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The implementation of the National Policy on Education 1986 was evaluated by two
committees namely the Ramamurti Committee (1990) and the Janardhana Reddy Committee (1992).
As a result of the recommendations of these two committees, slight modifications were made in the
NPE in 1992.
Ramamurti Review Committee (1990)
Despite efforts at social and economic development, a majority of our people continue to remain
deprived of education, which is one of the basic needs for human development. Government accords
the highest priority to education both as human right and as the means for bringing about a
transformation towards a more humane and enlightened society. The National Policy on Education,
1986 would enable the country to move towards this perspective of education. The government
therefore, decided to set up the NPE Review Committee. That Committee for Review is popularly
known as Ramamurti Review Committee after the name Acharya Ramamurti, the chairman of the
committee. The committee was appointed on May 7, 1990 and the report was tabled in the
Parliament on January 9, 1991.
The approach of the committee in reviewing the NPE,1986 and its implementation has been
guided by the following concerns:
Equity and social justice
Decentralization of educational management at all levels
Establishment of a participative educational order
Inculnation of values indispensable for creation of an enlightened and humane society
Empowerment of work
The following are the major recommendations:
1. Development of a common school system: a very vital component for securing equity and
social justice in education is the functioning of a common school system. In order to
achieve this objective, the existing Government schools and schools aided by local bodies
have to be transformed through quality improvement, into genuine neighborhood
2. Removing disparities in education: the rural areas in general and the tribal areas in
particular, have suffered in terms of resources, personnel and infrastructure facilities.
Therefore the need of the hour is planning for, and implementation of, educational
development programmes in terms of disintegrated targets, area, community and gender
specific activities.
3. Promotion of women education: inorder to promote participation of the girls and women
in education at all levels, there is need for an integrated approach in designing and
implementing the schemes that would address all the factors that inhibit their education.
4. Value education: Value education is to be conceived as a continuous process. Value
education should ensure that education does not alienate the students from the family,
community and life.
5. Early childhood care and education (ECCE): the scope of the constitutional Directive
(Article 45) should be enlarged to include ECCE.
6. Right to education: Right to Education should be examined for inclusion among the
fundamental rights.
7. Operation Black board: the state governments should develop all decision making power
concerning operation black board for planning and implementing the scheme.
8. Navodaya Vidyalayas: the committee recommends that the Government may take an
appropriate decision from out of the following three alternatives:

No further Navodaya Vidyalaya need be opened. The existing 261 Navodaya
Vidyalayas may be restructured and continued with provision of adequate
All the existing 261 Navodaya Vidyalayas may be transferred to the state sector
for the states to run them as residential centres on the Andhra Pradesh model.
The Navodaya Vidyalaya scheme may be transformed into a Navodaya Vidyalaya
programme of broad based talent nurturing and pace setting ( A day school each
under the Common School system can function in the premises of Navodaya
9. Work experiences/ SUPW: work experience or Socially Useful Productive Work should be
integrally linked with various subjects both at the level of content and pedagogy.
10. Resources for education: the first step should be to provide for at least 6% of the GNP for
education. All technical and professional education should be made self financing.

Janardhana Reddy Committee or CABE Committee (1992)
The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) in its meeting held on 8-9 March, 1991
examined the procedure to be adopted for consideration of the report of the Ramamurti Review
Committee and decided that a CABE committee to be constituted to consider the recommendations of
the Ramamurthi Committee. The CABE committee was appointed under the chairmanship of
Sri.Janardhana Reddy on 31
July, 1991 to review the implementation of the various parameters of
NPE taking into consideration the report of the Ramamurti Review Committee.
The major recommendations of that committee are listed below:
1. Common School system: effective measures need to be taken to implement the provision
of NPE in regard to common school system. To this end, disparities between schools
should be ended as early as possible by upgrading the quality of ordinary schools and
providing amenities for achieving minimum levels of learning.
2. Navodaya Vidyalayas:The scheme should continue and a Navodaya Vidyalaya should be
set up in each district as originally envisaged. Further, the following measures are
Constant review to keep the scheme as cost effective as possible.
Ensuring the continued validity and reliability of the admission tests by periodic
evaluation and appropriate modification of admission procedures, and
More particular attention to the pace-setting role of these institutions.
3. ECCE: the scope of Article 45 of the constitution need not be enlarged. The Anganawadi
workers should play an expanded role for a number of activities and support services for
women and children, such as child care, family welfare, nutrition and health.
4. Universalisation of elementary Education: what is needed is not so much a constitutional
amendment as suggested by Ramamurti Committee as a manifestation of a national will
to achieve UEE. Operation Black board, being one of the priorities strategies for UEE,
should continue during the vii plan, in an expanded and extended form.
5. Adult and continuing education: the dual track approach of promoting simultaneously
UEE and adult literacy should continue in educational planning. Programmes of post-
literacy and continuing education should be planned for neo-literates.
6. Secondary Education: it would be necessary to bring about a planned expansion of
secondary education facilities all over the country to cope with new demands for
secondary education. Open learning should be given utmost encouragement.
7. Vocationalisation of Education: the existing vocational stream at the +2 level may be
suitably strengthened and, wherever possible, the vocational courses may be started from
class ix also. The idea of core vocational course is attractive. The work experience
programme should have practical orientation in relation to various subjects.
8. Management of Education: the idea of educational complex may be tried on an
experimental basis in selected areas. The District Board of Education should be set up and
operationalised expeditiously. Constitution of specialized stale level education Tribunal is
desirable. Making the system work has to be treated as non negotiable. Formulation
and Implementation of an Action Plan to put into practice the strategy outlined in the NPE
is strongly recommended.
9. Resources for Education: the practice of teaching education as a residual sector in the
matter of allocation of resources should be reversed. Need based financing has to be
provided for priority areas like UEE, Adult Literacy and vocationalisation. Higher education
and technical and management education has to be progressively made largely self-
financing by revising the fee structure with appropriate support to the needy students by
way of student loans.
Considering the reports of the two Review Committees, NPE, 1986 was revised in 1992 with an
addition of two paras and modification of 31 paras.