Sie sind auf Seite 1von 79

PRESSUREVESSEL

MANUAL

TrainingCoursefor
PVELITESoftware(BasedonASMESEC.VIII,DIV.I)

By:

M.ASGARZADEGAN

Rev.0:JUNE.2009

Page1of79


ASMESec.VIII,Div.I PVElite .



.

m.asgarzadegan@gmail.com

Page2of79

-1

-2

ASMESEC.VIII,DIV.I

-3

PVElite

-4

-5

Page3of79

1. ASMESec.VIII,Div.I,Ed.2007
2. ASMESec.II
3. PressureVesselDesignManual
By: R.Moss
4. PressureVesselDesignHandbook
By: H.Bednar
5. PressureVesselDesignConcepts&Principles
By: J.Spence
6. PressureVesselHandbook
By:F.Megyesy
7. IPS
8. NIOEC
9. NPCS
10. ASTM
11. ARTICLES

Page4of79

ASMESEC.VIII,DIV.I

Page5of79

: ASMESec.VIII,Div.I
Subsection A: General

UG*

ByWelding

UW

ByForging

UF

ByBrazing

UB

Subsection B:Fabrication

Carbon&LowAlloySteel

UCS

NonferrousMaterialsUNF
HighAlloySteelUHA
CastIronUCI
ASMESec.
VIII,Div.I

SubsectionC:Material

Cladding
CastDuctileIron

UCL
UCD

Ferritic Steels with Tensile Properties


EnhancedbyHeatTreatment
UHT
LayeredconstructionULW
Materials having Higher Allowable
StressatLowTemp.ULT
RulesforS&THeatExch.UHX

MandatoryApp.: 1,2,,9(JacketedVessels),,26(ExpansionJoints),
NonMandatoryApp.(GoodPractice):A,C,,F(Linings),,EE(Half
PipeJackets),

. UG *
.
ASME ( " Pressure Parts) *
..... AISC AISI (NonPressureParts)
PassPartition ( Towers) ( Tray) ( Internals) .
. NonPressureParts "( S&THeatExchangers)

Page6of79

* ASMESec.VIIIDiv.I Max.StressTheory .
.
Brittle Ductile
.
" :
Internalpressure (SelectThickness)
ExternalPressure (CheckThk.)
Hydrostatic(/Pneumatic)TestPressure (CheckThk.)
Wind& SeismicConditions (CheckThk.)
WindDeflection (CheckThk.)
Misc.CombinedLoadings
)(CheckThk.

1
2
3
4
5
6

2 5

.
:

) (1 ) (2
.

Page7of79

:
YieldStress/TensileStress
AllowableStress=(

)
SafetyFactor

S.F. .
:

ASMESec.VIIIDiv.I:
Sall= Min (2/3Sy, 2/7ST)
API 650:
)Sall= Min (2/3Sy,2/5ST


JointEfficiency .
PD PRm
=
2 S
S
P( Ri + 0.5t)
t =
S
t =

PRi
t = f(P,R,S,E)
SE- 0.6P

= t

E ) (LongitudinalJ.E. 0.6 " 0.5


" 0.6 ." Sall
.

.... C.A. :
PRi
t=
+ C.A.
SE- 0.6P
)P,S (psi),t,C.A.,Ri (in.

*
:
* ) (Erosion C.A. ASME
.

Page8of79

CATEGORY : UW3
. CATEGORY
CategoryA:
Longitudinalandspiralweldedjointswithinthemainshell,communicatingchambers,Transitionsin
diameter,ornozzlesanyweldedjointwithinasphere,withinaformedorflathead,orwithintheside
plates of a flatsided vessel circumferential welded joints connecting hemispherical heads to main
shells,totransitionindiameters,tonozzles,orcommunicating chambers.

CategoryB:
Circumferentialweldedjointswithinthemainshell,communicatingchambers,nozzles,ortransitions
in diameter including joints between the transition and a cylinder at either the large or small end
circumferential welded joints connecting formed heads other than hemispherical to main shells, to
transitionsindiameter,tonozzles,ortocommunicatingchambers.

Category C:
Weldedjoints connecting flanges, vanstonelaps,tubesheets, or flat heads to mainshell,to formed
heads, to transitions in diameter, to nozzles, or to communicating chambers any welded joint
connectingonesideplatetoanothersideplateofaflatsidedvessel.

CategoryD:
Weldedjointsconnectingcommunicatingchambers,ornozzlestomainshells,tospheres,to transition
indiameter,toheads,ortoflatsidedvessels,andthosejointsconnectingnozzlestocommunicating
chambers(fornozzlesatthesmallendofatransitionindiameterseeCategoryB).

Page9of79

RT&UT: UW11

JointEfficiency : UW12
) (NDT J.E. RT . ) (Buttweld 1
RT E=1
Seamless RT Spot ) TJoint
( E=0.85
. RT " E=0.7 .

Page10of79

RT
.
RT . E=0.7 RT
FullRT
. SpotRT

TableUW12
1,5

MAX. ALLOW. JOINTEFF.

TypeNo.
(1)

(2)

JointDescription
Buttjointsasattainedby
doubleweldingorby
othermeanswhichwill
obtainthesamequalityof
depositedweldmetalon
theinside&outsideweld
surfacestoagreewith
therequirementsofUW
35.Weldsusingmetal
backingstripswhich
remaininplaceare
excluded.
Singleweldedbuttjoint
withbackingstripother
thanthoseincluded
under(1)

(3)

Singleweldedbutt joint
withoutuseof backing
strip.

(4)

Doublefullfilletlapjoint

FORARC&GASWELDEDJOINTS

None

DegreeofRadiographicExamination
2
3
Category
None
Full
Spot
A,B,C,D
1.00
0.85
0.70

(a)Noneexceptin(b)below

A,B,C&D

Limitations

(b)Circumferentialjointsnot
over5/8in.(16mm)thick
(5)

(6)

Singlefullfilletlapjoints
withplugwelds
conformingtoUW17

Singlefullfilletlapjoints
withoutplugwelds

0.80
0.80

0.65
0.65

NA

NA

0.60

NA

NA

0.55

B&C
B

NA

NA

0.50

A&B

NA

NA

0.45

(b)Circumferentialbuttjoints
A,B,&C
withoneplateoffsetseeUW
13(b)(4)andFig.UW13.1,
sketch(k)
Circumferentialbuttjoints
A,B,&C
only,notover5/16"in.(16
mm)thickandnotover24in.
(610mm)outsidediameter
(a)Longitudinaljointsnotover A
3/8in.(10mm)thick

(a)Circumferentialjoints for
attachmentofheadsnotover
24in.(610mm)outside
diametertoshellsnotover1.2
in.(13mm)thick
(b)Circumferentialjointsfor
theattachmenttoshellsof
jacketsnotover5/8in.(16
mm)innominalthickness
wherethedistancefromthe
centeroftheplugweldtothe
edgeoftheplateisnotless
than11/2 timesthediameter
oftheholefortheplug
(a)Fortheattachmentof
headsconvextopressureto
shellsnotover5/8in.
(16mm) requiredthickness,
onlywithuseoffilletweldin
Page11of79

0.90
0.90

insideoftheshellor

(7)

(8)

Cornerjoints,full
penetration,partial
penetration,and/offillet
welded
Anglejoints

(b)forattachmentofheads
having pressureoneither
side,toshellsnotover24in.
(610mm)insidediameterand
notover1/4in.(6mm)
requiredthicknesswithfillet
weldonoutsideofhead
flangeonly
AslimitedbyFig.UW13.2
andFigUW16.1

DesignperU2(g)for
CategoryBandCjoints

A&B

C&D

NA

NA

NA

B,C,&D

NA

NA

NA

Notes:
(1)Thesinglefactorshownforeachcombinationofjointcategoryanddegreeofradiographicexamination
replacesboththestressreductionfactorandtheJ.E.factorconsiderationspreviouslyusedinthisDivision.
(2)SeeUW12(a)andUW51
(3)SeeUW12(b)andUW52
(4)Jointsattachinghemisphericalheadstoshellsareexcluded
(5)E=1.0forbuttjointsincompression
(6)ForTypeNo.4CategoryCjoint,limitationsnotapplicableforboltedflangeconnections.
(7)ThereisnojointefficiencyEinthedesignformulasofthisDivisionforCategoryCandDjoints.Whenneeded,
avalueofEnotgreaterthan1.00maybeused.

ImpactTest(UG84)
( Crack ) Toughness
10mmx10mm 3) .
. UG84 ISO148 SA370 ( 50mm
. MDMT V
. UG84.1
: ImpactTest *
: ImpactTest ( 1

Page12of79

(2 UG20(f):

(3 ) UCS66(b)(3 ): (UCS66.1
1. 48C<MDMT 105C
Actual.Stress
0.35
Allowabl.Stress

tr E*
Actual.Stress E*
=
tn - C.A. Allowable.Stress E

2.

(4 ) UCS68(c P.No.1 PWHT


17C MDMT .
(5 UCS66 .

Page13of79

* TableUCS66 .
* ) (GoverningThk. ) UCS66(a
.

(6 Normalize . MDMT
Curve ImpactTest .
(7 ) UCS66(c UCS66

:
* :
BasePlate
HAZ(HeatAffectedZone)
WeldMetal
WPS,PQR

1
2
3
4

* ImpactTest MDMT
..... .
* 46C" C.S. S.S. .
ImpactTest S.S. .
* tSelected" treq. . Sactual< Sall
UCS66 UCS66.1 .
MDMT
UCS66.1 .

Page14of79

* ImpactTest SupplementaryEssential . Gr.No.


PQR P.No. Gr.No. .

):(MAWP
"
. 13.4mm "
14mm . :
>PDesign P
tselected> treq.
S< Sall
.
. MAWP
treq tselected .
:MAWP

MAPNew& Cold .
:
P(Ri + C.A.)
= t
+ C.A.
SE- 0.6P
sel.

C.A=0

&

S= Sall Amb.Temp.

* "OperatingLiquid" MAWP MAPnc .


* MAWP
MAWP .
.
.
P Sall
.
:
P R +C.A
.
i
= treq
+ C.A.
SE.- 0.6P

Page15of79

General: UG16
: UG16(b) ) ( 1.5mm+C.A.
. :
1.ForShell&Headsof UnfiredSteamBoilers:
Min.1/4 in.(6 mm) +C.A.
2. For Shell & Heads used in Compressed air/Steam/Water Services made from materials
listedinUCS23:
Min.3/32in.(2.5mm) +C.A.
: UG16(c) :
Min.0.25mm
6%oftheorderedthk.
: UG16(d) Pipe Tube
..
tnominal x0.875=tminimum
: UG16(e) .
:
Hemispherical
Ellipsoidal
Torispherical (Dished&Flanged)
Conical
Toriconical
Flat
BodyFlange

Page16of79

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

1DifferentShape(Diameter)
2DifferentMaterial
3DifferentThickness
4DifferentTemp.
5ChangeinDirection


DiscontinuityStress

DiscontinuityStress .
) r ( Hemispherical .
Blind.

CategoryA .
.
: UG27 Hemispherical
Discontinuity
.
PR
2SE- 0.2P
PR
treq.shell =
SE- 0.6P
treq. Hemispherical =

tr tr
Hemis.

Cylinder

: UG32Ellipsoidal
PDK
2 SE- 0.2P

= t

Div.I,Appendix1

D
D
k = f k = 1/6 2+

2h
2h

D
PD
= = 2 t
2h
2SE- 0.2P

tr
Cyl.

Ellip.2:1

tr
Ell.

2tr

tr

Ell.Hem.

AREA = 1.09(D+ 2t)2 (S.F.areaisnotincluded)

Page17of79

Torispherical : UG32
:
Div.1,Appendix(1- 4) t =

PLM
2SE- 0.2P

1
M = 3+
4

L
M = f
r

L=r=R

M=1

Hemis.Head
: Toris.

L=O.D.ofShell
M=1.77

t =

0.885PL
SE- 0.1P

r=0.06O.D.ofShell

: Toris. Ellip.
Ellip.Head 3:1
Div.1Appendix1

1:1

L/r1

162/3

M1

1.77

Toris.Head

AREA = 0.918(D+ 2t)2 (S.F.areaisnotincluded)


: Toris.
KlopperHead
L=O.D.ofShell
r=0.1O.D.ofShell

KorbbogenHead
L=0.8O.D.ofShell
r=0.154O.D.ofShell

tr

Tori.

Page18of79

tr

:
Cyl.

Toris. Ellip. K>1


70ksi:
Min.(2/7Sut,2/3Sy)
Sall =Min.
20ksi
:StraightFlange
S.F. UW13.1 :
1 th >ts
2 ButtWeld
UG32()3 InternalPressure
4TaperedTransition
) S.F. (Skirt :
3thead ,butneednotexceed1" (38mm)
S.F.(Skirt)
ThicknessS.F. trshell
)E=1(Seamless

* Tapered
Transition :
t1t2>Min.(thicknessofthinnerpart ,1/8"(3.2mm))
4
TaperedTransitionisrequired
TaperedTransition .

E=1 . . TaperedTrans.
) .(UW42
.
UW13 ) (T.L. 1:3
) . (

Page19of79

: UG32 Conical
.
UG32: 30
:
:

P
t
R
Cos.a

s c
Rc

sl
Rl

= Rl = ,Rc

Page20of79


PR
t

shell

PR
tCos

sc

sc =

2pRs ltCos = pR2p


PR
2t

PR
2tCos

s l

shell

S.E. Ri+t R :
PR
,
= tshell
S.E- 0.6P

PR
Cos (S.E- 0.6p)

sl =

tCone =

* > 30 ) Appendix 1.5(g Timoshenko .


. L Sin
.
.
. 0.25 Rsts .
Rs ts ) (atlargeend.
Areq.
.
Knuckle Toriconical ) UG32(h :
)r1,r2 Max.(0.06x Dia.ofHeadSkirt,3x KnuckleThk.
S.F. Toriconical Torispherical:
Di
2Cos
PLM
2 SE- 0.2P

= t

1
M = 3+
4

S.F. :
tS.F. tShell
E=1

S.F. 3tCone

Page21of79

Li =

: UG34 (WeldedFlatHeads)
FlatHead
. UG34 .
:
:

d
Z =3.4- 2.4 2.5
D

CP
SE

t = d

ZCP
SE

t = d

C Head Shell Shell .


." Sketche& f :
m=tr/ts

.
Deflection .
t
Deflection < h
2

Page22of79

:ExtremeFiberElongation
E.F.E . ) UCS79(d
Cold Forming E.F.E>5%.
) (UCS56:RequirementsforPWHT.
* P.No.1,G.No.1&2
E.F.E.=40% :
1 Platethick.>16mm
2 ReductionfromtheAsRolledThickness>10%
3 Impacttestrequired
4 Lethalservice
5 120C<TForming<480C
E.F.E. :
e Shell %=(50t/Rf )(1Rf/Ro)
e Head %=(75t/Rf) (1Rf/Ro)
Rf =FinalC.L.Radius
Ro =OriginalC.L.Radius
t=PlateThickness

.
E.F.E. .
150 mm
Knuckle" E.F.E. =5% .
(Ro=).
1 5=75(32/Rf )(1Rf/Ro)
Rf=480mm
+ H.T.
2 5=75(32/Rf )(1Rf/480)
+ Rf =240mmH.T.
3 5=75(32/Rf)(1Rf/240)
+ Rf =160mmH.T.

Page23of79

: UG28&UG33

Venting . )
(
. 1barg.
Jacket . ) Buckling(
) Wrinkling(
. .
:
SphericalShells:referto UG28(d)

1)

FormedHeads:

2)

)Cylinderswith Do/t< 10:referto UG28(c)(2

3)

referto UG33
.

CylinderswithDo/t10

4)

Do/t
FactorA

tSelectedforint.pres.:

ASME,SecII,PartD,Subpart3,Fig.G
L/Do

Pa =4B
(3Do t)

FactorB

Using (FactorA,Design Temp.,Applicable MaterialChart)


tSatisfiesexternalpressurecondition

Pa<PExt.
PaPExt.

Pa =MaximumAllowableExternalWorkingPressure(psi)
Do =Outsideshelldiameter(in.)
)t=Min.required thk.(in.

Page24of79

: 1 t L ) Stiff.Ring (Do
L
D
FactorB Pa .
o
t
Do
: 2 Buttweld Filletweld
P 2P (UG28(g)) .

Page25of79

StiffeningRing:UG29
) (Le
. .
Pa <PExt. .
Stiffening Ring Pa=Pmax.ext.working pres.
Unstiffened .
Unstiffened .

.
2
A
Is = D0 Ls(t+ s )A /14
Ls

Is =requiredmomentofinertiaofstiffener(in4)
Do =outsidediameterofcylinder(in.)
t=Thk.ofcylinder,headorconicalsection (in.)
A=FactorAfromASMESec.II,PartD,Subpart3
As =crosssectionalareaofstiffener(in2)
)Ls =lengthbetweenstiffeners(in.

+Ar >Is
Profile

Ix

+Ix
Shell

-1 1 . 90
. UG29.2 .
-2 OD ID ID
."
Vent Drain .
-3 h/D )
( .
-4 .

Page26of79

Openings: UG36
1ProcessNozzles
2InstrumentNozzles
3MechanicalNozzles

(Inlet,Outlet,.)
(PT,TT,)
)(Manhole,Handhole,

* Piping WRC .
* " :
ASMEB16.5:NPS 24
ASMEB16.47SeriesA,B:NPS > 24
* ASMEB16.5
.:

" ) ( .
:
InternalPressure
PRi
+ C.A.
SE- 0.6P

P=Pi +PH

tr

pipe

ExternalPressure
/D
(Mat.Chart,D.T.,FactorA)

FactorA
D/t

Pa

FactorB

Page27of79

* :
Appendix17

IDshell 60"Dopening>Min.(1/2IDshell ,20")

Appendix17

IDshell>60"Dopening>Min.(1/3IDshell ,40")

UG36(b)(1)

:Appendix17 LargeOpening .
NozzleProjection
Hub .

: UG37

Page28of79

* Opening
. Spec :
Code: ODpad <2Dpipe
Spec. :tshell<treinforcement <2tshell
Spec. :ShellMaterial=ReinforcementMaterial
Spec. :Min.Wrinforcement=50mm
* "
Area Sallshell /Sallnozzle/pad
Area 1 .
* )):(UG36(c)(3
tshell 3/8"(10mm)

D31/2"(89mm)

)tshell>3/8" (10mm

D23/8"(60mm)

* ) ( tshell >50mm " Spec Opening


. Opening 3 :
-1 :" .
-2 : .
-3 :
LongW.N.
Hub . Hub
UG45 Hub .
:HeavyBarrel ."
"" "" .
N1 N2 N1
PR
= tr N2
L=0.9D
SE- 0.6p
PR
= tr .

2 SE- 0.6p
UG45 .
treqN1 < treqN2
:
N1 N2.
.
N1 N2 :
PR
treqN1 <treqN2

,R1 <R2
)Cos (SE0.6P
Page29of79

treq

Cone

: UG45

: UG22
)):(UG45(c
Allow.ShearStress 0.7xAllow. TensileStress
12.5%
. .
), tsch.STD. +C.A.

0.875tn Min.(trshel/head E=1


* UG45 E=1 .
. FullRT
E=1 .
*
.
LineofSupport .

Page30of79

)JacketedVessels(App. 9
) (HalfPipe PVElite .

Page31of79

HalfPipeJackets(App. EE)
Jacket
. 4" HalfPipe
:HalfPipe
P '=(1.5S - S')
K
P=PermissibleJacketPressure(psi)
S=Max.Allow.TensileStress@DesignTemp.ofShellorHeadmaterial(psi)
S=ActualLongitudinal Stress(ifaxialforcesarenegligible,S=PR/2t)(psi)
P,R,t=Int.DesignPress.(psi),InsideRadius(in.),Thk.(in.)ofVessel
K=FactorobtainedfromFiguresinApp.EE

:HalfPipe
(P r)
T= 1
(0.85S1 - 0.6P1)
P1 =InternalDesignPressureintheJacket(P1 shallnotexceedP)(psi)
S1 =Allow.StressoftheJacketMaterial@DesignTemp.(psi)
r=InsideRadiusoftheJacket(in.)
T=Min.Thk.oftheHalfPipeJacket(in.)

:HalfPipe
FilletWeld Size1.414T

Page32of79

DeadLoad LiveLoad
LiveLoad/
DeadLoad:forNonPressureParts

AISC
AISES.F.
ASCE
UBC

AllowableStress

:
2

qz =0.00256V

: 30ft 1x1ft2
H=30ft
E=mv2
P=PV2
airatm,25C =0.00238slug/ft3
2

1
5280 2
2
P = 0.00238
V = 0.00256V
2
3600

qz =CfGh(0.00256V2)
Cf =ShapeFactor
Gh =HeightFactor
ForRectangularPlate
ForCylindricalShape

mile/hr :V
:

Cf =1
Cf =(0.60.8)dependingonsurfacesmoothness

SmoothSurface
RoughSurface
VZn
Z:Height

Cf =0.6
Cf =0.8

n=f( )

N=1/7Open,Flat,OpenCountry
N=1/4.5Town,.
N=1/3 LargeCity,CenterofCityHbuildings70ft

V=V1(Z1/Z2)n
Fw =qz xAwind
Fw =CfGh x0.00256V2 Awind
Awind =De.
De =EffectiveDiameter
R.Moss
ODvessel +2Thkinsulation =De
( R.Moss) De Platform Ladder Piping
.

Page33of79

Piping+Ladder&Platform PipingWithoutLadder&Platform
1.6De
1.4De
1.2De

De <4ft
4ft<De <8ft
De <8ft

2De
1.6De
1.4De


.
2
Fw =CfGh (0.00256V )xA

.
=V/A
=MC/I

V,M

I " .

s e = s 2 + 3t 2
MC M
=
I
Z

= se

StressCombinationLoadCases

.

Page34of79

WindLoading
DeadLoadL =W/A

InternalPres.L =PD/4t

M W PD
- +
z A 4t
M W PD
- +
z A 4t
<1 L Ok

sL
S .ECirc

LiveLoad: L =Mc/I

L =L)Live +L)Dead+ L)Int. =

L =L)Live +L)Dead+ L)Int. =

L >0,Max.AllowableStress=SxECirc.
1 Recalculation&t- or. .E -

<1 Ok

sL

sL
S.ECirc

L <0,Max.AllowableCompressiveStress=Sc

S c

1 Recalculation&t :

s L
Sc

Salltensile f(Mat,T)xE
B

(A,Mat,T)

D/t, /D

SallCompressive =f(D,,t,Mat,T)

SallCompressive Salltensile .
:
LiveLoad:Wind,Earthquake
DeadLoad:Operating,Empty,Hydrotest
Pressure:Internal,External,Hydrotest,Nopressure
:
1. Wind+Op.w+Int.Pres.
2. Wind+Emp.w+Int.Pres.
3. Wind+Hydro.w+Hydro.Pres.
4. Wind+Emp.w+Ext.Press.
5. ..
. Hydrotest
33% Hydrotest .
" 17 PVElite LoadCases
.

EarthquakeLoading

.

Page35of79

"
. " .

) (SeismicZone .

. UBC97 :

W
F1 = 1 xV
Wtotal
V =S ni=1 Fi
Mbase = F3h3 + F2h2 + F1h1

ZIC
W
R
V=Totalshearatbase
Z=Zonecoefficient
I=Importancefactor(usually1.0forvessels)
C=f(T,S)
S =Soilfactor
T=Vesselperiodofvibration
W=WOp/WEmpty/WHyd
V =

Page36of79

PVElite
SELECT MATERIAL
ASMESec.II,PartD, Subpart1 .
SA516Gr.60 ASMESec.II :

Page37of79

Occurrence
Sall
. Note MaterialPropertiesfor... .
Note F1 .
Composition
.
Form
) Pipe,Plate (......
UNSNumber
).(UnifiedNumberingSystem
Class/Thickness
. Bolt
4<t<7 Sall
Syield . Composition Note
Class/Thickness .
NormalizedMaterial
" ImpactTest
.
PNumber
The number of welding proceduregroup.the classification of materials based on hardenability
characteristic and the purpose of grouping is to reduce the number of weld of procedures.(Section
IX).AllC.S.materialslisted intheCode(withtheexceptionofSA612)areclassifiedasPNo.1.

GroupNumber
ImpactTest PQR Gr.No.
. SA516Gr.60 SA516Gr.70 P.No. Gr.No.
ImpactTest PQR SA516 Gr.70 SA516Gr.60 .
ExternalPressureCurve
) . (ASMESec.II
* .

-1 Cr 16% Ni 8% .
-2 DesignConstraints Div.1 .
Div.2 BS5500 TensileStress YieldStress
Div.1 .

Page38of79

-3 SA36 SA283 ABCD :

DESIGNCONSTRAINTS
DesignInt./Ext. Pressure/Temperature
.
DatumLineDistance
NozzleElev.
.
HydrotestType
:
Sall test
A =LowestRatioof
Sall design

1.3x MAWPxA
1.3xPDesign xA

UG99(b)

UG99(b)(Footnote34)

UG99(C)1.3xMAPnc
1.1xPDesign xA

PHydrostatic
Acc. toUG99

UG100

1999 1.5 1.3 )1.25


1.1 ( . .
Add.99
2
2
1
2
Sall = Min Sut, Sy
Sall = Min Sut, Sy
3
3
4
7

:
)UsePre99addenda(Div.1only

Configurations

Tools

" . PVElite
User DefinedHyd.Pres.
Page39of79


.
HydrotestPosition
.
*
ProjectionFromTop/Bottom
/
UG99c .
)ProjectionFromBottom (Operating

MAWP .
Min.DesignMetalTemp.
.
FlangeDistancetoTop

MAPnc )UG99(c .
Degree ofRadiography
UW11 .
MiscellaneousWeight
.
UserDefinedMAWP/MAPnc
.
AdditionalOper.StaticPress.
.
UseHigherLong. Stress
) UG23(d 1.2 .
Hyd.Allow.Unmodified
) (OccasionalLoads
1.3
1.2 :
)SallS.S.=Min.(0.9Sy,2/7SUT
Sall .

Page40of79

ConsiderVortexShedding:
WindVibration . .
VE,VF,VO Loadcases .
Corroded Hydrotest
.
Hyd.Allow.is90%Yield
0.9Sy . 1.3
.

LOAD CASES
* F1 .
* . Stressduetocombinedloads
.

1
.
* " Sall.E 1.3
. Use HigherLong.Stress
1.2 Sall.E UBC97
1.2 Sall E . UBC 97 Apply per
1612.3.2 Skirt 1.3 SallE 1.2 .
* .
. "
.
* ) (Corroded ) (NonCorroded

I/C
.
I/C .
I/C
W
MEarthq.
Tobe
W
MEarthq.
CorrodedNonCorroded
I/C
ComparedI/C

Page41of79

GlobalScalarforWI/EQLoads
.
. ) (
Loadcase .
VaryCompressiveAllowableforInternal/ExternalCases
Allow.CompressiveStress
Sall
Sall .

Plant
.
CorrodedCaseComponentsWE,WF,CW

. .
Installation /Misc.Options
Insulation,Tray,Packing,Platform Lining Shop
Field
"
.
NozzleDesignPressureOptions
.
* " Spec MAWP .....
DesignPressure MAWP .
MAWP+ StaticHead .
ConsiderMAPnc
MAPnc.
ConsiderExt. LoadsforNozzleTr

.
.
.

Page42of79

ConsiderCodeCase 2168(Div.1)

DesignPadstoReinforceOpenings

SEISMICDATA

SeismicDesignCode:
. UBC1997 .
NoSeismicLoads .
SeismicforHydrotest(%):
.
ImportanceFactor:
1I 1.25
16K UBC1997 .
Plant
1.25 .
SeismicCoefficientCa,Cv:
) (Zone .
NearSourceFactorNv:
." Plant 15km
Nv= 1.0
ForcefactorRorRp:
16P .UBC1997
Leg Support

2.2

2.9

Apply Allow.Per1612.3.2:
1612.3.1 UBC1997 )
(1612.3.2 1.33 Skirt 1.2 .
UseHigherLong.Stress .

:
T < 0.7Sec
Ft =0
T > 0.7Sec
Ft= Min.(0.07TV,0.25V)
Ft =LateralForceappliedattopofStructure(lb)
T=PeriodofVibration(sec.)
)V=BaseShear(lb

Page43of79


Skirt :

Ft . Shear
w h
:
Fh =(V - Ft ). x x /1.4
Swihi
Wx Hx . ."
Wx ......

WINDDATA
WindDesignCode:
. UBC .
NoWindLoads .
Windforhydrotest(%):
.
BaseElevation:
.
ExposureConstant:

ExposureC .
ImportanceFactor:
23L UBC .

1I 1.15
Beta:Operating/Empty/Full:

. 0.01.
WindDeflection
Tray Vessel .
" :
Max.AllowableDeflection=/200,6in./100ft
PVElite :
Tools
Configuration
AllowableTowerDeflection
Page44of79

LINING


) .(ASMESec.VIII,Div.I,PartUCL :
Clad -
)" ( S.S. Ti .
Lining -
15cm x15cm S.S. .

.
WeldMetal Overlay -
Clad Lining S.S.
.
DistanceFrom"From"Node
Lining Node .
Height/LengthofLining
Lining .
Thickness/DensityofLining
Lining .
Full
Lining Distance Height/Length
Lining.

PACKING
Demister Demister . :
DistanceFrom"From"Node
Lining Node .
Height/Density ofPackedSection
) Packing ( .
Full
Packing .

Page45of79

PercentVolumeHoldup %
Packing .
LiquidSpecificGravity
Packing.
AddNew Packing
Packing .

NOZZLE
:
InsertNozzlewithReinforcementPad
InsertNozzlewithoutReinforcementPad
AbuttingNozzlewithoutReinforcementPad
AbuttingNozzlewithReinforcementPad
IntegrallyReinforcedType
HubTypeSelfReinforcing

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

* Cyclic SelfReinforced ) 5 (6
StuddedOutlet HeavyBarrel FVCCatalogue .

JustLike

.
?IsthisNozzleConnectedtoAnotherNozzle
Branch . .
ParentNozzle .
* ASME ReinforcementArea .
.
Tools
Configuration
ComputeandPrintAreasforSmallNozzles
Page46of79

DistanceFromFromNode/Elev.
Shell Node
) . Datumn Elev. (
LayoutAngle
Orientation Shell/Head.
HillsideOffsetDimensionLorAnglebetweenShell&Nozzle
Shell/Head .
HillsideNozzleDirection
.
Diameter/Thk.Basis
Diam.Basis=IDorOD
Diam.Basis=OD

D<14":ThicknessBasis= Minimum
D 14":ThicknessBasis=Actual
ActualThk.

Thk.Basis Actual
NozzleSch. None .
Proj.Outside/Inside
Projection .
LimitsDiameter/Thk.
LimitsDiameter
) ( Reinforcement
. 2
A1 (UG42).
LimitsThickness .
Reinforcement StuddedOutlet Couplings .

OverridingWeight
.
.
Page47of79

GrooveWeldDepth
Groove Pad
Groove .
) "
( Pad
) Shell ( .
Shell Pad

Pad Shell . Blind
Blind .
WeldLegatPadOD
Fillet Pad Shell .
Min WeldLeg Size=0.7tmin(UW16)

OutsideFilletWeldLeg
Fillet Shell Pad OutsideProjection .

MinLeg=1.4tc(UW16)

InsideFilletWeldLeg
Fillet Shell
Pad Inside
Projection .
)MinLeg =1.4 tc(UW16

InsideProj. .

Page48of79

WeldType
None Fig.UW16.1
. UW16
.
NeglectAreas
A2 A1 .
TappedHoleAreaLoss


LocalShellThickness
InsertPlate .
UserTr
tr .
Blind FlatHead tr Flat head tr Blind Flange
.

Flathead trBlindFlange

tr

BlindAttached
BlindFlange .
Manway/AccOpening
Manhole Handhole UG45 .
.
* :
Sch. -1 ) UG45 (
-2 InternalProjection . Vent Drain
.
Page49of79

-3
-4
* ) (

WRC
Hillside WRC .
NozzlePro. ANSYS .
WRC ASMESec.VIIIDiv.II Div.I
. WRC107
. WRC107 :
ImportNozzleData
PVElite .
AnalysisType
WRC ) FEA ( .
AttachmentType
R.Moss .
VesselType
Cylinder
Spherical .
DiameterofVessel
Cylinder Spherical
Crown .
LoadsTab
.
InputLoadsinWRC107Convention
WRC107 .
StressSummation S.I. .
InputLoadsinGlobalConvention
StressSummation,S.I.
. . PVElite WRC107
." .
.

Page50of79

Input(SUS)/(EXP)/(OCC)Loadings
Z,Y,X ) Sustained ( Expansion
) ( ) Occasional ( .
AdditionalInputData
:
WRC107Version
WRC March 1979 " .
?WouldyouLiketoHaveInteractiveControl

. "
) ! ( .
* .
Body Flange
Manhole ) Handhole (AccessOpenings
." :
Manhole: 16"<D<24"
"Handhole: 8"<D<10
Internal ) (Demister Manhole
BodyFlange .
BodyFlange SlipOn W.N. : RingType

Gasket
.
ASMESec.VIIIDiv.IApp.2 .
Bolt :
-1
.
-2 Gasket

) ( y

) ( m

m y 2.5.1 App.2 .
Page51of79

Material

Gasket:

Bolt :

D2Pint

:GasketSeating

p
4

= Fint

Fgasketseating=DGWy

: D
: DG Gasket
b0 2.5.2 App.2 .
b0=f(N)=N/2orN
b0=BasicGasketSeatingWidth
b=EffectiveGasketSeatingWidth
1
b0 in. b = b0
4
b
1
b0 > in. b= 0
4
2

b<0.25in.

DG =MeanDia.ofGasket

b>0.25in.

DG =GasketOD2b

FGasket =2 mDG WPint


Areq
= FBolt
Sall
Bolt
Bolt

F +F
= Max Gasket.seating , int Gasket
Sa
Sb

: Sa Bolt : Sb Bolt
Bolt

, Areq

FBolt=Max(FGasketSeating, Fint +FGasket )

Areq Bolt total =nBolt xAeachBolt


FBolt =nBolt xSall xAeachBolt
Bolt:
n Bolt Straddle
) ( 4.
Bolt
.

.
OptimumThk.ofFlange

Areq Aavailable

Page52of79

OverallFlangeLength
Hub . Hub Flangedialog
.
FinishedThickness
) (
ANSIB16.5/B16.47Grade,ANSIB16.5/B16.47Class,FlangeWeight
Grade Class
.
Flange/Face/GasketID/OD

HubThk.Large/Small
Hub ) (
HubLength
) Hub (
NominalBoltDiameter
) UNC TEMA (
Sketch/Column
2.5.2 App.2 .
NubbinorRTJ Width
Sketch 2 ,1d, 1c 6 2.5.2 App. 2 Nubbin
.
BaseRequiredThicknessonRigidity

. .
ANSIDimensionLookup
) .(ANSI Class ANSIDimLookup
Gasket Sketch .
* MatingFlange
Gasket ShellSide/TubeSide
.

Page53of79

Bolt
. Bolt Design, Seating,
Operating . Mat.FlangeLoad .
PVElite .
AxialForce/BendingMoment
/ Flange .
PartitionGasketProperties
PartitionGasket m y .
* Blind :
DiameterLong/ShortSpan
.
.
AllowedCoverDeflection
TEMACover Deflection .
Perimeteralong B.C.D.
Bolt xB.C.D

* Gasket "ProcessEquipmentDesign" "


"Brownell& Young PVElite .
* Bolting FGasket
seating MAWP
GasketSeating Fint +FGasket FGasketseating .
* ) UCS66(a)(3 MDMT UCS66 UCS66.1 t/4
.
PVElite FlangeCalculations
ASME Bolt .
TEMA D5M D5 . PVElite
BoltingInformationforUNC( orTEMA) ThreadSeries .

Page54of79

CONE
"To"EndInsideDiameter

ConeLength
Conical Distance Toriconical ) (T.L.
.

HalfApex.Angle
: .
LineofSupport Options
LineofSupport .
Toriconical
Toriconical Knuckle
.
Concentric
.
) (KettleType .

ShellSection
Shell .

STIFFENINGRING
?ConetoShellJunctionRing

.

Page55of79

: LineofSupport
.
* )
(DesignConstraints .
.
* ) Results forMax. Stiffened Length(SLEN SLEN
SLEN .
TTL +1/3Hhead1+1/3Hhead2 SLEN .
RingAttachmentParameters
. )
(:
UG30:
t:
S8t
ExternalRings
S12t
Internal Rings
Fillet :

* PVElite .
DesignConstraints
DesignModification
SelectWallThicknessforInternalPressure
SelectWallThicknessforExternalPressure
SelectStiffeningRingsforExternalPressure
SelectWallThicknessforAxialStress
Equipment Installation and Miscellaneous Options
Stiffener Type to Meet Inertia Requirements
. Bar :
HardWay EasyWay
Hard Way
EasyWay.
* Bar .
PVElite
Page56of79

.
* SelectfromStandardBarRingList
.
Run SelectStiffeningRingsforExt.Press.
" .

Conical Line of Support


)
App.18 LineofSupport
( .
" .

LEG
Leg Head LocalLoad
.

Distancefrom "From"Node
Leg Node .
LegCenterlineDiameter
Leg .
LegOrientation
Leg :

Page57of79

Strong
. Weak Diagonal
.
* Spec Leg
.

LengthofLegs
Leg .
AISC .

SectionIdentifier

"EffectiveEndCondition"k
. Leg 1 1.5 ."
F1 K .
.
PerformWRC107Analysis
WRC
Leg .
AretheLegsCrossBraced
Leg ) Bracing( ."
Bracing .
Brace
R.Moss .
* Leg 7ft CrossBracing .
AreThesePipeLegs
Pipe ID/OD
. Pipe "
Pipe .
BasePlateParameters
BasePlate Leg .
AnchorBolt " .
PVElite LEG
AISC Sall 1.33 NonPressureParts
) . ASME 1.2 ( Leg
:
/Sall <1 /Sall+y b/Sb +x
: Sb : Sall

Page58of79

* Leg WRC107 . Leg


C12,C11 R.Moss WRC
. ) (TypeofStressInt.
. Fail .
2 .

SKIRT
Straight ) Flared(Conical .
Skirt FilletWeld ButtWeld .
Skirt Shell Skirt
. Spec OD . Skirt "
J.Eskirt= 0.7.
Skirt : Gussets,TopRing, BaseRing,Skirt
AnchorBolts Skirt .AnchorChair
Skirt C.A. Skirt .
Skirt SA283 Spec
DiscontinuityStress Skirt
Skirt .S.S.

Page59of79

SkirtDiameter atBase
Skirt . Skirt InsideDiameter
. 15 .
PerformBaseRingAnalysis
BaseRing .
BaseRingType
BaseRing .
1. SimpleBasering
2. BasringwithGussets
3. AnchorChairCapTypeBasering
4. ContinuousTopPlate
Std. Drawing .
* " BodyFlange
Bolt Bolt Base/TopRing .
Bolt
Base/TopRing Gusset .
ConcreteStrengthFc/Fc
Jawad& Farr .
DesignTemperature
BaseRing "
.
BaseRingDesignOption

BaseRing .

Analyze

.
Design

.
Brn.&YoungAnalyze
Analyze Brownell& Young .
Brn.&YoungDesign
Design Brownell& Young .
Methodfor BaseringThicknessCalc.

basering .

NeutralAxisShiftMethod
) ( .
Simplified Method
.
.

Page60of79

Sy/EforPlates
AnchorChair
.
GussetThickness

Dist.BetweenGussets
AnchorChair TopPlate
AnchorBolt . :
W>4d

TopPlateWidth
Base Ring
TopPlate . TopPlate
TopPlate .
RadialTopPlateWidth

TopPlate .

?UseEILSpec.
BaseRing EIL
Bolt Skirt . BaseRing Analyze
Bolt Design .
Consider2/3YieldforBaseRing/TopPlateAllowables
TopPlate,BaseRing 0.66Sy .

LUG
) (D<24in." 2 Lug 4 " .
Lug"
Insulation .
Lug BaseRing .
Lug
." PerformWRC107Calc. WRC Lug
. Lug WRC
Lug Ring.
Page61of79

SADDLE
. Zick
2 . 2
.
CenterlineDim.B

SaddleContactAngle
120.
Width/Thickness ofWearPlate
.
WearPlateContactAngle
WearPlate . 120 " 130.
HeightofSectionRing
.
AISC
PVElite .
SaddleDimensionA
) (TangentLine.
A< 0.2x (T.L./T.L.)"

FrictionCoefficientMu
Sliding Plate . Mu .
:
=0.4

Concrete

steel

=0.3

steel

steel

- -
SlidingPlate
.
PerformSaddleCheck

.
MaterialYieldStress

PVElite " .

Page62of79

EforPlates
. ) (
E PVElite E
ConicalSection . E
Cone E .
HeightofWeb
Web .
SameasFirst
"
..

Saddle
Fail " Compressive
. .
PVElite .
Rib . Rib Web Rib
.
.
.
AISCUnityCheck
AISC 1 Web
Rib .
: Web Rib
Sy Sall
.

Page63of79

TRAY
TraySpacing
Tray.
TrayWeightperUnitArea
Tray.
SupportRingandBoltingBarWeight
Tray .
" Supporting Ring 50mm

.

Height/Density ofLiquidonTray
Tray .
* Tray Next Prev
.

PLATFORM

Node .

DistanceFrom"From"Node
PlatformStart/EndAngle

.
PlatformRailingWeight
.
PlatformGratingWeight
."
.
PlatformWidth
Spec 800mm.
PlatformHeight
1100mm.
Clearance
. 50mm +InsulationThk..
ForceCoefficientCf
Cf ASCE . " 1.2 1.8.

Page64of79

PlatformWindArea
Loadcases

InstallationMisc.Options .
Overestimate .
.
)WindArea =1/3Height* Width* ForceCoef (Cf
* 180 )
( 1 .
180 2 .
LadderLayoutAngle
.
LadderStart/StopElevation
PVElite
.
LadderUnitWeight
) (Cage .
?IsThisaCagedLadder
3D 2D .
Platform&LadderWeight
.
.

Page65of79

WEIGHT
PVElite
Weight .
OffsetfromElementCenterline
.
) ( .
MiscellaneousWeight
.
IsThisaWeldedInternal
Shipping/ShopTest/Fabricated
Element&DetailWeights WeightDetails
TotalWeightofWeights .
Hydrtotest,Empty,Operating ...
.

FORCE/MOMENT
Y, X Z
Force/Moment .
AppliedForces/Moment
Z, Y,X.
Force/MomentCombinationMethod
PVElite .
SRSS
Page66of79

.
Algebraic .
" WindDeflection
.
160170mm :
t

I=f(D,t)
D=Const.

WindDef.


. .
SAP Force/Moment .
ComputeLongitudinalStressesBWNormallyAddedtotheWindCase
ComputeLongitudinalStressesBWNormallytheSeismicCase
.

LiftingLug
LiftingLug : Lug
Lug Lug
Fail .

Lug . :

MA =0

WCos.L1 =F2 Cos.(L1 +L2)+F2Sin. R


WCos.aL
1
TailingLug
F2 =
(L1 + L2)Cos.a + RSin.a
F1+F2 =W
F1 =WF2
Page67of79

WCos.aL
1
(L1 + L2)Cos.a + RSin.a

F1 = W -

.
.SpreadBar

SpreadBar .

.
CodeCalc Legs&
Lugs .
TypeofAnalysis
Lug Support,Lifting Trunnion .
Lug Lug .
F1 Help .
.
SupportLug Integral WRC
. Lifting Lug
WRC107/FEA WRC Integral Lug .
C11 C22 R.moss .
" WRC Lug
WRC .

Page68of79

* LiftingLug
.

** :
InsertElement
.
DeleteElement
.
UpdateElement
.
Share
J.E.
From"From "Node to"From"Node .
FlipOrientation
.
.
.
SelectMaterial
.
Zoom
2D Zoom .
ViewElement
.
PipeProperties
Cylindrical
Sch. .
ListDialog
Packing,Force/Moment,Weight, Ring
) (SpreadSheet Excel .
WriteFoundation3DFile
Foundation 3D .
ExporttoDXFFile
" "BillofMaterial DXF . PVElite
.
Flipto3DView
.
RiggingResults
RiggingData :
Page69of79

Loadcases
InstallationMisc.Options
Run
/ .
CreateDatabase
Run Access .
:
* "
.
Tools
Configuration
PrintEquationsandSubstitutions
* PVElite
.
.
Tools
Create/ReviewUnit.
PVElite\System .

Page70of79

Page71of79

Page72of79

Page73of79

Page74of79

Page75of79


AnchorChair:
Gussetsandplatesweldedtobaseplateandskirttoprovideforanchorboltattachment.

AsRolledPlate:
Itreferstotheunitplaterolledfromaslabordirectlyfromaningot.Itdoesnotrefertothecondition
oftheplate.

B/SD@60F:
BarrelsperStreamDay:Thisisthethroughputduringa24hourperiodwhenaunitisoperatingatits
designcapacity.
Throughput:Thevolumeoffeedstockchargedtoprocessequipmentperunitoftime.
StreamDay:A24houroperatingdayofarefineryprocessunit.

BackingStrip:
Athinstripofmetalplacedonthebacksideof2platestobebuttwelded,whereafullpenetrationbutt
weldisrequired&accessisavailabletoonesideonly.

BrittleFracture:
Itisthetensilefailureofamaterialshowinglittledeformationoryielding.Itissoimportantin
materialselectionconsiderations.

CharpyVNotchImpactTest:
CVNTestisa dynamictestinwhichanotchedspecimenisstruck&brokenbyasingleblowina
speciallydesignedtestingmachine.Themeasuredtestvaluesmaybetheenergyabsorbed,the
percentageshearfracture,thelateralexpansionoppositethenotch,oracombinationthereof.

ChimneyTray:
Atraycomposedofchimneysextendingabovetheliquidlevelofthetray,permittingpassageof
vaporsupward.Thetraycollectsandremovesallliquidproductsfromaspecificportionofthevessel.

Chipping:
Onemethodofremovingsurfacedefectssuchassmallfissuresorseamsfrompartiallyworkedmetal.
Ifnoteliminated,thedefectsmightcarrythroughtothefinishedmaterial.Ifthedefectsareremoved
bymeansofagastorchthetermdeseamingorscarfingisused.

CladVessel:
Avesselmadefromabasematerialhavingacorrosionresistantmaterialintegrallybonded orweld
metaloverlaid to the baseoflessresistantmaterial.

CommunicatingChambers:
Appurtenancestothevesselwhichintersecttheshellorheadsofavessel&formanintegralpartof
thepressurecontainingenclosure,e.g.,Sumps.

CorrosionRate:
Itisspecifiedasmilsperyearofmetallossandisappliedtobothpitting&generalthinning.Typical
corrosionproblemsarecontrolledbyadditionalcorrosionallowance&bycoatings(i.e.pittingrates
forcrudeoiltankscanbeashighas50mpy).Hightemperatureacceleratethecorrosionrate.
Page76of79

DistributorTray:
Aperforatedtraythatprovidesequaldistributionofliquidoverthevesselarea.Risersonthetray
extendabovetheliquidleveltopermitpassageofvaporsrisingupward.

Downcomers:
Rectangularflatplatesbolted,weldedorclampedtoshellandtraysinsideoffractionationcolumns,
Usedtodirectprocessliquidandtopreventbypassingofvapor.

ElevationaboveSeaLevel:
Itdirectlyaffectsthetruevaporpressurelimitationplacedonstocksstoredinatmospherictankage.At
sealevel,themax.allowabletruevaporpressureis13psia.Foreach1,000ftelevationabovesea
level,thisvaluemustbereducedby0.5psi.

Fatigue:
Tendencyofmaterialstofractureundermanyrepetitionsofastressconsiderablylessthanthe
ultimatestaticstrength.

FlashPoint:
Themin.temperatureatwhichthereissufficientvaporgeneratedto allowignitionoftheairvapor
mixturenearthesurfaceoftheliquid.

FractionatingTrays:
Circularflatplatesbolted,weldedorclampedtoringsontheinsideoffractionationcolumns,Usedto
obtainvaporliquidcontact,whichresultsinfractionation.

FullVacuum:
Aconditionwheretheinternalabsolutepressureis0psi&theexternalabsolutepressureonthevessel
is15psi.

HighAlloySteel:
Steelcontaininglargepercentagesofelementsotherthancarbon.

InternalPressure:
Thedifferenceinpressurebetweentheliquidvaporpressure&AtmosphericPressure.Whenthis
differenceisnegative,itissimplycalledavacuum.
Thepressureismeasuredatthetopoftheliquidinthetankbecausetheliquiditselfexertshydrostatic
pressure.
Internalpressureiscausedbyseveralpotentialsourcessuchasvaporpressure,inertgasblanketing
system,

KilledSteel:
Steeldeoxidized(i.e.byvacuumtreatment)toreducethecontentinordertoomitanyreaction
betweenoxygen&carbonduringsolidification.

LinedVessel:
Avesselhavingacorrosionresistantliningattachedintermittentlytothevesselwall.(CodeUA60)

LowTemp.Service:
Page77of79

Serviceinwhichthefluidtemp.duringnormalcontingencyoperationisbelowthelowest1daymean
ambienttemp.foraparticularlocation.

MembraneStress:
TheComponentofnormalstresswhichisuniformlydistributedandequaltotheaveragevalueof
stressacrossthethicknessofthesectionunderconsideration.

MetalTestReport:
Adocumentonwhichthematerialmanufacturerrecordstheresultsoftestsexaminations,repairs,or
treatmentsrequiredbythebasicmaterialspecificationtobereported.(CodeUA60)

MistEliminator(Demister):
Awiremeshpadheldinplacebetweentowlightgrids.Themisteliminatordisengagesliquids
containedinthevapor.

MTBE:
MethylTertiaryButylEther.

Normalizing:
Aheattreatingprocessinwhichasteelplateisreheatedtouniformtemperatureabovetheupper
criticaltemperature&thencooledinairtobelowthetransformationrange.

PlugWeld:
Aweldmadeinacircularholeinonememberofalapjoint.Theholemayormaynotbepartiallyor
completelyfilledwithweldmetal.

Porosity:
Gaspocketsorvoidsinmetal.(CodeUA60).

PressureReliefValve:
Avalvewhichrelievespressurebeyondaspecifiedlimitandreclosesuponreturntonormaloperating
conditions.

QuenchAnnealing:
Annealinganausteniticferrousalloybyheatingfollowedbyquenchingfromsolutiontemperatures.
Liquidsusedforquenchingare oil,fusedsaltorwater,intowhichamaterialisplunged.

ResistanceWelding:
Apressureweldingprocesswhereintheheatisproducedbytheresistancetotheflowofanelectric
current.

SealPans:
Flatplatesbolted,weldedorclampedtoringsinsideoffractionationcolumnshellbelowdowncomer
oflowesttray,usedtopreventvaporfrombypassingupthroughthedowncomerbycreatingaliquid
seal.

SectionModulus:
Thetermpertainstothecrosssectionofabeam.Thesectionmoduluswithrespecttoeitherprincipal
centralaxisisthemomentofinertiawithrespecttothataxisdividedbythedistancefromthataxisto
themostremotepointofthesection.Thesectionmoduluslargelydeterminestheflexuralstrengthofa
beamofgivenmaterial.
Page78of79

SetPressure:
Pressureatwhichthepressurereliefdevicefirstopens.

SkirtAccessOpening:
Circularholesintheskirttoallowworkmentoclean,inspect,etc.,insideofskirt.

SkirtFireproofing:
Brickorconcreteappliedinsideandoutsideofskirttopreventdamagetoskirtincaseoffire.

SkirtVents:
Smallcircularholesintheskirttopreventcollectionofdangerousgaseswithintheskirt.

Slag:
Aresultoftheactionofafluxonnonmetallicconstituentsofaprocessedore,orontheoxidized
metallicconstituentsthatareundesirable.Usuallyconsistofcombinationsofacidoxidesandbasic
oxideswithneutraloxidesaddedtoaidfusibility.

SupportGrid:
Gratingorsomeothertypesofsupportthroughwhichvapororliquidcanpass,Usedtosupporttower
packing(catalyst,raschingrings,etc.).

Undercut:
Agroovemeltedintothebasemetaltothetoeofaweldandleftunfilledbyweldmetal.

VaporPressure:
Thepressureofthevaporspaceabovetheliquidinaclosedcontainer.Itincreaseswithincreasing
temperature.

Vortexbreaker:
Adevicelocatedinsideavesselattheoutletconnection.Generallyconsistingofplateswelded
togethertoformtheshapeofacross.Thevortexbreakerpreventscavitationintheliquidpassing
throughthe outletconnection.

WroughtIron:
Ironrefinedtoaplasticstateinapuddingfurnace.Itischaracterizedbythepresenceofabout3per
centofslagirregularlymixedwithpureironandabout0.5percentcarbon.

Page79of79