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# DIGITAL COMMUNICATION III YEAR ECE A &B

## UNIT I DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

SAMPLING:
rate. sampling higher have or bandwidth signal
limit the may we aliasing, avoid .To occurs aliasing
sampling) (under limited - band not is signal When the
2
1
interval Nyuist
2 rate Nyuist
)
2
( !rom recovered completely be can signal The . 2
. )
2
( by described
completely be can , to limited is which signal 1.a
signals limited - band strictly !or Theorem "ampling
W
W
W
n
g
W
n
g
W f W

'

'

< <
rate sampling # 1
period sampling # where
(\$.1) ) ( ) ( ) (
signal sampled ideal the denote ) ( %et
s s
s
s
n
s
T f
T
nT t nT g t g
t g

+

n
s
m m
s s s
s
n
s
m
s s
m
s s
m s s
n
s
W
n f j
W
n g f G
W T W f f G
mf f G f f G f f G
nf T j nT g f G
mf f G f t g
mf f G f
T
m f
T
f G
nT t t
(\$.&) ) e'p( )
2
( ) (
2
1 and !or ( ) ( )!
(\$.*) ) ( ) ( ) ( or
(\$.\$) ) 2 e'p( ) ( ) (
obtain to (\$.1) on Trans!orm ier apply +our may or we
(\$.2) ) ( ) (
) (
) ( 1 ) (
) ( ) g(
have we ,-.\$ Table +rom
(

## ) ( o! n in!ormatio all contains )

2
( or
!or )
2
( by determined uniuely is ) (
(\$..) , ) e'p( )
2
(
2
1
) (
as ) ( rewrite may we (\$.-) into (\$.&) ng "ubstituti
(\$.-) , ) (
2
1
) (
that (\$.*) /uation !rom !ind we
2 . 2
!or ( ) ( . 1
With
t g
W
n
g
n
W
n
g t g
W f W
W
nf j
W
n
g
W
f G
f G
W f W f G
W
f G
W f
W f f G
n
s

'

< <
< <
< <

## ) ( o! !ormula ion interpolat an is (\$.0)

(\$.0) - , ) 2 ( sin )
2
(

2
) 2 sin(
)
2
(
(\$.1) )
2
( 2 e'p
2
1
)
2
(
) 2 e'p( ) e'p( )
2
(
2
1

) 2 e'p( ) ( ) (
have may we , )
2
( !rom ) ( t reconstruc To
t g
t n Wt c
W
n
g
n Wt
n Wt
W
n
g
df
W
n
t f j
W W
n
g
df f t j
W
n f j
W
n
g
W
df ft j f G t g
W
n
g t g
n
n
n
W
W
W
W
n

< <

1
]
1

'

## Figure 3.3 (a) "pectrum o! a signal. (b) "pectrum o! an

undersampled version o! the signal e'hibiting the aliasing
phenomenon.
Figure 3.4 (a) ,nti-alias !iltered spectrum o! an in!ormation-bearing signal. (b) "pectrum
o! instantaneously sampled version o! the signal, assuming the use o! a sampling rate
greater than the Nyuist rate. (c) 2agnitude response o! reconstruction !ilter.
PulseA!"li#u\$e M%\$ul&#i%' #
(\$.1&) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
have we , property si!ting the 3sing
(\$.1\$) ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
(\$.12) ) ( ) ( ) (
is ) ( o! version sampled ously instantane The
(\$.11)
otherwise
T t (, t
T t (
,
, (
2
1
, 1
) (
(\$.1() ) ( ) ( ) (
as pulses top - !lat o! seuence the denote ) ( %et
s
n
s
s
n
s
s
n
s
n
s s
s
n
s
nT t h nT m t h t m
d t h nT nT m
d t h nT nT m
d t h m t h t m
nT t nT m t m
t m
t h
nT t h nT m t s
t s

'

< <

## Pulse A!"li#u\$e M%\$ul&#i%' ( N&#ur&l &'\$ Fl&#T%"

S&!"li'g#
(\$.11) ) ( ) ( ) (
(\$.1.) ) ( ) ( 2
(\$.2) ) ( ) ( (\$.2) 4ecall
(\$.1-) ) ( ) ( ) (
(\$.1*) ) ( ) ( ) (
is ) ( signal 5,2 The

k
s s
k
s s
m
s
s

f H k f f M f f S
k f f M f f
mf f G f t g
f H f M f S
t h t m t s
t s

## The most common techniue !or sampling voice in 562

systems is to a sample-and-hold circuit.
The instantaneous amplitude o! the analog (voice) signal is
held as a constant charge on a capacitor !or the duration o!
the sampling period Ts.
This techniue is use!ul !or holding the sample constant
while other processing is ta7ing place, but it alters the
!reuency spectrum and introduces an error, called aperture
error, resulting in an inability to recover e'actly the original
analog signal.
The amount o! error depends on how mach the analog
changes during the holding time, called aperture time.
To estimate the ma'imum voltage error possible, determine
the ma'imum slope o! the analog signal and multiply it by
the aperture time 8T
Re)%*eri'g #+e %rigi'&l !ess&ge sig'&l !,#- .r%! PAM sig'&l #
. completely recovered be can ) ( signal original e )deally th
(\$.2()
) sin( ) sinc(
1
) (
1
is response euali9er %et the
e!!ect aparture

(\$.10) ) e'p( ) sinc( ) (
by given is ) ( o! ans!orm +ourier tr
that the Note . ) ( ) ( is output !ilter The
is bandwidth !ilter the Where
2
delay distortion amplitude
s
t m
f T
f
f T T f H
f T j f T T f H
t h
f H f M f
W
T

## O#+er F%r!s %. Pulse M%\$ul&#i%':

)n pulse width modulation (5W2), the width o! each pulse is
made directly proportional to the amplitude o! the in!ormation
signal.
)n pulse position modulation, constant-width pulses are used,
and the position or time o! occurrence o! each pulse !rom some
re!erence time is made directly proportional to the amplitude o!
the in!ormation signal.
Pulse C%\$e M%\$ul&#i%' ,PCM- #
5ulse code modulation (562) is produced by analog-to-
digital conversion process.
,s in the case o! other pulse modulation techniues, the rate
at which samples are ta7en and encoded must con!orm to the
Nyuist sampling rate.
The sampling rate must be greater than, twice the highest
!reuency in the analog signal,
fs : 2f,(ma')
/u&'#i0&#i%' Pr%)ess:
{ }
!unction. staircase a is which stic, characteri uanti9er the called is
(\$.22) ) g( mapping The
si9e. step the is , levels tion reconstruc or tion representa the are
% , 1,2, , where is output uanti9er the then ) ( )!
\$.0 +ig in shown as ) (
amplitude discrete a into ) ( amplitude sample
the ing trans!orm o! process The # on uanti9ati ,mplitude
. threshold decision or the level decision the is Where
(\$.21) , , 2 , 1 , #
cell partition 8e!ine
1

1
m
m m
t m
nT
nT m
m
L k m m m
k k
s
s
k
k k

<
+
+

k J
J
k k
k
k
Figure 3.12 Two types o! uanti9ation# (a) midtread and (b)
midrise.
/u&'#i0&#i%' N%ise:
Figure 3.11 )llustration o! the uanti9ation process
(\$.21)
12

1
) ( ; <
(\$.2-)
otherwise
2 2

, (
,
1
) (
levels o! number total # ,
(\$.2*)
2
is si9e - step the
type midrise the o! uanti9er uni!orm a ,ssuming
(\$.2&) ) ( ; < ( ,
(\$.2\$)
value sample o! variable
random by the denoted be error on uanti9ati %et the
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
ma' ma'
ma'

'

<

<

<
dq q dq q f q Q E
q
q f
L m m m
L
m
M E V M Q
m q
q Q
Q Q
Q

## ). (bandwidth increasing lly with e'ponentia increases ("N4)

(\$.\$\$) )2
\$
(
) (
) ( o! power average the denote %et
(\$.\$2) 2
\$
1

(\$.\$1)
2
2

(\$.\$() log
sample per bits o! number the is where
(\$.20) 2
!orm, binary in e'pressed is sample uati9ed When the
o
2
2
ma'
2 o
2 2
ma'
2
2
ma'
R
m
P
P
SNR
t m P
m
m
L R
R
L
R
Q
R
Q
R
R

## Pulse C%\$e M%\$ul&#i%' ,PCM-:

Figure 3.13 The basic elements o! a 562 system
/u&'#i0&#i%' ,'%'u'i.%r! 3u&'#i0er-:
6ompression laws. (a) m -law. (b) ,-law.

'

+
+

'

+
+
+

+
+

+
+

(\$.*1)
1
1
1
(

) 1 (
log 1

(\$.*()
1
1
1
(

log 1
) log( 1
log 1
) (

law - ,
(\$.&0) ) 1 (
) 1 log(

(\$.&1)
) 1 log(
) 1 log(

law -
m
A
A
m
m A
A
A
d
m d
m
A
A
m
A
m A
A
m A
m
d
m d
m

## Figure 3.14 %ine codes !or the electrical representations o! binary

data.
(a) 3nipolar N4= signaling. (b) 5olar N4= signaling.
(c) 3nipolar 4= signaling. (d) >ipolar 4= signaling.
(e) "plit-phase or 2anchester code.
N%ise )%'si\$er&#i%' i' PCM s5s#e!s:
(6hannel noise, uanti9ation noise)
Time-Division Multiplexing,T82)#
Digi#&l Mul#i"le6ers #
7ir#ues8 Li!i#&#i%'s &'\$ M%\$i.i)&#i%'s %. PCM:
,dvantages o! 562
1. 4obustness to noise and inter!erence
2. /!!icient regeneration
\$. /!!icient "N4 and bandwidth trade-o!!
&. 3ni!orm !ormat
-. "ecure
Del#& M%\$ul&#i%' ,DM- :
[ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] si9e step the is and , o! version uanti9ed the
is , output uanti9er the is where
(\$.*&) 1
(\$.*\$) ) sgn(
(\$.*2) 1
is signal error The
). ( o! sample a is ) ( and period sampling the is where
, 2 , 1 , ( , ) ( %et

+

t t
n e
n e n m
n e n m n m
n e n e
n m n m n e
t m nT m T
n nT m n m
q q
q q q
q
q
s s
s

The modulator consists o! a comparator, a uanti9er, and an
accumulator
The output o! the accumulator is
T9% #5"es %. 3u&'#i0&#i%' err%rs :
"lope overload distortion and granular noise
[ ] [ ]
[ ] (\$.**)
) sgn(
1
1

q
n

q
e
e n m
Sl%"e O*erl%&\$ Dis#%r#i%' &'\$ Gr&'ul&r N%ise:
Del#&Sig!& !%\$ul&#i%' ,sig!&\$el#& !%\$ul&#i%'-:
The modulation which has an i'#egr&#%r can
relieve the draw bac7 o! delta modulation (\$i..ere'#i&#%r)
>ene!icial e!!ects o! using integrator#
1. 5re-emphasi9e the low-!reuency content
2. )ncrease correlation between ad?acent samples
(reduce the variance o! the error signal at the uanti9er input)
>ecause the transmitter has an integrator , the receiver
consists simply o! a low-pass !ilter.
(The di!!erentiator in the conventional 82 receiver is cancelled
by the integrator )
[ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ]
. ) ( o! slope local the to relative large too is
si9e step when occurs noise granular hand, other @n the
(\$.*1)
) (
ma' (slope)
reuire we , distortion overload - slope avoid To
signal input the o! di!!erence bac7ward
!irst a is input uanti9er the , 1 !or /'cept
(\$.*.) 1 1
have we , (\$.*2) 4ecall
(\$.*-)
, by error on uanti9ati the 8enote
t m
dt
t dm
T
n q
n q n m n m n e
n q n m n m
n q
s
q

Li'e&r Pre\$i)#i%' ,#% re\$u)e #+e s&!"li'g r&#e-:
6onsider a !inite-duration impulse response (+)4)
discrete-time !ilter which consists o! three bloc7s #
1. "et o! ! ( p: "re\$i)#i%' %r\$er) unit-delay elements ("-1)
2. "et o! multipliers with coe!!icients #1,#2,A#!
\$. "et o! adders ( )
[]
[][][]
[] []
[] [] [][] [ ]
[][] [ ](\$.-2)
2
have we (\$.-1) and (\$.-() (\$.*0) +rom
minimi9e to , , , +ind
(\$.-1) error) suare (mean
be e per!ormanc o! inde' %et the
(\$.-() B
is error prediction The
(\$.*0) ) ( B
is ) input the o! predition linear (The output !ilter The
1 1
1
2
2 1
2
1

!
j
!
k
k j
!
k
k
!
!
k
k
k n \$ j n \$ E # #
k n \$ n \$ E # n \$ E %
% # # #
n e E %
n \$ n \$ n e
k n \$ # n \$

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ]
euations Cop! - Wiener called are (\$.-&)
(\$.-&) 2 1 ,
( 2 2
(\$.-\$) 2
as simpli!y may We
) (
ation autocorrel The

) (
() ;; < < ( mean 9ero with process stationary is ) ( ,ssume
1
1
1 1 1
2
2
2 2 2
&! & & k k R k R j k R #
j k R # k R
#
%
j k R # # k R # %
%
k n \$ n \$ E k R kT R
n \$ E
n \$ E n \$ E
n \$ E t '
!
j
' ' ' j
!
j
' j '
k
!
j
!
k
' k j
!
k
' k '
'
s
'
'

+

[ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
2
min
1

1 2
(
2
1
2
1 1
2
min
2 1 (

1
(
1
than less always is (,
(\$.-.)

2
yields (\$.-\$) into (\$.-&) ng "ubstituti
, , 1 , (
( 2 1
2 ( 1
1 1 (

;; < ;,..., 2 < ;, 1 < <
, , , where
(\$.--) e'ists i! , as
' ' '
T
'
' '
T
' '
T
' '
!
k
' k '
!
k
' k
!
k
' k '
' ' '
' ' '
' ' '
' ' '
'
T
' ' ' '
T
!
' ' '
%
k R #
k R # k R # %
! R R R
R ! R ! R
! R R R
! R R R
! R R R
# # #

+
1
1
1
1
]
1

r R r
r R r 9 r
R
r
9
r R 9 R

## Li'e&r &\$&"#i*e "re\$i)#i%' #

[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
on. presentati o!
e convenienc !or is
2
1
and parameter si9e - step a is where
(\$.-0) 2 1 ,
2
1
1
1 update Then . n iteration at value the denotes
(\$.-1) 2 1 ,
descent steepest o! method the using iteration 8o 2.
values initial any starting , , , 2 , 1 , 6ompute 1.
sense !ollow in the adaptive is predictor The

## &! & & k g n # n #

n # n #
&! & & k
#
%
g
! k #
k k k
k
k
k
k
k

+
+

[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
algorithm suare - mean - lease called are euations above The
(\$..\$) (\$.-() (\$.*0) by B where
) .2 . \$ ( , , 2 , 1 , B
B B 1 B
) .1 . \$ ( , , 2 , 1 , 2 2 B
n) e'pectatio the (ignore
7;; - /<'<n;'<n !or use we computing he simpli!y t To
(\$..() , , 2 , 1 , 2 2
2 2

1
1
1
1
1
+
+

,
_

+ +
+

+
+

j n \$ n # n \$ n e
! k n e k n \$ n #
j n \$ n # n \$ k n \$ n # n #
! k k n \$ j n \$ n # k n \$ n \$ n g
k n \$ n \$
! k k n \$ j n \$ E # k n \$ n \$ E
j k R # k R
#
%
g
!
j
j
k
!
j
j k k
!
j
j
!
j
j
P
j
' j '
k
k
k

Figure 3.:;
>loc7 diagram illustrating the linear adaptive prediction process
Di..ere'#i&l PulseC%\$e M%\$ul&#i%' ,DPCM-:
3sually PCM has the sampling rate higher than the N53uis#
r&#e .The encode signal contains redundant in!ormation. DPCM
can e!!iciently remove this redundancy.
Figure 3.:< 8562 system. (a) Transmitter. (b) 4eceiver.
)nput signal to the uanti9er is de!ined by#
[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] (\$..1)

(\$...)
B
is input !ilter prediction The
error. on uanti9ati is where
(\$..*)
is output uanti9er The
value. prediction a is
B
(\$..&)
B
n q n m n m
n m
n q n e n m n m
n q
n q n e n e
n m
n m n m n e
q
q
q
+
+ +
+

+rom (\$..&)
Pr%)essi'g G&i':
A\$&"#i*e Di..ere'#i&l PulseC%\$e M%\$ul&#i%'
Need !or coding speech at low bit rates , we have two
aims in mind#
1. 4emove redundancies !rom the speech signal as !ar
as possible.
2. ,ssign the available bits in a perceptually e!!icient
manner.
[ ] [ ]
) (minimi9e D ma'imi9e !ilter to prediction a 8esign
(\$.12) D Dain, 5rocessing
(\$.11) ) "N4 (
is ratio noise on uanti9ati - to - signal the and
error s prediction the o! variance the is where
(\$.1() ) "N4 (
) )( ( ("N4)
and () ; ; < < ( o! variances are and where
(\$..0) ("N4)
is system 8562 the o! ("N4) The
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
o
2 2
2
2
o
o
E !
E
M
!
Q
E
Q
E
Q !
Q
E
E
M
Q M
Q
M
G
n q n m E n m

## Figure 3.:= ,daptive uanti9ation with bac7ward estimation

(,E>).
Figure 3.32 ,daptive prediction with bac7ward estimation (,5>).
UNIT II: BASEBAND FORMATTING TECHNIQUES

CORRELATI7E LE7EL CODING:
6orrelative-level coding (partial response signaling)
F adding )") to the transmitted signal in a controlled
manner
"ince )") introduced into the transmitted signal is
7nown, its e!!ect can be interpreted at the receiver
, practical method o! achieving the theoretical
ma'imum signaling rate o! 2W symbol per second in a
bandwidth o! W Cert9
3sing reali9able and perturbation-tolerant !ilters
Duo-binary Signaling :
8uo # doubling o! the transmission capacity o! a straight binary
system
>inary input seuence Gb7H # uncorrelated binary symbol 1, (
1 1
( 1
k
k
k
f s(mb)* b s
a
f s(mb)* b s
+

'

1
+
k k k
a a c
The tails o! h)(t) decay as 1IJtJ2, which is a !aster rate o!
decay than 1IJtJ encountered in the ideal Nyuist channel.
%et represent the estimate o! the original pulse a7 as
conceived by the receiver at time tK7Tb
8ecision !eedbac7 # techniue o! using a stored estimate o!
the previous symbol
5ropagate # drawbac7, once error are made, they tend to
propagate through the output
5recoding # practical means o! avoiding the error propagation
phenomenon be!ore the duobinary coding
) e'p( ) cos( ) ( 2
) e'p( ); e'p( ) )<e'p( (
); 2 e'p( 1 )< ( ) (
b b N(q+st
b b b N(q+st
b N(q+st ,
fT j fT f H
fT j fT j fT j f H
fT j f H f H

+
+
2cos( ) e'p( ), J J 1I 2
( )
(,
b b b
,
fT j fT f T
H f
)the-#se

'

) (
) I sin(
I ) (
; I ) ( sin<
I
) I sin(
) (
2
t T t
T t T
T T t
T T t
T t
T t
t h
b
b b
b b
b b
b
b
,

'

)the-#se
T f
f H
b
N(q+st
2 I 1 J J
, (
, 1
) (
1

k k k
d b d
1
1 1
(
k k
k
s(mb)* f ethe- s(mb)* b )- d s
d
s(mb)* )the-#se

'

## Gd7H is applied to a pulse-amplitude modulator, producing a

corresponding two-level seuence o! short pulse Ga7H, where
L1 or F1 as be!ore
Jc7JK1 # random guess in !avor o! symbol 1 or (
Jc7JK1 # random guess in !avor o! symbol 1 or (
1
+
k k k
a a c
1 (
( 2
k
k
k
f data s(mb)* b s
c
f data s(mb)* b s

'
t

## Modified Duo-binary Signaling :

Non9ero at the origin # undesirable
"ubtracting amplitude-modulated pulses spaced 2Tb second
1
+
k k k
a a c
( ) ( )<1 e'p( & );
2 ( )sin(2 ) e'p( 2 )
,V N(q+st b
N(q+st b b
H f H f j fT
jH f fT j fT

2 sin(2 ) e'p( 2 ), J J 1I 2
( )
(,
b b b
,V
j fT j fT f T
H f
e*se#he-e

'

2
sin( I ) sin< ( 2 ) I ;
( )
I ( 2 ) I
2 sin( I )
(2 )
b b b
,V
b b b
b b
b
t T t T T
h t
t T t T T
T t T
t T t

"re)%\$i'g
2
2
1 1
(
k k k
k k
d b d
s(mb)* f ethe- s(mb)* b )- d s
s(mb)* )the-#se

'

## Jc7JK1 # random guess in !avor o! symbol 1 or (

J J 1, 1
J J 1, (
k k
k k
,f c sa( s(mb)* b s
,f c sa( s(mb)* b s
>
<
Generalized form of correlative-level coding:
Jc7JK1 # random guess in !avor o! symbol 1 or (

,
_

1
sin ) (
N
n b
n
n
T
t
c # t h
B&se>&'\$ M&r5 PAM Tr&'s!issi%':
5roduce one o! 2 possible amplitude level
T # symbol duration
1IT# signaling rate, symbol per second, bauds
F /ual to log22 bit per second
Tb # bit duration o! euivalent binary 5,2 #
To reali9e the same average probability o! symbol error,
transmitted power must be increased by a !actor o!
22Ilog22 compared to binary 5,2
T&""e\$\$el&5li'e e3u&li0&#i%' :
,pproach to high speed transmission
F 6ombination o! two basic signal-processing operation
F 8iscrete 5,2
F %inear modulation scheme
The number o! detectable amplitude levels is o!ten limited by
)")
4esidual distortion !or )") # limiting !actor on data rate o! the
system
/uali9ation # to compensate !or the residual distortion
/uali9er # !ilter
F , device well-suited !or the design o! a linear euali9er
is the tapped-delay-line !ilter
F Total number o! taps is chosen to be (2NL1)
5(t) is eual to the convolution o! c(t) and h(t)
nTKt sampling time, discrete convolution sum
Nyuist criterion !or distortionless transmission, with T used
in place o! Tb, normali9ed condition p(()K1
=ero-!orcing euali9er
F @ptimum in the sense that it minimi9es the pea7
distortion()")) F worst case
F "imple implementation
F The longer euali9er, the more the ideal condition !or
distortionless transmission
A\$&"#i*e E3u&li0er :
The channel is usually time varying

N
N k
k
kT t # t h ) ( ) (

N
N k
k
N
N k
k
N
N k
k
kT t c # kT t t c #
kT t # t c t h t c t !
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

N
N k
k
T k n c # nT ! ) ) (( ) (

'

t t t

'

N n
n
n
n
nT !
....., , 2 , 1
(
, (
, 1
( , (
( , 1
) (
F 8i!!erence in the transmission characteristics o! the
individual lin7s that may be switched together
F 8i!!erences in the number o! lin7s in a connection
,daptive euali9ation
F ,d?ust itsel! by operating on the the input signal
Training seuence
F 5recall euali9ation
F 6hannel changes little during an average data call
5rechannel euali9ation
F 4euire the !eedbac7 channel
5ostchannel euali9ation
synchronous
F Tap spacing is the same as the symbol duration o!
transmitted signal
Least-Mean-Square lgorit!m:
,daptation may be achieved
F >y observing the error bIw desired pulse shape and
actual pulse shape
F 3sing this error to estimate the direction in which the
tap-weight should be changed
2ean-suare error criterion
F 2ore general in application
F %ess sensitive to timing perturbations
# desired response, # error signal, # actual response
2ean-suare error is de!ined by cost !uction
/nsemble-averaged cross-correlation
2
n
E e 1
]
@ptimality condition !or minimum mean-suare error
2ean-suare error is a second-order and a parabolic !unction
o! tap weights as a multidimentional bowl-shaped sur!ace
,daptive process is a successive ad?ustments o! tap-weight
see7ing the bottom o! the bowl(minimum value )
"teepest descent algorithm
F The successive ad?ustments to the tap-weight in
direction opposite to the vector o! gradient )
F 4ecursive !ormular ( # step si9e parameter)
%east-2ean-"uare ,lgorithm
F "teepest-descent algorithm is not available in an
un7nown environment
F ,ppro'imation to the steepest descent algorithm using
instantaneous estimate
[ ]
2 2 2 2 ( )
n n
n n n n k e\$
k k k
e (
E e E e E e \$ R k
# # #

1 1

1 1

] ]
[ ]
( )
e\$ n n k
R k E e \$

( (, 1,....,
k
f)- k N
#

t t

1
( 1) ( ) , (, 1,....,
2
( ) ( ), (, 1,....,
k k
k
k e\$
# n # n k N
#
# n R k k N

+ t t

t t
( )
( 1) ( )
e\$ n n k
k k n n k
R k e \$
# n # n e \$

+ +
)
) )
%2" is a !eedbac7 system
)n the case o! small , roughly similar to steepest
descent algorithm
"peration of t!e equalizer:
suare error Training mode
F Mnown seuence is transmitted and synchoruni9ed
version is generated in the receiver
F 3se the training seuence, so called pseudo-noise(5N)
seuence
8ecision-directed mode
F ,!ter training seuence is completed
F Trac7 relatively slow variation in channel characteristic
%arge # !ast trac7ing, e'cess mean
#mplementation pproac!es:
,nalog
F 668, Tap-weight is stored in digital memory, analog
sample and multiplication
F "ymbol rate is too high
8igital
F "ample is uanti9ed and stored in shi!t register
F Tap weight is stored in shi!t register, digital
multiplication
5rogrammable digital
F 2icroprocessor
F +le'ibility
F "ame CIW may be time shared
Decision-\$eed bac% equalization:
>aseband channel impulse response # GhnH, input # G'nH
3sing data decisions made on the basis o! precursor to ta7e
care o! the postcursors
F The decision would obviously have to be correct
+eed!orward section # tapped-delay-line euali9er
+eedbac7 section # the decision is made on previously
detected symbols o! the input seuence
F Nonlinear !eedbac7 loop by decision device
E5e P&##er':
/'perimental tool !or such an evaluation in an insight!ul
manner
F "ynchroni9ed superposition o! all the signal o! interest
viewed within a particular signaling interval
/ye opening # interior region o! the eye pattern
(
( (
n k n k
k
n k n k k n k
k k
( h \$
h \$ h \$ h \$

< >

+ +

(1)
(2)
n
n
n
#
c
#
1

1
]
)
)
n
n
n
\$
.
a
1

1
]
)
T
n n n n
e a c .
(1) (1)
1 1 1
(2) (2)
1 1 1
n n n n
n n n n
# # e \$
# # e a

+ +
+ +

) )
) ) )
)n the case o! an 2-ary system, the eye pattern contains (2-
1) eye opening, where 2 is the number o! discreteamplitude
levels
I'#er"re#&#i%' %. E5e Di&gr&!:
UNIT III BASEBAND CODING TECHNIQUES
AS?8 OO?8 MAS?:
N The amplitude (or height) o! the sine wave varies to transmit
the ones and 9eros
N @ne amplitude encodes a ( while another amplitude encodes
a 1 (a !orm o! amplitude modulation)
Bi'&r5 &!"li#u\$e s+i.# @e5i'g8 B&'\$9i\$#+:
N d O (-related to the condition o! the line
> K (1Ld) ' " K (1Ld) ' N ' 1Ir
I!"le!e'#&#i%' %. >i'&r5 AS?:
Fre3ue')5 S+i.# ?e5i'g:
N @ne !reuency encodes a ( while another !reuency encodes
a 1 (a !orm o! !reuency modulation)
FS? B&'\$9i\$#+:
N %imiting !actor# 5hysical capabilities o! the carrier
N Not susceptible to noise as much as ,"M
N ,pplications
F @n voice-grade lines, used up to 12((bps
F 3sed !or high-!reuency (\$ to \$( 2C9) radio
transmission
F used at higher !reuencies on %,Ns that use coa'ial
cable
( )

'

t s
( ) t f A
2
2 cos
1 binary
( ) t f A
2
2 cos
( binary
DBPS?:
N 8i!!erential >5"M
F ( K same phase as last signal element
F 1 K 11(P shi!t !rom last signal element
C%')e"# %. & )%'s#ell&#i%' :
( )

'

t s

,
_

+
&
2 cos

t f A
c
11

,
_

+
&
\$
2 cos

t f A
c

,
_

&
\$
2 cos

t f A
c

,
_

&
2 cos

t f A
c
(1
((
1(
M&r5 PS?:
3sing multiple phase angles with each angle having more than one
amplitude, multiple signals elements can be achieved
F / K modulation rate, baud
F R K data rate, bps
F M K number o! di!!erent signal elements K 2L
F L K number o! bits per signal element
M
R
L
R
/
2
log

/AM:
F ,s an e'ample o! E,2, 12 di!!erent phases are
combined with two di!!erent amplitudes
F "ince only & phase angles have 2 di!!erent amplitudes,
there are a total o! 1- combinations
F With 1- signal combinations, each baud euals & bits o!
in!ormation (2 Q & K 1-)
F 6ombine ,"M and 5"M such that each signal
corresponds to multiple bits
F 2ore phases than amplitudes
F 2inimum bandwidth reuirement same as ,"M or 5"M
/AM &'\$ /PR:
N E,2 is a combination o! ,"M and 5"M
F Two di!!erent signals sent simultaneously on the same
carrier !reuency
F 2K&, 1-, \$2, -&, 121, 2*-
F \$ levels (L1, (, -1), so 0E54, &0E54
O..se# 3u&\$r&#ure "+&ses+i.# @e5i'g ,O/PS?-:
N E5"M can have 11( degree ?ump, amplitude !luctuation
N >y o!!setting the timing o! the odd and even bits by one bit-
period, or hal! a symbol-period, the in-phase and uadrature
components will never change at the same time.
Ge'er&#i%' &'\$ De#e)#i%' %. C%+ere'# BPS?:
0g+-e 1231 &loc% diagrams for '&( binary \$S) transmitter and
0g+-e 1245 0g+-e 1245 ' '& &( #nput binary sequence* ' ( #nput binary sequence* '> >( +aveform of scaled ( +aveform of scaled
time function time function s s
, ,
. .
, ,
' '# #(* ' (* ') )( +aveform of scaled time function ( +aveform of scaled time function s s
- -
. .
- -
' '# #(* (*
' '\$ \$( +aveform of t!e MS) signal ( +aveform of t!e MS) signal s s' '# #( obtained by adding ( obtained by adding s s
, ,
. .
, ,
' '# #( and ( and
s s
- -
. .
- -
' '# #( on a bit-by-bit basis* ( on a bit-by-bit basis*
+ig. -.21
-.21
0g+-e 1236 Signal-space diagram for MS) system*
Ge'er&#i%' &'\$ De#e)#i%' %. MS? Sig'&ls:
0g+-e 1247 &loc% diagrams for '&( MS) transmitter and '>(

UNIT IV BASEBAND RECEPTION TECHNIQUES
N F%r9&r\$ Err%r C%rre)#i%' ,FEC-
F 6oding designed so that errors can be corrected at the
F ,ppropriate !or delay sensitive and one-way
transmission (e.g., broadcast TR) o! data
F Two main types, namely bloc7 codes and convolutional
codes. We will only loo7 at bloc7 codes
Bl%)@ C%\$es:
N We will consider only binary data
N 8ata is grouped into bloc7s o! length k bits (dataword)
N /ach dataword is coded into bloc7s o! length n bits
(codeword), where in general n:k
N This is 7nown as an (n&k) bloc7 code
N , vector notation is used !or the datawords and codewords,
F 8ataword d K (d7 d3A.dk)
F 6odeword c K (c7 c3AA..cn)
N The redundancy introduced by the code is uanti!ied by the
code rate,
F 6ode rate K kIn
F i.e., the higher the redundancy, the lower the code rate
A&!!i'g Dis#&')e:
N /rror control capability is determined by the Camming
distance
N The Camming distance between two codewords is eual to
the number o! di!!erences between them, e.g.,
1((11(11
11(1((1( have a Camming distance K \$
N ,lternatively, can compute by adding codewords (mod 2)
K(1((1((1 (now count up the ones)
N The ma'imum number o! detectable errors is
N That is the ma'imum number o! correctable errors is given
by,
where dmin is the minimum Camming distance between 2
codewords and means the smallest integer
Li'e&r Bl%)@ C%\$es:
N ,s seen !rom the second 5arity 6ode e'ample, it is possible
to use a table to hold all the codewords !or a code and to
loo7-up the appropriate codeword based on the supplied
dataword
N ,lternatively, it is possible to create codewords by addition
o! other codewords. This has the advantage that there is now
no longer the need to held every possible codeword in the
table.
N )! there are k data bits, all that is reuired is to hold k linearly
independent codewords, i.e., a set o! k codewords none o!
which can be produced by linear combinations o! 2 or more
codewords in the set.
N The easiest way to !ind k linearly independent codewords is
to choose those which have S1T in ?ust one o! the !irst k
positions and S(T in the other k-1 o! the !irst k positions.
N F%r e6&!"le .%r & ,;84- )%\$e8 %'l5 .%ur )%\$e9%r\$s &re
re3uire\$8 e.g.8
1
min
d
1
]
1

2
1
min
d
t
1 1 1 1 ( ( (
1 1 ( ( 1 ( (
1 ( 1 ( ( 1 (
( 1 1 ( ( ( 1
N "o, to obtain the codeword !or dataword 1(11, the !irst, third
and !ourth codewords in the list are added together, giving
1(11(1(
N This process will now be described in more detail
N ,n (n,k) bloc7 code has code vectors
dK(d7 d3A.dk) and
cK(c7 c3AA..cn)
N The bloc7 coding process can be written as cKdD
where D is the Denerator 2atri'
N Thus,
N a
i
must be linearly independent, i.e.,
"ince codewords are given by summations o! the ai vectors,
then to avoid 2 datawords having the same codeword the ai vectors
must be linearly independent.
N "um (mod 2) o! any 2 codewords is also a codeword, i.e.,
"ince !or datawords d1 and d2 we haveU
"o,
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

7
2
1
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
a
.
a
a
...
. ... . .
...
...
D
kn k k
n
n
a a a
a a a
a a a

d
1
a c
2 1 \$
d d d +

+ +
k

d d d d d
1
2
1
1
1
2 1
1
\$ \$
a a )a ( a c
2 1 \$
c c c +
Err%r C%rre)#i'g P%9er %. LBC:
N The Camming distance o! a linear bloc7 code (%>6) is
simply the minimum Camming weight (number o! 1Ts or
euivalently the distance !rom the all ( codeword) o! the
non-9ero codewords
N Note d(c1,c2) K w(c1L c2) as shown previously
N +or an %>6, c1L c2Kc\$
N "o min (d(c1,c2)) K min (w(c1L c2)) K min (w(c\$))
N There!ore to !ind min Camming distance ?ust need to search
among the 2k codewords to !ind the min Camming weight F
!ar simpler than doing a pair wise chec7 !or all possible
codewords.
N
Li'e&r Bl%)@ C%\$es ( e6&!"le 1:
N +or e'ample a (&,2) code, supposeU
1
]
1

1 ( 1 (
1 1 ( 1
D
a1 K <1(11;
a2 K <(1(1;
N +or d K <1 1;, thenU
Li'e&r Bl%)@ C%\$es ( e6&!"le ::
N , (-,*) code with
( 1 1 1
V V V V
1 ( 1 (
1 1 ( 1
c

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1 1 ( ( ( (
1 ( 1 ( ( (
1 ( ( 1 ( (
1 ( ( ( 1 (
1 ( ( ( ( 1
D
N )s an even single parity code
S5s#e!&#i) C%\$es:
N +or a systematic bloc7 code the dataword appears unaltered
in the codeword F usually at the start
N The generator matri' has the structure,
R K n - k
N 5 is o!ten re!erred to as parity bits
) is kWk identity matri'. /nsures data word appears as beginning o!
codeword 5 is kWR matri'.
De)%\$i'g Li'e&r C%\$es:
N @ne possibility is a 4@2 loo7-up table
N /'ample F /ven single parity chec7 codeU
,ddress 8ata
(((((( (
(((((1 1
((((1( 1
((((11 (
AAA .
N 8ata output is the error !lag, i.e., ( F codeword o7,
N )! no error, data word is !irst k bits o! codeword
N +or an error correcting code the 4@2 can also store data
words
[ ] 5 J )
.. 1 .. ( (
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. ( .. 1 (
.. ( .. ( 1
D
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11

1
1
1
1
]
1

kR k k
R
R
! ! !
! ! !
! ! !
N ,nother possibility is algebraic decoding, i.e., the error !lag
is computed !rom the received codeword (as in the case o!
simple parity codes)
N Cow can this method be e'tended to more comple' error
detection and correction codesX
P&ri#5 C+e)@ M&#ri6:
N , linear bloc7 code is a linear subspace "
sub
o! all length n
vectors ("pace ")
N 6onsider the subset " null o! all length n vectors in space "
that are orthogonal to all length n vectors in "
sub
N )t can be shown that the dimensionality o! "
null
is n8k, where
n is the dimensionality o! " and k is the dimensionality o!
"
sub
N )t can also be shown that "
null
is a valid subspace o! " and
conseuently "
sub
is also the null space %. "
null
N "
null
can be represented by its basis vectors. )n this case the
generator basis vectors (or Sgenerator matri'T C) denote the
generator matri' !or "
null
- o! dimension n-k K R
N This matri' is called the !a-t( check mat-\$ o! the code
de!ined by D, where D is obviously the generator matri' !or
"
sub
- o! dimension k
N Note that the number o! vectors in the basis de!ines the
dimension o! the subspace
N "o the dimension o! C is n-k (K R) and all vectors in the null
space are orthogonal to all the vectors o! the code
N "ince the rows o! C, namely the vectors bi are members o!
the null space they are orthogonal to any code vector
N "o a vector y is a codeword only i! yCTK(
N Note that a linear bloc7 code can be speci!ied by either D or
C
P&ri#5 C+e)@ M&#ri6:
R K n - k
N "o C is used to chec7 i! a codeword is valid,
N The rows o! C, namely, bi, are chosen to be orthogonal to
rows o! D, namely ai
N 6onseuently the dot product o! any valid codeword with any
bi is 9ero
This is so since,
and so,
N This means that a codeword is valid (but not necessarily
correct) only i! cCT K (. To ensure this it is reuired that the
rows o! C are independent and are orthogonal to the rows o!
D
N That is the bi span the remaining R (K n - k) dimensions o!
the codespace
N +or e'ample consider a (\$,2) code. )n this case D has 2 rows,
a1 and a2
N 6onseuently all valid codewords sit in the subspace (in this
case a plane) spanned by a1 and a2
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

4
2
1
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
b
.
b
b
...
. ... . .
...
...
C
Rn R R
n
n
b b b
b b b
b b b

d
1
a c

k

d d
1
?
1
? ?
( ) b . (a a . b .c b
N )n this e'ample the C matri' has only one row, namely b1.
This vector is orthogonal to the plane containing the rows o!
the D matri', i.e., a1 and a2
N ,ny received codeword which is not in the plane containing
a1 and a2 (i.e., an invalid codeword) will thus have a
component in the direction o! b1 yielding a non- 9ero dot
product between itsel! and b1.
Err%r S5'\$r%!e:
N +or error correcting codes we need a method to compute the
reuired correction
N To do this we use the /rror "yndrome, s o! a received
codeword, cr
s K crCT
N )! cr is corrupted by the addition o! an error vector, e, then
cr K c L e
and
s K (c L e) CT K cCT L eCT
s K ( L eCT
"yndrome depends only on the error
N That is, we can add the same error pattern to di!!erent code
words and get the same syndrome.
F There are 2(n - k) syndromes but 2n error patterns
F +or e'ample !or a (\$,2) code there are 2 syndromes and
1 error patterns
F 6learly no error correction possible in this case
F ,nother e'ample. , (.,&) code has 1 syndromes and
121 error patterns.
F With 1 syndromes we can provide a di!!erent value to
indicate single errors in any o! the . bit positions as
well as the 9ero value to indicate no errors
N Now need to determine which error pattern caused the
syndrome
N +or systematic linear bloc7 codes, C is constructed as
!ollows,
D K < ) J 5; and so C K <-5T J );
where ) is the kWk identity !or D and the RWR identity !or C
N /'ample, (.,&) code, dmnK \$
Err%r S5'\$r%!e ( E6&!"le:
N +or a correct received codeword cr K <11(1((1;
)n this case,
[ ]
1
1
1
1
]
1

1 1 1 1 ( ( (
( 1 1 ( 1 ( (
1 ( 1 ( ( 1 (
1 1 ( ( ( ( 1
5 J ) D [ ]
1
1
1
]
1

1 ( ( 1 ( 1 1
( 1 ( 1 1 ( 1
( ( 1 1 1 1 (
) J 5 - C
T
[ ] [ ] ( ( (
1 ( (
( 1 (
( ( 1
1 1 1
( 1 1
1 ( 1
1 1 (
1 ( ( 1 ( 1 1 C c s
T
r

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

S#&'\$&r\$ Arr&5:
N The "tandard ,rray is constructed as !ollows,
N The array has 2k columns (i.e., eual to the number o! valid
codewords) and 2R rows (i.e., the number o! syndromes)
A&!!i'g C%\$es:
N We will consider a special class o! "/6 codes (i.e., Camming
distance K \$) where,
F Number o! parity bits 4 K n F k and n K 2R F 1
F "yndrome has R bits
F ( value implies 9ero errors
F 2R F 1 other syndrome values, i.e., one !or each bit that
might need to be corrected
F This is achieved i! each column o! C is a di!!erent
binary word F remember s K eCT
N "ystematic !orm o! (.,&) Camming code is,
c
1
(all 9ero)
e
1
e
2
e
\$
A
e
N
c
2
Le
1
c
2
Le
2
)
:
Be
3
AA
c
2
Le
N
c
2
c
2
Le
1
c
2
Le
2
c
2
Le
\$
AA
c
2
Le
N
c
2
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA s
(
s
1
s
2
s
\$
A
s
N
[ ]
1
1
1
1
]
1

1 1 1 1 ( ( (
( 1 1 ( 1 ( (
1 ( 1 ( ( 1 (
1 1 ( ( ( ( 1
5 J ) D [ ]
1
1
1
]
1

1 ( ( 1 ( 1 1
( 1 ( 1 1 ( 1
( ( 1 1 1 1 (
) J 5 - C
T
N The original !orm is non-systematic,
N 6ompared with the systematic code, the column orders o!
both D and C are swapped so that the columns o! C are a
binary count
N The column order is now ., -, 1, *, 2, \$, &, i.e., col. 1 in the
non-systematic C is col. . in the systematic C.
C%'*%lu#i%'&l C%\$e I'#r%\$u)#i%':
N 6onvolutional codes map in!ormation to code bits
seuentially by convolving a seuence o! in!ormation bits
with YgeneratorZ seuences
N , convolutional encoder encodes 9 in!ormation bits to N:9
code bits at one time step
N 6onvolutional codes can be regarded as bloc7 codes !or
which the encoder has a certain structure such that we can
e'press the encoding operation as convolution
N 6onvolutional codes are applied in applications that reuire
good per!ormance with low implementation cost. They
operate on code streams (not in bloc7s)
N 6onvolution codes have memory that utili9es previous bits to
encode or decode !ollowing bits (bloc7 codes are
memoryless)
N 6onvolutional codes achieve good per!ormance by
e'panding their memory depth
N 6onvolutional codes are denoted by (n&k&L), where L is code
(or encoder) Me!%r5 \$e"#+ (number o! register stages)
1
1
1
1
]
1

1 ( ( 1 ( 1 1
( 1 ( 1 ( 1 (
( ( 1 1 ( ( 1
( ( ( ( 1 1 1
D
1
1
1
]
1

1 ( 1 ( 1 ( 1
1 1 ( ( 1 1 (
1 1 1 1 ( ( (
C
N C%'s#r&i'# le'g#+ ./n'L0,( is de!ined as the number o!
encoded bits a message bit can in!luence to
N 6onvolutional encoder, k K 1, n K 2, %K2
F 6onvolutional encoder is a .i'i#e s#&#e !&)+i'e (+"2)
processing in!ormation bits in a serial manner
F Thus the generated code is a !unction o! input and the
state o! the +"2
F )n this (n&k&L) K (2,1,2) encoder each message bit
in!luences a span o! ;< n=L>7?<1 successive output
bits K )%'s#r&i'# le'g#+ .
F Thus, !or generation o! n-bit output, we reuire n shi!t
registers in k K 1 convolutional encoders
Cere each message bit in!luences
a span o! ; K n=L>7?<4=7>7?<1
successive output bits
\$ 2
[
j j j j
\$ m m m

\$ 1
[[
j j j j
\$ m m m

2
[[[
j j j
\$ m m

C%'*%lu#i%' "%i'# %. *ie9 i' e')%\$i'g &'\$ ge'er&#%r !&#ri6:
E6&!"le: Usi'g ge'er&#%r !&#ri6
Re"rese'#i'g )%'*%lu#i%'&l )%\$es: C%\$e #ree:
(n&k&L) K (2,1,2) encoder
(1)
( 2)
<1 ( 11;
<111 1;

,
g
g
2 1
2
[
[[
j j j j
j j j
\$ m m m
\$ m m

'

1 1 2 2 \$ \$
[ [[ [ [[ [ [[ ...
)+t
\$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$
Re"rese'#i'g )%'*%lu#i%'&l )%\$es )%!"&)#l5: )%\$e #rellis &'\$
s#&#e \$i&gr&!:
"tate diagram
I's"e)#i'g s#&#e \$i&gr&!: S#ru)#ur&l "r%"er#ies %.
)%'*%lu#i%'&l )%\$es:
N /ach new bloc7 o! k input bits causes a transition into new
state
N Cence there are 2k branches leaving each state
N ,ssuming encoder 9ero initial state, encoded word !or any
input o! k bits can thus be obtained. +or instance, below !or
uK(1 1 1 ( 1), encoded word *K(1 1, 1 (, ( 1, ( 1, 1 1, 1 (, 1
1, 1 1) is produced#
N
- encoder state diagram !or (n&k&L)K(2,1,2) code
- note that the number o! states is 2LL1 K 1
Dis#&')e .%r s%!e )%'*%lu#i%'&l )%\$es:
TAE 7ITERBI ALGORITAEM:
N 5roblem o! optimum decoding is to !ind the minimum
distance path !rom the initial state bac7 to initial state (below
!rom S5 to S5). The minimum distance is the sum o! all path
metrics
N that is ma'imi9ed by the correct path
N /'haustive ma'imum li7elihood
method must search &ll #+e "&#+s
in phase trellis (2k paths emergingI
entering !rom 2 %L1 states !or
an (n&k&L) code)
N The Riterbi algorithm gets its
e!!iciency via concentrating intosur*i*%r "&#+s o! the trellis
TAE SUR7I7OR PATA:
N ,ssume !or simplicity a convolutional code with kK1, and up
to 2k K 2 branches can enter each state in trellis diagram
(
ln ( , ) ln ( J )
j
m j mj
! ! ( \$

5 6
N ,ssume optimal path passes ". 2etric comparison is done by
adding the metric o! " into "1 and "2. ,t the survivor path
the accumulated metric is naturally smaller (otherwise it
could not be the optimum path)
N +or this reason the non-survived path can
be discarded -: all path alternatives need not
to be considered
N Note that in principle whole transmitted
seuence must be received be!ore decision.
Cowever, in practice storing o! states !or
input length o! *L is uite adeuate
T+e !&6i!u! li@eli+%%\$ "&#+:
The decoded 2% code seuence is 11 1( 1( 11 (( (( (( whose
Camming
distance to the received seuence is & and the respective decoded
seuence is 1 1 ( ( ( ( ( (whyX). Note that this is the minimum
distance path.
(>lac7 circles denote the deleted branches, dashed lines# [1[ was
applied)
A%9 #% e'\$u" \$e)%\$i'gC
N )n the previous e'ample it was assumed that the register was
!inally !illed with 9eros thus !inding the minimum distance
path
N )n practice with long code words 9eroing reuires !eeding o!
long seuence o! 9eros to the end o! the message bits# this
wastes channel capacity \ introduces delay
N To avoid this !ath mem)-( t-+ncat)n is applied#
F Trace all the surviving paths to the
depth where they merge
F +igure right shows a common point
at a memory depth %
F % is a random variable whose applicable
magnitude shown in the !igure (*L)
has been e'perimentally tested !or
negligible error rate increase
F Note that this also introduces the
delay o! *L]
A&!!i'g C%\$e E6&!"le:
N C(.,&)
N Denerator matri' D# !irst &-by-& identical matri'
N 2essage in!ormation vector p
N Transmission vector '
N 4eceived vector r
and error vector e
N 5arity chec7 matri' C
* stages o! the trellis % L >
Err%r C%rre)#i%':
N )! there is no error, syndrome vector 9K9eros
N )! there is one error at location 2
N New syndrome vector 9 is
E6&!"le %. CRC:
E6&!"le: Usi'g ge'er&#%r !&#ri6:
(1)
( 2)
<1 ( 11;
<111 1;

,
g
g
11 1(
(1
11 (( (1 11 (1
1 2 3 1 2 3
1 4 4 2 4 4 3
Tur>% C%\$es:
N >ac7gound
F Turbo codes were proposed by >errou and Dlavieu' in
the 100\$ )nternational 6on!erence in 6ommunications.
correct#1L1L2L2L2K1U1 ( (.11) (.11
!alse#1L1L(L(L(K2U2 ( 2.\$() &.-
total path metric# *.&1

## F 5er!ormance within (.* d> o! the channel capacity limit

!or >5"M was demonstrated.
N +eatures o! turbo codes
F 5arallel concatenated coding
F 4ecursive convolutional encoders
F 5seudo-random interleaving
F )terative decoding
M%#i*&#i%': Per.%r!&')e %. Tur>% C%\$es
N 6omparison#
F 4ate 1I2 6odes.
F MK* turbo code.
F MK1& convolutional code.
N 5lot is !rom#
F %. 5ere9, YTurbo 6odesZ, chapter 1 o! Trellis 6oding by
6. "chlegel. )/// 5ress, 100.
Pseu\$%r&'\$%! I'#erle&*i'g:
N The coding dilemma#
F "hannon showed that large bloc7-length random codes
achieve channel capacity.
F Cowever, codes must have structure that permits
decoding with reasonable comple'ity.
F 6odes with structure donTt per!orm as well as random
codes.
F Y,lmost all codes are good, e'cept those that we can
thin7 o!.Z
N "olution#
F 2a7e the code appear random, while maintaining
enough structure to permit decoding.
F This is the purpose o! the pseudo-random interleaver.
F Turbo codes possess random-li7e properties.
F Cowever, since the interleaving pattern is 7nown,
decoding is possible.
D+5 I'#erle&*i'g &'\$ Re)ursi*e E')%\$i'gC
N )n a coded systems#
F 5er!ormance is dominated by low weight code words.
N , YgoodZ code#
F will produce low weight outputs with very low
probability.
N ,n 4"6 code#
F 5roduces low weight outputs with !airly low
probability.
F Cowever, some inputs still cause low weight outputs.
N >ecause o! the interleaver#
F The probability that both encoders have inputs that
cause low weight outputs is very low.
F There!ore the parallel concatenation o! both encoders
will produce a YgoodZ code.
I#er&#i*e De)%\$i'g:
N There is one decoder !or each elementary encoder.
N /ach decoder estimates the a !)ste-)- !-)bab*t( (,55) o!
each data bit.
N The ,55Ts are used as a !-)- in!ormation by the other
decoder.
N 8ecoding continues !or a set number o! iterations.
F 5er!ormance generally improves !rom iteration to
iteration, but !ollows a law o! diminishing returns
T+e Tur>%Pri')i"le:
Turbo codes get their name because the decoder uses !eedbac7,
li7e a turbo engine
Per.%r!&')e &s & Fu')#i%' %. Nu!>er %. I#er&#i%'s:
0.5 1 1.5 2
10
-7
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
E
b
/N
o
in dB
B
E
R
1 iteration
2 iterations
3 iterations
6 iterations
10 iterations
18 iterations
Tur>% C%\$e Su!!&r5:
F 4emar7able power e!!iciency in ,WDN and !lat-!ading
channels !or moderately low >/4.
F 8eign tradeo!!s suitable !or delivery o! multimedia
services.
F %ong latency.
F 5oor per!ormance at very low >/4.
F >ecause turbo codes operate at very low "N4, channel
estimation and trac7ing is a critical issue.
N The principle o! iterative or YturboZ processing can be
applied to other problems.
F Turbo-multiuser detection can improve per!ormance o!
coded multiple-access systems.

UNIT V BANDPASS SIGNAL TRANSMISSION AND
RECEPTION
N "pread data over wide bandwidth
N 2a7es ?amming and interception harder
N +reuency hoping
F "ignal broadcast over seemingly random series o!
!reuencies
N 8irect "euence
F /ach bit is represented by multiple bits in transmitted
signal
F 6hipping code
S"re&\$ S"e)#ru! C%')e"#:
N )nput !ed into channel encoder
F 5roduces narrow bandwidth analog signal around
central !reuency
N "ignal modulated using seuence o! digits
F Typically generated by pseudonoiseIpseudorandom
number generator
N )ncreases bandwidth signi!icantly
N 4eceiver uses same seuence to demodulate signal
N 8emodulated signal !ed into channel decoder
Ge'er&l M%\$el %. S"re&\$ S"e)#ru! S5s#e!:
G&i's:
N )mmunity !rom various noise and multipath distortion
F )ncluding ?amming
N 6an hideIencrypt signals
signal
N "everal users can share same higher bandwidth with little
inter!erence
F 6ellular telephones
F 6ode division multiple'ing (682)
F 6ode division multiple access (682,)
Pseu\$%r&'\$%! Nu!>ers:
N Denerated by algorithm using initial seed
N 8eterministic algorithm
F Not actually random
F )! algorithm good, results pass reasonable tests o!
randomness
N Need to 7now algorithm and seed to predict seuence
Fre3ue')5 A%""i'g S"re&\$ S"e)#ru! ,FASS-:
N "ignal broadcast over seemingly random series o!
!reuencies
N 4eceiver hops between !reuencies in sync with transmitter
N /avesdroppers hear unintelligible blips
N ^amming on one !reuency a!!ects only a !ew bits
B&si) O"er&#i%':
N Typically 27 carriers !reuencies !orming 27 channels
N 6hannel spacing corresponds with bandwidth o! input
N /ach channel used !or !i'ed interval
F \$(( ms in )/// 1(2.11
F "ome number o! bits transmitted using some encoding
scheme
N 2ay be !ractions o! bit (see later)
F "euence dictated by spreading code
Fre3ue')5 A%""i'g E6&!"le:
Fre3ue')5 A%""i'g S"re&\$ S"e)#ru! S5s#e! ,Tr&'s!i##er-:
Fre3ue')5 A%""i'g S"re&\$ S"e)#ru! S5s#e! ,Re)ei*er-:
Sl%9 &'\$ F&s# FASS:
N +reuency shi!ted every Tc seconds
N 8uration o! signal element is Ts seconds
N "low +C"" has Tc Ts
N +ast +C"" has Tc _ Ts
N Denerally !ast +C"" gives improved per!ormance in noise
(or ?amming)
Sl%9 Fre3ue')5 A%" S"re&\$ S"e)#ru! Usi'g MFS? ,ME48
@E:-
F&s# Fre3ue')5 A%" S"re&\$ S"e)#ru! Usi'g MFS? ,ME48
@E:-
FASS Per.%r!&')e C%'si\$er&#i%'s:
N Typically large number o! !reuencies used
F )mproved resistance to ?amming
Dire)# Se3ue')e S"re&\$ S"e)#ru! ,DSSS-:
N /ach bit represented by multiple bits using spreading
code
band
F )n proportion to number o! bits used
times bandwidth o! 1 bit code
N @ne method#
F 6ombine input with spreading code using `@4
F )nput bit 1 inverts spreading code bit
F )nput 9ero bit doesnTt alter spreading code bit
F 8ata rate eual to original spreading code
N 5er!ormance similar to +C""
Dire)# Se3ue')e S"re&\$ S"e)#ru! E6&!"le:
Dire)# Se3ue')e S"re&\$ S"e)#ru! Tr&'s!i##er:
Dire)# Se3ue')e S"re&\$ S"e)#ru! Re)ei*er:
Dire)# Se3ue')e S"re&\$ S"e)#ru! Usi'g BPS?
E6&!"le:
C%\$e Di*isi%' Mul#i"le A))ess ,CDMA-:
N 2ultiple'ing Techniue used with spread spectrum
N "tart with data signal rate /
F 6alled bit data rate
N >rea7 each bit into k chips according to !i'ed pattern speci!ic
to each user
F 3serTs code
N New channel has chip data rate k/ chips per second
N /.g. kK-, three users (,,>,6) communicating with base
N 6ode !or , K _1,-1,-1,1,-1,1:
N 6ode !or > K _1,1,-1,-1,1,1:
N 6ode !or 6 K _1,1,-1,1,1,-1:
CDMA E6&!"le:
N 6onsider , communicating with base
N >ase 7nows ,Ts code
N , wants to send a 1
F "end chip pattern _1,-1,-1,1,-1,1:
N ,Ts code
N , wants to send (
F "end chip< pattern _-1,1,1,-1,1,-1:
N 6omplement o! ,Ts code
N 8ecoder ignores other sources when using ,Ts code to
decode
F @rthogonal codes
CDMA .%r DSSS:
N n users each using di!!erent orthogonal 5N seuence
N 2odulate each users data stream
F 3sing >5"M
N 2ultiply by spreading code o! user
CDMA i' & DSSS E'*ir%'!e'#:
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF ALL TAE BEST FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF