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age hardening see precipitation hardening

alloy elements 3536


alloying interstitial and substitutional 14
alloy metallurgy 4046
heat treatable 4346
non-heat treatable 4043
aluminium
applications 7
characteristics 4, Appendix B
history 1
backing bars and strips 7880
butt welds denitions 7578
cold work (strain hardening) 1516
defects 199205
hot cracking 2431
oxide lming 2224
porosity 1822
suck-back in TIG welding 111
degreasing 6668
mechanical cleaning 66
chemical cleaning (pickling) 67
design
backing bars and strips 7880
edge preparations (joint design) 7278
edge preparations (joint design) for MIG
136139
edge preparations (joint design) for TIG
9899
effect of position 72
for access 7071
designations 3640
alloy composition identication 3638
temper designations 3840
distortion 8489
electron beam welding
capabilities 157, 160
process principles 155157
fatigue 8996
joint classication 9294
ller metals
effect on hot cracking 2931
selection 4650
llet weld denitions 74, 75
friction welding
friction stir welding 161165
capabilities 163, 164, 165
mechanical properties 165
process principles 160161
rotary motion 161
gamma radiography 213
GMAW see MIG
grain size 1213
effect on hot cracking 30
GTAW see TIG
handling of parent metals 51
laser cutting 5863
health and safety 6063
parameters 61
principles 5860
laser welding
arc augmented 154155
CO
2
laser welding 152153
defects 154
Nd-YAG (solid state) welding 153154
process principles 150152
liquation cracking see hot cracking
mechanical cutting 6466
MIG welding
arc starting 135
contact tip 129130
electro-gas welding 143144
ller wire 133134
ne wire 124
mechanised and robotic welding 141143
parameters (argon shielding) 136137
parameters (helium shielding) 138
power sources 119121
process principles 116118
Index
235
pulsed MIG 121124
shielding gases 130133
spot welding 144146
terminating the weld 140141
torches 125126
torch positioning 138140
twin wire 124125
wire feeders 127128
non-destructive testing 205215
eddy current 207208
penetrant 205207
radiography 211215
ultrasonic 208211
penetrant examination 205207
plasma arc cutting 5258
health and safety 5658
parameters 55
principles 5254
plasma arc welding
parameters 149
plasma MIG 150
process principles 147149
variable polarity 149
porosity 1822
in autogenous welds 18
in parent metal 22
effect of cleanliness 21
composition 20
hose type 20
process 20
gas dew point 20
ISO classication 200
precipitation (age) hardening 1617
resistance welding
ash butt welding 176180
power sources 167169
seam welding 175176
spot welding 171175
surface condition 169171
236 Index
solidication cracking see hot cracking
solid solution strengthening see alloying
storage of parent metals 52
strengthening mechanisms 1018
strength loss 3134
in HAZ 3234
in weld metal 3132
TIG welding
effects of HF 100
mechanised/ automated welding 114
115
parameters (argon shielding) 104
parameters (helium shielding) 113
process principles 97101
shielding gas 102106
spot and plug welding 115
torches and cables 106107
torch manipulation 110112
tungsten electrodes 108109
ultrasonic examination 208211
water jet cutting 6364
weldability 1831
hot cracking 2431
oxide lm 2224
porosity 1822
welder approval
ASME IX 193, 196, 197
BS EN 287 Pt 2 191193
BS EN 1418 197198
welding procedure 181182, 183
welding procedure approval
ASME IX 188190
BS EN 288 Pt 4 182188
alloy grouping 184
range of approval 187188
test regime 185187
x-radiography 213