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# Figure 1: Basic N-channel

## common-gate circuit (neglecting

biasing details); current source I
D
represents an active load; signal is
applied at node V
in
and output is
taken from node V
out
; output can
be current or voltage
Common gate
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In electronics, a common-gate amplifier is one of three basic single-stage
field-effect transistor (FET) amplifier topologies, typically used as a current
buffer or voltage amplifier. In this circuit the source terminal of the transistor
serves as the input, the drain is the output and the gate is connected to
ground, or "common," hence its name. The analogous bipolar junction
transistor circuit is the common-base amplifier.
Contents
1 Applications
2 Low-frequency characteristics
2.1 Closed circuit voltage gain
3 References
4 See also
5 External links
Applications
This configuration is used less often than the common source or source
follower. It is useful in, for example, CMOS RF receivers, especially when
operating near the frequency limitations of the FETs; it is desirable because
of the ease of impedance matching and potentially has lower noise. Gray and Meyer
[1]
provide a general reference
for this circuit.
Low-frequency characteristics
At low frequencies and under small-signal conditions, the circuit in Figure 1 can be represented by that in Figure 2,
where the hybrid-pi model for the MOSFET has been employed.
The amplifier characteristics are summarized below in Table 1. The approximate expressions use the assumptions
(usually accurate) r
O
>> R
L
and g
m
r
O
>> 1.
Figure 2: Small-signal low-
frequency hybrid-pi model for
amplifier driven by a Norton signal
source
Figure 3: Hybrid pi model with
test source i
x
at output to find
output resistance
Table 1 Definition Expression
Approximate
expression
Short-circuit current
gain
Open-circuit voltage
gain
Input resistance
Output resistance
Note: Parallel lines (||) indicate components in parallel.
In general the overall voltage/current gain may be substantially less than the open/short circuit gains listed above
(depending on the source and load resistances) due to the loading effect.
Closed circuit voltage gain
Taking input and output loading into consideration, the closed circuit voltage gain (that is, the gain with load R
L
and
source with resistance R
S
both attached) of the common gate can be written as:
,
which has the simple limiting forms
,
depending upon whether g
m
R
S
is much larger or much smaller than one.
In the first case the circuit acts as a current follower, as understood as follows: for R
S
>> 1/g
m
the voltage source
can be replaced by its Norton equivalent with Norton current v
Thv
/ R
S
and parallel Norton resistance R
S
.
Because the amplifier input resistance is small, the driver delivers by current division a current v
Thv
/ R
S
to the
amplifier. The current gain is unity, so the same current is delivered to the output load R
L
, producing by Ohms law
an output voltage v
out
= v
Thv
R
L
/ R
S
, that is, the first form of the voltage gain above.
In the second case R
S
<< 1/g
m
and the Thvenin representation of the source is useful, producing the second form
for the gain, typical of voltage amplifiers.
Because the input impedance of the common-gate amplifier is very low, the cascode amplifier often is used instead.
The cascode places a common-source amplifier between the voltage driver and the common-gate circuit to permit
voltage amplification using a driver with R
S
>> 1/g
m
.
References
1.
^
Paul R. Gray, Paul J. Hurst, Stephen H. Lewis, Robert G. Meyer (2001). Analysis and Design of Analog
Integrated Circuits (4th ed.). New York: Wiley. pp. 186191. ISBN 0-471-32168-0.
See also
Electronic amplifier variables
Two-port networks
Common drain
Common source
Common base
Common emitter
Common collector
External links
A 24GHz CMOS Front-end (http://chic.caltech.edu/publication/a-24ghz-cmos-front-end/)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Common_gate&oldid=598752740"
Categories: Single-stage transistor amplifiers
This page was last modified on 8 March 2014 at 22:07.
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