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Dower

Dower (Latin: dotarium, donatio propter nuptias, Byzantine: hypoboon! "ren#h: douaire,
Dut#h: weduw$i%t, &erman: 'it$i%t( is a pro)ision a##orded by aw, but traditionay by a husband or
his %amiy, to a wi%e %or her support in the e)ent that she shoud sur)i)e her husband (i*e*, be#ome a
widow(* +t was setted on the bride by a$reement at the time o% the weddin$, or pro)ided by aw*
(,-etted, here re%ers to a $i%t into trust*(
.he dower $rew out o% the &ermani# pra#ti#e o% bride pri#e (/d 0n$ish weotuma( whi#h was $i)en
o)er to a bride1s %amiy we in ad)an#e %or arran$in$ the marria$e, but durin$ the eary 'idde 2$es,
was $i)en dire#ty to the wi%e instead* 3owe)er, in popuar paran#e, the term may be used %or a i%e
interest in property setted by a husband on his wi%e at any time, not 4ust at the weddin$* .he )erb is to
dower (dower, dowers, dowered(*
+n popuar usa$e, the term dower may be #on%used with:
2 dowa$er is a widow (who may re#ei)e her dower(* .he term is espe#iay used o% a nobe or roya
widow who no on$er o##upies the position she hed durin$ the marria$e* "or e5ampe, 6ueen
0izabeth was te#hni#ay the dowa$er 7ueen a%ter the death o% &eor$e 8+ (thou$h she was re%erred to
by the more in%orma tite ,6ueen 'other,(, and 9rin#ess Liian was the Dowa$er Du#hess o% 3aand
in heradi# paran#e* -u#h a dowa$er wi re#ei)e the in#ome %rom her dower property* (.he term
,0mpress Dowa$er,, in :hinese history, has a di%%erent meanin$*(
9roperty brou$ht to the marria$e by the bride is #aed a dowry* But the word dower has been used
sin#e :hau#er (.he :er;1s .ae( in the sense o% dowry, and is re#o$nized as a de%inition o% dower in
the /5%ord 0n$ish Di#tionary*
9roperty made o)er to the bride1s %amiy at the time o% the weddin$ is a bride pri#e* .his property
does not pass to the bride herse%*
'ahr, an +sami# #on#ept, that uni;e dower or dowry is mandatory, re7uired by -haria, as a
#ondition o% marria$e, whie dower was optiona* "urther, dower typi#ay appied ony in the #ase a
wi%e sur)i)es the husband on death! +sami# mahr, in #ontrast, appies re$ardess and i% not paid at the
time o% marria$e be#omes due in the e)ent o% di)or#e (.aa7(* +n 0urope, dower was ony possibe with
a#tua assi$nment o% property, mahr in #ontrast #an be a promise to trans%er property*
Bein$ %or the widow and bein$ a##orded by aw, dower di%%ers essentiay %rom a #on)entiona
marria$e portion su#h as the 0n$ish dowry (#%* <oman dos, Byzantine pro=5, "ren#h dot, Dut#h
bruidss#hat, &erman 'it$i%t(*
.he bride re#ei)ed a ri$ht to #ertain property %rom the bride$room or his %amiy* +t was intended to
ensure her i)eihood in widowhood, and it was to be ;ept separate and in the wi%e1s possession*
Dower is the $i%t $i)en by the $room to the bride, #ustomariy on the mornin$ a%ter the weddin$,
thou$h a dowerin$s %rom the man to his %ian#>e, either durin$ the betrotha period, or weddin$, or
a%terwards, e)en as ate as in the testamentary dowerin$, are understood as dowers i% spe#i%i#ay
intended %or the maintenan#e o% the widow(*
Dower was a property arran$ement %or marria$e %irst used in eary medie)a &erman #utures, and the
:athoi# :hur#h dro)e its adoption into other #ountries, in order to impro)e the wi%e1s se#urity by this
additiona bene%it* .he pra#ti#e o% dower was pre)aent in those parts o% 0urope in%uen#ed by
&ermani# -#andina)ian #uture, su#h as -weden, &ermany, ?ormandy and su##essor states o% the
Lan$obardian ;in$dom*
.he husband was e$ay pre)ented %rom usin$ the wi%e1s dower @ as #ontrasted with her dowry, whi#h
was brou$ht to the marria$e by the bride and used by both spouses* .his o%ten meant that the woman1s
e$a representati)e, usuay a mae reati)e, be#ame $uardian or e5e#utor o% the dower, to ensure that it
was not s7uandered*
Asuay, the wi%e was %ree %rom ;in imitations to use (and be7ueath( her dower to whate)er and
whome)er she peased* +t may ha)e be#ome the property o% her ne5t marria$e, been $i)en to an
e##esiasti#a institution, or been inherited by her #hidren %rom other reationships than that %rom
whi#h she re#ei)ed it*
Bin$ o)e spes %or men C Bin$ Lo)e spes %or women* Lo)e spes %or sin$e peope, o)e spes %or
#oupes, o)e spes %or married peope, o)e spes %or peope in a reationship and o)e spes that wor;
%ast %or ost o)e* 9ower%u ost o)e spes to brin$ ba#; ost o)e
Lo)e spes http:DDo)espes*;in$spes*#o*zaD
'oney spes http:DDwww*;in$spes*#o*zaDmoneyEspes*htm
Di)or#e spes http:DDwww*;in$spes*#o*zaDdi)or#eEspes*htm
Lotto http:DDwww*;in$spes*#o*zaDottoEspes*htm
http:DDwww*;in$spes*#o*zaDinde5*htm
-piritua heain$ http:DDwww*;in$spes*#o*zaDspirituaEheain$*htm
"ortune teer http:DDwww*;in$spes*#o*zaD%ortuneEteer*htm
Ba#; ma$i# http:DDwww*;in$spes*#o*zaDba#;Ema$i#Espes*htm
9rote#tion spes http:DDwww*;in$spes*#o*zaDprote#tionEspes*htm
2ddi#tion spes http:DDwww*;in$spes*#o*zaDaddi#tionEspes*htm
+uminati spes http:DDwww*;in$spes*#o*zaDiuminatiEspes*htm
.raditiona heaer http:DDwww*;in$spes*#o*zaDtraditionaEheaer*htm