You are on page 1of 24

Business of Waste Recycling

Dr. Prasad Modak


Waste Generation - India
MSW generated in India 2012 68.8
million TPY

50% increase in last decade

BAU scenario for 2041 160.5
million TPY

Class I cities contribute 72% to MSW
in urban area

In 2021 towns will contribute 60%
Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

Governance
MSW rules (Management & Handling)
came in 2000

ULBs to follow the rules

No ULB is compliant

Special rules for Biomedical waste, E-
waste and Plastics with regulatory
guidelines framed for recycling of
batteries and waste oil.
Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

Waste Recycling
Waste recycling as prime strategy in
sustainable waste management

Establishes waste-resource linkage

Recycling reduces operating and
transport costs, emissions; creates
green jobs, substitutes virgin materials
and yields economic benefits.

Recycling takes place majorly in mega
cities which needs to be taken to small
towns and cities
Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

New waste streams
E-Waste, biomedical or health-care
waste, construction demolition waste
and plastic waste

E-Waste - high generation, high value

Plastic recycling - 1777 units
C&D waste Conversion to low cost
construction materials

Problem of household hazardous waste
and composting
Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

Informal waste pickers
Informal sector recycles 70% of plastic waste
and up to 56% of all recyclable waste

The informal sector in Delhi alone employs
about 150,000 people

Delhi Informal sector transports 1088TPD.
Thus, ULB saves INR 795 million/year and
avoids 1Million tons of CO2Eq

However waste pickers exposed to high
risk condition

Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

Recycling of Inerts
Extent of waste segregation is
low between 30 to 60%

Recycling
India 56%
Europe and US 30%

Separation of waste however needs space that is
not made available as the informal sector is not
recognized by the ULBs
Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

Houses
Offices
Market
Formal
collection
(mixed)
Informal
system
(recyclables)
Dhalaos
Dustbins
Municipal
truck
Landfill
Waste
pickers
Small
Kabaris
Big
kabaris
Recyclers
Thiawalas
S
W
M

s
y
s
t
e
m

-

I
n
d
i
a

Source: CHINTAN. "Space for Waste:Planning for the Informal Recycling Sector." New Delhi, 2003
Recyclers
Big Kabaris
Small Kabaris
Thiawalas
Waste pickers
Hierarchy of Stakeholders in
Hierarchy Informal SWM
Source: CHINTAN. "Space for Waste:Planning for the Informal Recycling Sector." New Delhi, 2003
Generator
/ end user
Collection
Disposal
Waste
picker
Junk shop
Processor
Municipal
activities
Value chain
activities
Waste recycling in developing countries

Waste recycling in high-Income countries
Cash flow
Material flow
Partial Material flow
Formal and Informal SWM systems
Generator
/ end user
Collection
Disposal
Waste
picker
Junk shop
Processor
Municipal
activities
Value chain
activities
Cash flow
Material flow
Partial Material flow
Adopted from Anne Scheinberg, WIEGO, Informal Sector Integration and High Performance Recycling: Evidence from 20
Cities, Working Paper (Urban Policies) No. 23, 2012
City Number
of waste
pickers
Average
earnings
(Euro per
day)
Child
earnings
(% of
adult)
Women earnings
(as % of mens
earnings)
Total
recycled
(formal)
%
Total
recycled
(informal)
%
Total avoided costs
for collection plus
avoided costs for
disposal for waste
system (x Euro
1000/year)
Cairo (Egypt) 40,000 4,3 - 13% 66% 14,473
Cluj Napoca
(Romania)
3,226 6,28 - 87% 5% 9% 63
Lima (Peru) 17,643 5,4 25% 60% 0.3% 20% 15,758
Economic Aspects of the Informal Sector
(GIZ Study)
Source: GTZ/CWG, Economic Aspects of the Informal Sector in Solid Waste 2007, Agnes 2009; WATSAN 2010
Weigh bridge
Sorting
Inert Storage
Organic storage
Bio-methanation
or Composting
plants
Material
Recycling
Hub
Innovation centre
Street
lights
Waste Sorting Centres
Gardens
Methane gas for street lights and
to fuel transport vehicles
Processed materials for users
Compost to gardens
Waste Sorting Centre
Waste
Generators/
Users
City with No Landfill
Waste
Concern
starts pilot
community
based
resource
recovery
project in
Dhaka
Regional
Urban
Developmen
t Office
(RUDO)-
South Asia
supports to
increase the
capacity of
the project
and to
further test
the model
With support
from MoEF,
UNDP, Waste
Concern
under SEMP
selected to
replicate the
model in 5
(five)
communities
of Dhaka City
Partnership
agreement
signed
between
public-private
sector-
community to
implement
the project
Replication
of the model
in Dhaka,
Khulna&
Sylhet cities.
38
replications of
this model in
more than 18
cities/ towns
of Bangladesh
1995 1997 1998 1999 2000 2004
Solid waste management in Bangladesh
Source: Solid Waste Management system in Bangladesh,
http://www.unescap.org/pdd/prs/ProjectActivities/Ongoing/Best%20practice/Bangladesh.pdf
Composting
Organic compost - Nitrogen, Phosphorous and
Potassium, and other essential micro nutrients.

India centralized and decentralized
Potential - 4.3 million tons of compost each year
from MSW

Compost sold to city gardens and residential
areas

70 centralized plants in India
Decentralized plants are getting implemented
but need to be promoted
Segregation at source is the key
Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

Waste to energy
Waste to energy business in India looks at four
routes
Biomethanation focusing on organic fraction
Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs)
Direct combustion or Mass burn
Landfill Gas (LFG) Recovery

Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

Biomethanation
Decentralized cooking fuel

Fuel to electricity for commercial units -Business models
not still attractive

Bio-gas used to fuel buses Swedish technology Pilots
proposed in Mysore
Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

RDF
RDF an alternative to coal

India 2.48 million TPY of RDF,
8 RDF facilities (Four not in
working conditions)


Hyderabad & Vijaywada Electricity generation
Jaipur & Chandigarh Fuel for cement kilns

Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

Mass burn plants
Not present in India
Use of high temperature technologies such as
Plasma Arc
Barriers
high capital costs,
need of auxiliary fuel
high costs of emission control and monitoring and
resistance from local neighborhood and
environmental groups
Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

LFG
LFG recovery Ahmedabad,
Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata

7 LGFs potential in India - 7.4
million tons of CO
2
equivalent
emission reduction

Gorai - GHG emissions reduction
of 2.2 million tons of CO
2

equivalents by 2028


Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

Landfill mining
Recovering valuable materials from
land filled MSW Landfill mining

Prime objective To clear space or
incoming land

Still an untapped resource of
economic gains, resource saving,
generating employment, reduce risks
to neighborhood environment

Business models not yet established

Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

Observation
India - WTE market not yet mature, High
capital costs, environmental and social
concerns

Biomethanation attractive choice

LFG Still unexplored on larger scale,
attractive with accrual of carbon credits
Source: Environmental Management Centre, LLP, Promoting Recycling in Municipal Solid Waste Management through
Sustainable Business Models, Project Preparation Support for Livable Cities in Asia, 2012

40 waste Recycling Companies contacted
1. Profile
2. Impact
3. Contact
Highlight
Photo
E-coli Waste
E-coli waste is a profit organization deals with E-waste and Biomedical waste in Ahmadabad.
They follow collect-segregate-process-sell operation. E.coli Waste Management Company has signed MOU
with Government of Gujarat for recycling the e-waste generated by corporate small entities and
individuals due to dumping of electric and electronic equipments like mobiles, computers ACs etc. ..
They claim as the only company
of Gujarat which is actively
involved in recycling of e-waste
in a systematic & eco-friendly
manner following the safety
norms set by the pollution
control board.
Website http://www.ecoliwaste.com Place:
Email iinfo@ecoliwaste.com
Number 079-27556348
9825494049

Contact Person
At E-Coli waste management system the collection of Bio-medical waste is done in accordance with
direction contained in the notification of BMW rules as per the provisions of the BMW rules '98 - BY
(GPCB).
They provides technical as well as legal guidelines to institute for safe collection, storage & disposal of
biomedical waste as well as necessary statutory requirement of State Pollution Control Board as per BMW
rules.
THANK YOU