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The concept of the transport system

Structure and function of the transport system

The word system means a specific composition, a unit, a collection of specific
parts or expediently composed unit. Therefore, the system is not any kind of sets, but
ordered set, which as such is a specific entity, which as a whole makes a concept or
execute a comprehensive function.
The transport system is such a collection of- roads; driving, navigable and
telecommunications equipment; economic, administrative, educational, scientific and
other bodies and organizations and their workers; and other elements of the system -
which ensures that traffic performs its tasks as a single functional unit.
s a complex dynamic !changing" system, the transportation system has its own
function, has its own structure - elements of the system and the links between the
elements # it has its subsystems, hierarchy, environment, dynamics, etc.
The structure of the transportation system contains its elements and the way these
elements are connected to each other in the process of the realisation of their functions.
s a complex system, the traffic has a number of elements which are$
Traffic artery$ roads , railways , waterways !natural and artificial " and other stable
ob%ects $ airports, harbors, ports, bus and railway stations, commercial and public
buildings !warehouses, workshops, etc." pipelines, telegraph and telephone lines,
exchanges and other devices, etc. ;
&ehicles and navigable means$ passenger cars, trucks, buses, boats and other
navigable ob%ects, locomotives, trams, trolley buses, planes, etc. ;
'eloading and other devices for handling cargo$ cranes, forklifts, conveyors, pallet
containers, and other means;
(orkers who perform transportation ;
)usinesses and other organizations in a car industry;
Traffic *chool$ secondary, advanced schools, universities ;
*cientific institutions studying various transportation issues;
+overnment body in charge of transport ;
,ntangible elements such as human knowledge, experience, transport tariffs,
timetables, laws and regulations on the transport, agreements and the like.
The very existence of the elements is not enough to make their set become a
system. The set must be so arranged, the elements so linked that a set works as a whole.
The number of connections between elements and subsystems in the transport system is
very large.
The function of the transport system - its mission - is that, as well as possible,
meet all the needs for mobility in a society$ the need for moving goods, to transport
people, to transmit messages between spatially distant people.
The tasks of traffic are not, at the same time horizons, the same in all areas,
countries or regions. The differences in transport needs arise due to differences in the
number and structure of population, population density, the habits and needs of people-s
travelling as well as their consumption of goods. There are also regional differences in
production and the economy, and many other differences. )ecause of these differences a
function of the transport system is different in different areas.
s the structure and function of the transport system are in the interaction, the
spatial and temporal differences will influence the differences in the function of the
system. The structure of the system is influenced by many factors !development of
science and technology, natural conditions, environment, historical development
conditions, etc.". *ince structure and function are related to each other, the structure of the
system must constantly adapt to the required function.
The function of the transport system meets the needs of the system environment.
.n the transport market these needs are classified as demand transportation of goods and
people, that is, the transmission of messages. The structure of the transport system, the
elements and the connections between them, determines the ability of the system to meet
these needs. .n the transport market it is expressed as an offer of transportation or
transmission. /ence the ratio of the functions and structure of the transport system can be
defined as the ratio of supply and demand in the transport market.
The subsystems of the transportation system
Traffic system meets some of its tasks as a whole, and some through its parts -
their subsystems. .ne part of the transportation system can make a special subsystem,
only if it has specific tasks, the different from the tasks of the system as a whole. lso,
this subsystem can be the part of the transportation system, if it has the common tasks
with other subsystems within the overall transportation system. The task of the subsystem
must be the part of the task of the system.
The transport system can be divided into subsystems in multiple ways, by a number
of possible criteria$
0. ccording to the territory in which subsystems act - it is a geographic division.
(orld-s transportation system is divided into its subsystems$ transport systems of the
continents, and those are divided in the transportation systems of individual countries.
1ational transport systems are divided into subsystems of smaller territorial entities$
states, cantons, regions, provinces, municipalities, etc.
To claim that the traffic of an area is a subsystem of a transport system of the
broader territory it is not enough that the area belongs to a wider geographic territory . ,t
is needed that a transport system of the area actually works as a part of the transportation
system of the broader territory.
2. ccording to the types of activities that the individual subsystems perform, i.e.
according to the types of needs they meet # it is a functional division.
The transport system meets the needs of the transportation of people, cargo, and the
transmission of information. Taking these kinds of needs into consideration, there may
vary subsystem of passenger transport, cargo transport subsystem and the subsystem of
message transmission. Taking into consideration the features of the transport system there
can be detected other subsystems as well, such as traffic educational system, the system of
scientific research in the transportation and others.
3. ccording to the organization of transport - it is the institutional division.
Transport as a separate area of production was created by separating from other
economic areas. 4ater, the divisions of labor led to the separation of individual transport
organizations that got specialized for certain traffic activities. ,n practice, sometimes the
institutional division coincides with the functional.
5. ccording to the type of the traffic roads - it6s a branch division.
*ubsystems obtained by this division include$ rail, road, sea, river and lake, and the
air duct. s a separate branch there is a 7TT transport !7ostal, Telegraph and Telephone"
as well, which uses all kinds of traffic arteries.
,n addition to the above, other divisions or combinations of division of the
transport system in its subsystems are possible.
Land transport
The traffic is divided into the following branches$
ir and
7ostal, Telegraph and Telephone !7TT".
ccording to the type of a traffic road, land transport is divided in$
railway and
Highway traffic
/istorical development
The development of individual traffic branches is related to the different time
periods. The need for traffic during the period of the original community was very small
because the exchange of goods was negligible. The traffic mainly had a local character,
and means of transport were very primitive.
,t is believed that the time of occurrence of some types of traffic is calculated
from the beginning of the use of certain types of roads, because the traffic branches were
mainly defined by the type of a road. &iewed from this angle, highway traffic belongs to
one of the oldest ways of transportation. The beaten path on which prehistoric man
walked, the forked branches that he dragged on the track and a pack animal - means that
are among the first roads and means of transport - are traffic arteries and road transport
round 3 289 ): there was a potter6s wheel, and somewhere around the same
time in ;esopotamia began the use of the wheel on the vehicles - a wheelchair. The car
with two wheels for the first time appeared in the 5th century ):. *leigh- road vehicle
was for many centuries the main means of transportation.
The idea to build a vehicle that was moving by the engine power occurred when
the steam engine was built !0<=8".
,n 0<=>, a ?renchman 1icholas @oseph Ain%o, a military engineer, constructed a
three-wheeled steam motor vehicle, whose speed was 8 km B h, designed for hauling guns
and ammunition.
,n 0<C= *ymington constructed a vehicle on four wheels.
,n 0C2< /ancock constructed his first steam engine with multiple combustion
chambers, in 0C2> tricycle for four people and then several models of steam postal
carriages that regularly operated between *tratford - 4ondon and the 4ondon - )righton.
*tarting from the 0CC0 there were experiments with road vehicles on electric
power. ,t is considered that the first true electric vehicle is a vehicle with three wheels
with two small electric engines powered from the battery, constructed by an engineer
Truveo, which moved at a speed of 09 - 02 km B h in 0CC0. 'oad electric vehicles gave
very good results in terms of speed, but there remained the unresolved problems of the
small length of the road that can be passed by a single charge and the great mass of the
The first means of transport that brok the sound barrier of 099 km B h was an
electric car constructed by a )elgian Denasi$ on ;ay 0st in 0C>> - 098,CC2 km B h.
The development of a motor road transport is based, however, on internal
combustion engines. Etienne 4enoir, a )elgian engineer, designed it in 0C8>. ,t was the
first two-stroke engine that worked on a mixture of kerosene and air, fired by an electric
spark. ,n 0C=2 )o Fe 'osa set the principle of the four-stroke gas engine. The first
practical use of four-stroke gas engine was constructed by +erman engineer 1ikolas .tto
in 0C<C. +erman +ottlieb Faimler made the first motorcycle in 0CC8. ,n the same year
Aarl )enz constructed the first car. ,t was a three-wheeler with four-stroke engines. ,n
0CC=, Faimler constructed his first car with four wheels.
,nventor of the pneumatics was Funlop in 0CCC.
merican /enry ?ord designed his first car in 0C>=. , and the production of
tractors and cars began in 0C>C. )y founding of the ?ord :ompany the industrial
production of cars began in 0>93.
The development of road transport vehicles expressed the need for improving the
quality of the roads. The first road traffic arteries were beaten tracks. )uilding of the first
roads with hard surface began in ancient society. ncient 'omans at the height of their
power possessed a road network of about 39 999 km. 'oads were provided for miles in a
straight line and were built of stone blocks. 4ater, instead of blocks of stones smaller and
smaller pieces of stones were used and cobblestones were obtained, often, positioned
directly on the ground. t the beginning of the nineteenth century, by the invention of the
*cottish engineer @ohn ;acadam began the construction of gravel roads. They were made
of a big stack of stones, layers of fine stones and over it firmly rolled into fine sand mixed
with water. *ince the beginning of 29 century mostly asphalt, concrete and reinforced
concrete have been used to build roads.
(ith the progress in the construction of roads, construction of bridges, tunnels and
other road structures and road signs is refined.
Division of road traffic
ccording to purpose it is divided into$ the public and its own needs,
ccording to the territorial characteristics it is divided into$ internal and
ccording to the way of the organisation it is divided into$ line, free, etc.
7lace of road traffic in the traffic system, basic parameters and characteristics
Gsing of a road for many centuries was practically the only form of 4and
Transport. )y the development of rail, canal and air transport, the place of road transport
in the system define its exploitation of technical characteristics and development needs in
transportation where such features correspond.
'oad transport is suitable primarily for dispersive transport of passengers and
cargo, or transporting those in which the total transport task consists of a single small
request for transport of small quantities of cargo and passengers on different routes and at
different times. (ith its flexibility, it can be adapted to any request for transportation, as
well as large quantities over long distances.
'equests for dispersive character transporting significantly increase its share of the
total transport. ,t affects the rapid development of road transport, which is evident from
the data on annual production and the number of registered motor vehicles. Fue to the
weaknesses of other forms of transportation - that have not fully covered their areas, road
transport is used for transportation that do not belong to it !focused transport of goods,
concentrated passenger transport in cities, etc.".
:haracteristics of road transport are as follows$
*trong resistance of the road - great frictional resistance occurs because of the
rolling of the wheel on a rough road;
;utual independence of movement of transport units - each individual vehicle is
independent in its movement of other vehicles;
?lexibility - adaptable to all requirements for transport. Fepending on the size of
the shipment or the number of passengers to be transported at once from the same
initial to the same final point the required number and size of transport units may
be chosen. Feparture time of each vehicle can be ad%usted according to the needs,
direction of movement and speed of travel can be customized to user needs ;
/igher cost of movement - large resistances that occur in moving vehicles cause
more power consumption and more expensive engines; each vehicle is
independent and requires a special power and driving staff ;
.pening - closing costs are lower - costs about the organization and preparation of
transportation are small; there is no cost shunting # composition reassembling;
*imple organization of transport - the performance of each individual asset is
organized independently of the work of other assets;
complex organization of traffic - a large number of individual vehicles with
different directions of movement, speed, starting and stopping places on the same
road surfaces;
4ess traffic safety - the movement of a large number of transport units, different
abilities, desires and needs, at the same traffic areas, the movement on the basis of
a large number of independent decisions made by a large number of drivers is the
ob%ective cause of the accidents;
Advantages and disadvantages of road transport
:ompared to other forms of transport, road transport has a number of advantages,
as it placed it as the first factor in the transport market.
The advantages are $
7erforms the transport directly between production and consumption centers ;
/igh maneuver ability while performing transportation;
The capacity for Hdoor to door H transport;
.ften compared to other modes of transport has a higher rate of goods delivery ;
The relative ease of use of road transport and great opportunities of performing
additional services;
The diversity of forms of transport that is done , because of the variety of means of
transport ;
/igh mobility, etc. ;
Fisadvantages of road transport are$
/igh fuel consumption per unit of transport;
,n relation to ocean, river and rail transport high ratio of own rolling stock weight
and tonnage of goods transported;
4ow productivity;
/igh cost of transport compared to rail, water and pipeline transport, especially at
longer distances;
;eans of transport, traffic centers and the development of road transport in our
country 'oad motor vehicles are by purpose divided into$
;otor vehicles for the transport of passengers,
;otor vehicles for the transport of cargo,
*pecial vehicles.
;otor vehicles for the transport of passengers are$
7assenger cars,
;otor freight vehicles are$
*pecial vehicles for transport !trucks, trailers, concrete mixers, etc.".
The first builders of roads in our country were the ancient 'omans. They built
roads especially by the valleys of the rivers *ava and Fanube, ;orava, ,bar, etc. The
main directions of the 'oman roads were the basis for the construction of roads over the
next centuries, and they still make the frame of our road network.
The main highway in the country is )elgrade-1is highway that connects our
country to ustria on one side !via Dagreb, 4%ubl%ana and @esenica", and the other to
+reece !via *kop%e and +evgeli%a".
)elgrade-1ovi *ad-*ubotica-!/ungary" is a part of the main European 1orth-
*outh link. .n the stretch of road from )ata%nica to 1ovi *ad semi-highway was built
which has been completed and made highway in recent years.
,mportant highways are )elgrade-&rsac-!'omania", 1is-Fimitrovgrad !)ulgaria",
)elgrade-:acak-Aral%evo-7ristina-!;acedonia", )elgrade to Gzice !;ontenegro", and so
European :orridor 09, which stretches from *alzburg !ustria" to Thessaloniki
!+reece" should affect better integration of our country and the countries of the European
Gnion. ,t connects our country with :roatia, *lovenia and ustria, ;acedonia and
+reece. .ne section of :orridor 09 connects *erbia to )udapest !/ungary" and the other
to *ofia !)ulgaria". ,n order to complete :orridor 09 highway the necessary investments
are desired on the following sections$ /orgos - 1ovi *ad, the )elgrade roundabout way,
+rabovica - 7resevo and 1is - Fimitrovgrad.
I Fr damoviJ ;. !0>>>". Gvod u saobraJa%. ?aculty of Transport and Traffic
Engineering. Gniversity of )elgrade.
I Fr 7eriKiJ '. !0>C8". *avremene tehnologi%e transporta ,. ?aculty of Transport
and Traffic Engineering. Gniversity of )elgrade.