabe 2005)
Merkblatt Unterwasserbetonsohlen (UWBS) (Ausgabe
2005)
Richtlinie Fugenausbildungen im Tunnel und
Konstruktionsprinzipien am bergang
offene/geschlossene Bauweise (Ausgabe 2005)
Richtlinie Bohrpfhle (Ausgabe 2005)
Merkblatt Anstriche fr Tunnelinnenschalen
(Ausgabe 2004)
Richtlinie Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von
Stahlbetonbauteilen (Ausgabe 2003)
Richtlinie Innenschalenbeton (Ausgabe 2003)
Richtlinie "Nachtrgliche Verstrkung von
Betonbauwerken mit geklebter Bewehrung" (Ausgabe
2002)
Merkblatt "Selbstverdichtender Beton (SCC)
(Ausgabe 2002)
Richtlinie "Schmalwnde" (Ausgabe 2002)
Richtlinie "Dichte Schlitzwnde" (Ausgabe 2002)
Richtlinie "Bewehrungszeichnungen" (Ausgabe 2001)
Richtlinie "LPV-Beton"(Ausgabe 1999)
Merkblatt "Hochleistungsbeton" (Ausgabe 1999)
Sachstandsbericht "Hochfester Beton" (Ausgabe 1993)
Richtlinie "Frost-Tausalz-bestndiger Beton"
(Ausgabe 1989)
Richtlinie fr die Herstellung von Betonfahrbahndecken
(Ausgabe 1986)
Richtlinie fr Herstellung und Verarbeitung von Fliebeton
(Ausgabe 1977)
Richtlinien fr Leichtbeton, Teil 1-4 (Ausgabe 1974 - 1978)
(Teile 1 und 4a sind durch NORM B 4200-11 ersetzt)

Schriftenreihe
Heft 69/2010
Betontag 2010
Heft 68/2009
5th Central European Congress on Concrete Engineering
Innovative Concrete Technology in Practice (inkl. CD)
Heft 67/2008
Betontag 2008
Heft 66/2007
sterreichische Betonstraentagung 2007
Heft 65/2007
Fortbildungsveranstaltung 2007 Sektion Spannbeton
Heft 64/2006
Betontag 2006
Heft 63/2005
Fortbildungsveranstaltung 2005 Sektion Spannbeton
Heft 62/2005
Internationale Fachtagung 2005
Betondecken aus volkswirtschaftlicher Sicht
Heft 61/2005
1st Central European Congress on Concrete Engineering
Fibre Reinforced Concrete in Practice (inkl. CD)
Heft 60/2005
Einfhrung in die neue Richtlinie Bohrpfhle
Heft 59/2005
sterreichische Betonstraentagung 2005
Heft 58/2005
Vorgespannte Flachdecken mit Vorspannung ohne
Verbund freie Spanngliedlage
Heft 57/2004
Einfhrung in die neue Richtlinie Kathodischer
Korrosionsschutz
Heft 56/2004
sterreichischer Betontag 2004
Heft 55/2003
Festvortrag Prof. Wladislaw Bartoszewski - Kulturelle
Identitt Mitteleuropas
Heft 54/2003
32. FB Erdwrmenutzung aus erdberhrten Betonteilen
und in tiefliegenden Bauwerken
Heft 53/2003
31. FB Innovative Betonkonstruktionen fr den modernen
Verkehrswegebau
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Hefte der Schriftenreihe und Richtlinien sind bei der Geschftsstelle der sterreichischen Vereinigung
fr Beton- und Bautechnik gegen Kostenersatz erhltlich.
Heft 52/2003
30. FB Einfhrung in die neue Richtlinie Nachtrgliche
Verstrkung von Betonbauwerken mit geklebter
Bewehrung
Heft 51/2003
Betonstraen
Heft 50/2002
Festkolloquium anlsslich der Emeritierung von
O.Univ.Prof. Manfred Wicke
Heft 49/2002
29. FB Einfhrung in die neue Richtlinie Faserbeton
Heft 48/2002
sterreichischer Betontag 2002
Heft 47/2001
28. FB Innovation im Betonbau
Heft 46/2001
27. FB Einfhrung in die RL Bewehrungszeichnungen
Heft 45/2000
26. FB Externe Vorspannung
Heft 44/2000
25. FB Erfahrungen mit der RVS 8S.06.32
Deckenarbeiten - Betondecken, Deckenherstellung
Heft 43/2000
sterreichischer Betontag 2000
Heft 42/1999
24. FB Einfhrung in die neue Richtlinie Dichte
Schlitzwnde
Heft 41/1999
23. FB Qualittsmanagement - Qualitt miteinander?
Baustellenorientiertes Qualittswesen bei den
Baustellen
Heft 40/1999
22. FB Neue Normen und Technologien fr Beton- und
Spannbetonbauten
Heft 39/1999
21. FB Einfhrung in die Richtlinie Qualittssicherung fr
Instandsetzungsfachbetriebe und produkte
Heft 38/1999
20. FB Einfhrung in die Richtlinie BETON - Herstellung,
Transport, Einbau, Gtenachweis
Heft 37/1999
19. FB Einfhrung in die Richtlinie
Wasserundurchlssige Betonbauwerke - Weie Wannen
Heft 36/1998
18. FB Einfhrung in die NORM B 4452
Heft 35/1998
17. FB Einfhrung in die neue Richtlinie Spritzbeton
Heft 34/1998
16. FB Verbundlose Vorspannung im Hochbau
Heft 33/1998
sterreichischer Betontag 1998
Heft 32/1998
FIP 1998-Amsterdam Vorgespannter Beton in
sterreich
Heft 31/1997
15. FB Aktuelle Fragen des Spannbetons
Heft 30/1997
14. FB Neue Betonzusatzmittel - Neuer Beton?
Heft 29/1998
13. FB Grndungstechnik
Heft 28/1997
12. FB Eisenbahnbrcken aus Spannbeton
Heft 27/1997
sterreichischer Betontag 1996
Heft 26/1996
Innbrcke Kufstein
Heft 25/1996
11. Fortbildungsveranstaltung
Heft 24/1996
Donaubrcke Tulln
Heft 23/1995
10. Fortbildungsveranstaltung
Heft 22/1994
sterreichischer Betontag 1994
Heft 21/1994
Eisenbahnumfahrung Innsbruck Inntalbrcke
Heft 20/1994
FIP 1994 Washington
Heft 19/1994
Spannbeton Bewehrungstechnik
Heft 18/1993
Die auf dem EUROCODE 2 basierenden neuen
NORMEN der Reihe B 4700
Heft 17/1992
sterreichischer Betontag 1992
Heft 16/1992
Umweltschutz Brckenbau
Heft 15/1992
Vorspannung ohne Verbund
Heft 14/1990
sterreichischer Betontag 1990
Heft 13/1990
FIP 1990 Hamburg
Heft 12/1989
Vorspannung beim Bau der Neuen Bahn
Heft 11/1988
Vorstellung der Richtlinie Spitzbeton Teil 1 Anwendung
Heft 10/1988
Verstrken von Betontragwerken durch Vorspannung
Heft 9/1988
Vortrge am sterreichischen Betontag
Heft 8/1987
Aktuelle Fragen des Spannbetons
Heft 7/1987
Verbundlose Vorspannung
Heft 6/1986
Vortrage am sterreichischen Betontag
Heft 5/1986
Flexibilitt im Massivbau, Verstrken und Verbreitern von
Betontragwerken
Heft 4/1986
Fdration Internationale de la Prcontrainte;
10. Kongress 1986, New Delhi
Heft 3/1985
Vorspannung im Hochbau, Entwicklung in der
Ankertechnik
Heft 2/1984
Eisenbahnbrcken aus Spannbeton, Projektsteuerung im
Bauwesen
Heft 1/1984
Aktuelle Fragen des Spritzbetons
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