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REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION

By: Rommel K Manwong


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CORRECTION ADMINISTRATION
I. Basic Definition of Terms:
PENOLOGY defined:
- The study of punishment for crime or of criminal offenders. It includes the study of
control and prevention of crime through punishment of criminal offenders.
- The term is derived from the Latin word POEN! which means pain or suffering.
- Penology is otherwise "nown as Penal #cience. It is actually a division of criminology
that deals with prison management and the treatment of offenders$ and concerned itself with the
philosophy and practice of society in its effort to repress criminal activities.
- Penology has stood in the past and$ for the most part$ still stands for the policy of
inflicting punishment on the offender as a conse%uence of his wrongdoing.
Pena Mana!ement:
- &efers to the manner or practice of managing or controlling places of confinement as in
'ails or prisons.
CORRECTION defined:
- (ranch of the )riminal *ustice #ystem concerned with the custody$ supervision and
reha(ilitation of criminal offenders.
- It is that field of criminal 'ustice administration which utili+es the (ody of "nowledge and
practices of the government and the society in general involving the processes of handling
individuals who have (een convicted of offenses for purposes of crime prevention and control.
- It is the study of 'ail,prison management and administration as well as the reha(ilitation
and reformation of criminals.
- It is a generic term that includes all government agencies$ facilities$ programs$
procedures$ personnel$ and techni%ues concerned with the investigation$ inta"e$ custody$
confinement$ supervision$ or treatment of alleged offenders.
Correction as a Process:
- &efers to the reorientation of the criminal offender to prevent him or her from repeating
his deviant or delin%uent actions with out the necessity of ta"ing punitive actions (ut rather the
introduction of individual measures of reformation.
Correctiona Administration:
- The study and practice of a systematic management of 'ails or prisons and other
institutions concerned with the custody$ treatment$ and reha(ilitation of criminal offenders.
II. Correction and t"e Crimina #$stice S%stem

The )riminal *ustice #ystem is the machinery of any government in the control and
prevention of crimes and criminality. It is composed of the pillars of 'ustice such as- the Law
Enforcement Pillar .Police/$ the Prosecution Pillar$ the )ourt Pillar$ the )orrection Pillar$ and the
)ommunity Pillar.
)orrection as one of the pillars of )riminal *ustice #ystem is considered as the wea"est
pillar. This is (ecause of its failure to deter individuals in committing crimes as well as the
reformation of inmates. This is evident in the increasing num(er of inmates in 'ails or prisons.
0ence$ the need of prison management is necessary to reha(ilitate inmates and transform them
to (ecome law-a(iding citi+ens after their release.
)orrection is the fourth pillar of the criminal 'ustice system. This pillar ta"es over once the
accused$ after having (een found guilty$ is meted out the penalty for the crime he committed. 0e
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REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
By: Rommel K Manwong
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can apply for pro(ation or he could (e turned over to a non-institutional or institutional agency or
facility
for custodial treatment and reha(ilitation. The offender could avail of the (enefits of parole or
e1ecutive clemency once he has served the minimum period of his sentence.
2hen the penalty is imprisonment$ the sentence is carried out either in the municipal$
provincial or national penitentiary depending on the length of the sentence meted out.
III. &istorica Pers'ecti(e on Corrections
Im'ortant Dates and E(ents in t"e &istor% of Corrections:
)*
t"
Cent$r% + Sec$rin! Sanct$ar%
In the 34
th
)$ a criminal could avoid punishment (y claiming refugee in a church for a
period of 56 days at the end of which time he has compelled to leave the realm (y a road or path
assigned to him.
),-. /En!and0 7 Torture as a form of punishment (ecame prevalent.
)-t" Cent$r% 7 Transportation of criminals in England$ was authori+ed. t the end of the 38
th
)$
&ussia and other European )ountries followed this system. It partially relieved overcrowding of
prisons. Transportation was a(andoned in 394:.
)1
t"
C to ate ).
t"
C 7 ;eath Penalty (ecame prevalent as a form of punishment.
Reasons 2"% Deat" Penat% 3ecame t"e $s$a
P$nis"ment d$rin! t"is 'eriod and t"ereafter:
3. ;eath of outlaws (ecame a protection for the English people!. It is (ecause the
people during this period did not totally (elieve yet in the a(ility to a strong police force to com(at
criminals.
<. People lac" confidence in the transportation of criminals. =aols and =alleys (ecame
center of corruption and ineffective instruments of punishment.
4. ;octrine of )rude Intimidation appeared or seemed to (e a logical form of threat in
order to deter or prevent the people from violating the law.
5. The assumption was that$ the &uling )lass is tas"ed to protect property rights and
maintain pu(lic peace and order. The system of maintaining pu(lic order had little consideration
or it did not recogni+e the social and economic condition of the lower wor"ing class. The
lawma"ers and enforcers used death penalty to cover property loss or damage with out further
contemplating the value of life of other people.
GAOLS - .*ails/ 7 pretrial detention facilities operated (y English #heriff.
Gae%s 7 long$ low$ narrow$ single dec"ed ships propelled (y sails$ usually rowed (y criminals.
type of ship used for transportation of criminals in the 38
th
century.
&$4s 7 decrepit transport$ former warships used to house prisoners in the 39
th
and 3>
th
century.
These were a(andoned warships converted into prisons as means of relieving congestion of
prisoners. They were also called floating hells!.
T"e Primar% Sc"oos of Penoo!%
3. The )lassical #chool 7 it maintains the doctrine of psychological hedonism! or free will!.
That the individual calculates pleasures and pains in advance of action and regulates his conduct
(y the result of his calculations.
<. The Neo-classical #chool 7 it maintained that while the classical doctrine is correct in
general$ it should (e modified in certain details. #ince children and lunatics cannot calculate the
differences of pleasures from pain$ they should not (e regarded as criminals$ hence they should
(e free from punishment.
4. The Positivist,Italian #chool 7 the school that denied individual responsi(ility and reflected
non-punitive reactions to crime and criminality. It adheres that crimes$ as any other act$ is a
&
REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
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natural phenomenon. )riminals are considered as sic" individuals who need to (e treated (y
treatment programs rather than punitive actions against them.
T"e Primiti(e Societ%
In the (eginning of civili+ation$ acts are characteri+ed (y (ehavioral controls categori+ed
as- for(idden acts$ accepted acts$ and those acts that are encouraged.
)rimes$ violence$ re(ellious acts and other acts$ which are e1pressly prohi(ited (y the
society$ fall as for(idden acts. ccepted acts are those that can (e (eneficial to the welfare of the
society such as early traditions and practices$ fol"ways$ norms$ those that are controlled (y social
rules$ and laws.
Encourage acts are anything approved (y the ma'ority which is (elieved to (e (eneficial
to the common good. These things include marrying$ having children$ crop production$ growing
food$ etc
Punishment is re%uired when those who intend to violate the rules do not comply with
these practices.
The comple1 society gradually evolved changing the social rules into a more structured
sanctions to prevent the violations of those rules essential to group survival. These sanctions
have (een codified into written rules or laws. nd the reward for o(eying those laws is simply the
a(ility to function as a respected and productive mem(er of society.
Redress /Com'ensation0 of a 2ron! act
Retaiation .Personal ?engeance/ 7 the earliest remedy for a wrong act to any one .in
the primitive society/. The concept of personal revenge (y the victim@s family or tri(e against the
family or tri(e of the offender$ hence (lood feuds! was accepted in the early primitive societies.
5ines and P$nis"ment 7 )ustoms has e1erted effort and great force among primitive
societies. The acceptance of vengeance in the form of payment .cattle$ food$ personal services$
etc/ (ecame accepted as dictated (y tri(al traditions. s tri(al leaders$ elders and later "ings
came into power$ they (egun to e1ert their authority on the negotiations. 2rongdoers could
choose to stay away from the proceedings .Trial (y ordeal/ (ut if they refuse to a(ide (y the law
imposed$ they will (e declared to (e an outlaw.
Ear% Codes:
0istory has shown that there are three main legal systems in the world$ which have (een
e1tended to and adopted (y all countries aside from those that produced them. In their
chronological order$ they are the &oman$ the Aohammedan or ra(ic and the nglo-merican
Laws. mong the three$ it was &oman law that has the most lasting and most pervading
influence. The &oman private law .2hich include )riminal Law/$ especially has offered the most
ade%uate (asic concepts which sharply define$ in concise and inconsistent terminology$ mature
rules and a complete system$ logical and firm$ tempered with a high sense of e%uity.
.)o%uia$ Principles of &oman Law$ 3>>8/
). Ba3%onian and S$merian Codes
a. Code of 6in! &amm$ra3i /&amm$ra3ic Code0 7 Ba(ylon$ a(out 3>>6 B)$ credited
as the oldest code prescri(ing savage punishment$ (ut in fact$ #umerian codes were nearly one
hundred years older.
7. Roman and Gree4 Codes
a. #$stinian Code7 8
th
) .;. $ Emperor *ustinian of &ome wrote his code of law.
n effort to match a desira(le amount of punishment to all possi(le crimes. 0owever$ the law did
not survive due to the fall of the &oman Empire (ut left a foundation of 2estern legal codes.
'
REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
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C The Twelve Ta(les .DII Ta(ulae/$ .5:3-5:6 B)/ 7 represented the earliest
codification of &oman law incorporated into the *ustinian )ode. It is the foundation of all pu(lic
and private law of the &omans until the time of *ustinian. It is also a collection of legal principles
engraved on metal ta(lets and set up on the forum.
3. Gree4 Code of Draco 7 In =reece$ the )ode of ;raco$ a harsh code that provides the
same punishment for (oth citi+ens and the slaves as it incorporates primitive concepts
.?engeance$ Blood Eeuds/.
C The =ree"s were the first society to allow any citi+en to prosecute the offender in the name of
the in'ured party.
4. T"e B$r!$ndian Code /899 A.D0 7 specified punishment according to the social class of
offenders$ dividing them into- no(les$ middle class and lower class and specifying the value of the
life of each person according to social status.
Ear% Codes /P"ii''ine Settin!0
The Philippines is one of the many countries that cane under the influence of the &oman
Law. 0istory has shown that the &oman Empire reached its greatest e1tent to most of continental
Europe such as #pain$ Portugal$ Erench and all of )entral Europe.
Eventually$ the #panish )ivil )ode (ecame effective in the Philippines on ;ecem(er F$
399>$ the )on%uistadores! and the Godigo Penal!.The &evised Penal )ode today$ 3>46/ was
introduced (y the #paniards promulgated (y the Ging of #pain. Basically$ these laws adopted the
&oman Law principles .)o%uia$ Principles of &oman Law$ 3>>8/.
Aostly tri(al traditions$ customs and practices influenced laws during the Pre-#panish
Philippines. There were also laws that were written which includes-
a. The )ode of Galantiao .promulgated in 3544/ 7 the most e1tensive and severe law that
prescri(es harsh punishment.
( (. The Aaragtas )ode .(y ;atu #uma"wel/
c c. #i"atuna Law

Ear% Prisons:
Mamertine Prison 7 the only early &oman place of confinement which is (uilt under the
main sewer of &ome in 85 B.)
Other places of confinement in the history of confinement include EO&T&E##E#$
)#TLE#$ and TO2N =TE# that were strongly (uilt purposely against roving (ands of raiders.
The most popular wor"house was the B&I;E2ELL 2O&G0OH#E .3::F/ in London
which was (uilt for the employment and housing of English prisoners.
2ulnut #treet *ail 7 originally constructed as a detention 'ail in Philadelphia. It was
converted into a state prison and (ecame the first merican Penitentiary.
Ear% 'risons in t"e P"ii''ines:
;uring the Pre-#panish period$ prison system in the Philippines was tri(al in nature.
?illage chieftains administered it. It was historically traced from the early written laws.
In 395F$ the first Bili(id Prison was constructed and (ecame the central place of
confienment for Eilipino Prisoners (y virtue of the &oyal decree of the #panish crown.
(
REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
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In 3>48$ the )ity of Aanila e1changes its Auntinlupa property with the Bureau of Prisons
originally intended as a site for (oys@ training school. Today$ the old Bili(id Prison is now (eing
used as the Aanila )ity *ail$ famous as the Aay 0ali%ue Estate!.
I:. T&E EMERGENCE O5 SEC;LAR LA<
,
t"
A.D. = #ecular Laws were advocated (y )hristian philosophers who recogni+es the
need for 'ustice. #ome of the proponents these laws were #t. ugustine and #t. Thomas %uinas.
Three Laws were distinguished-
3. E1ternal Law .Le1 E1terna/
<. Natural Law .Le1 Naturalis/
4. 0uman Law .Le1 0umana/
ll these laws are intended for the common good$ (ut the 0uman law only (ecome valid
if it does not conflict with the other two laws.
:. P;NIS&MENT
P$nis"ment:
- It is the redress that the state ta"es against an offending mem(er of society that usually
involve pain and suffering.
- It is also the penalty imposed on an offender for a crime or wrongdoing.
ncient Eorms of Punishment-
3. ;eath Penalty 7 affected (y (urning$ (eheading$ hanging$ (rea"ing at the wheels$
pillory and other forms of medieval e1ecutions.
<. Physical Torture 7 affected (y maiming$ mutilation$ whipping and other inhumane or
(ar(aric forms of inflicting pain.
4. #ocial ;egradation 7 putting the offender into shame or humiliation.
5. Banishment or E1ile 7 the sending or putting away of an offender which was carried
out either (y prohi(ition against coming into a specified territory such as an island to where the
offender has (een removed.
:. Other similar forms of punishment li"e transportation and slavery.
Early Eorms of Prison ;iscipline-
3. 0ard La(or - productive wor"s.
<. ;eprivation 7 deprivation of everything e1cept the (are essentials of e1istence
4. Aonotony 7 giving the same food that is off! diet$ or re%uiring the prisoners to perform
dra( or (oring daily routine.
5. Hniformity 7 we treat the prisoners ali"e!. the fault of one is the fault of all!.
:. Aass Aovement 7 mass living in cell (loc"s$ mass eating$ mass recreation$ mass
(athing.
8. ;egradation 7 uttering insulting words or languages on the part of prison staff to the
prisoners to degrade or (rea" the confidence of prisoners.
F. )orporal Punishment 7 imposing (rutal punishment or employing physical force to
intimidate a delin%uent inmate.
9. Isolation or #olitary )onfinement 7 non-communication$ limited news$ the lone wolf!.
)
REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
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)ontemporary Eorms of Punishment-

3. Imprisonment 7 putting the offender in prison for the purpose of protecting the pu(lic
against criminal activities and at the same time reha(ilitating the prisoners (y re%uiring them to
undergo institutional treatment programs.
<. Parole - a conditional release of a prisoners after serving part of his,her sentence in
prison for the purpose of gradually re-introducing him,her to free life under the guidance and
supervision of a parole officer.
4. Pro(ation 7 a disposition where(y a defendant after conviction of an offense$ the
penalty of which does not e1ceed si1 years imprisonment$ is released su('ect to the conditions
imposed (y the releasing court and under the supervision of a pro(ation officer.
5. Eine 7 an amount given as a compensation for a criminal act.
:. ;estierro 7 the penalty of (anishing a person from the place where he committed a
crime$ prohi(iting him to get near or enter the <:-"ilometer perimeter.
PH&PO#E#,*H#TIEI)TION# OE PHNI#0AENT
3. &etri(ution 7 the punishment should (e provided (y the state whose sanction is
violated$ to afford the society or the individual the opportunity of imposing upon the offender
suita(le punishment as might (e enforced. Offenders should (e punished (ecause they deserve
it.
<. E1piation or tonement 7 it is punishment in the form of group vengeance where the
purpose is to appease the offended pu(lic or group.
4. ;eterrence 7 punishment gives lesson to the offender (y showing to others what would
happen to them if they violate the law. Punishment is imposed to warn potential offenders that
they can not afford to do what the offender has done.
5. Incapacitation and Protection 7 the pu(lic will (e protected if the offender has (eing
held in conditions where he can not harm others especially the pu(lic. Punishment is effected (y
placing offenders in prison so that society will (e ensured from further criminal depredations of
criminals.
:. &eformation or &eha(ilitation 7 it is the esta(lishment of the usefulness and
responsi(ility of the offender. #ociety@s interest can (e (etter served (y helping the prisoner to
(ecome law a(iding citi+en and productive upon his return to the community (y re%uiring him to
undergo intensive program of reha(ilitation in prison.
:I. T&E AGE O5 ENLIG&TENMENT
39
th
)entury is a century of change. It is the period of recogni+ing human dignity. It is the
movement of reformation$ the period of introduction of certain reforms in the correctional field (y
certain person$ gradually changing the old positive philosophy of punishment to a more humane
treatment of prisoners with innovational programs.
T"e Pioneers:
3. 2illiam Penn .3835-3F39/
- 0e fought for religious freedom and individual rights.
- 0e is the first leader to prescri(e imprisonment as correctional treatment for
ma'or offenders.
- 0e is also responsi(le for the a(olition of death penalty and torture as a form of
punishment.

<. )harles Aontesi%uieu .)harles Louis #econdat$ Baron de la Brede et de
Aontesi%uieu/
- .389>- 3F::/ Erench historian and philosopher who analy+ed law as an
e1pression of 'ustice. 0e (elieve that harsh punishment would undermine morality and that
appealing to moral sentiments as a (etter means of preventing crime.
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REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
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4. ?OLTI&E .Erancois Aarie rouet/
- .38>5- 3FF9/ 0e was the most versatile of all philosophers during this period.
0e (elieves that fear of shame was a deterrent to crime. 0e fought the legality-sanctioned
practice of torture.
5. )esare Bonesa$ Aarchese de Beccaria .3F49-3F>5/
- 0e wrote an essay entitled n Essay on )rimes and Punishment!$ the most
e1iting essay on law during this century. It presented the humanistic goal of law.
:. *eremy Bentham .3F59-394</ 7 the greatest leader in the reform of English )riminal
law. 0e (elieves that whatever punishment designed to negate whatever pleasure or gain the
criminal derives from crime$ the crime rate would go down.
- Bentham was the one who devise the ultimate PNOPTI)N P&I#ON 7 a
prison that consists of a large circular (uilding containing multi cells around the periphery. It was
never (uilt.
8. *ohn 0oward .3F<8 7 3F>6/ 7 the sheriff of Bedsfordshire in 3FF4 who devoted his life
and fortune to prison reform. fter his findings on English Prisons$ he recommended the
following- single cells for sleeping - segregation of women - segregation of youth - provision of
sanitation facilities - a(olition of fee system (y which 'ailers o(tained money from prisoners.

The Reformatory Movement:

3. le1ander Aocanochie 7 0e is the #uperintendent of the penal colony at Norfol" Island
in ustralia .3956/ who introduced the Aar" #ystem!. system in which a prisoner is re%uired to
earn a num(er of mar"s (ased on proper department$ la(or and study in order to entitle him for a
tic"et for leave or conditional release which is similar to parole.
<. Aanuel Aontesimos 7 The ;irector of Prisons in ?alencia #pain .394:/ who devided
the num(er of prisoners into companies and appointed certain prisoners as petty officers in
charge$ which allowed good (ehavior to prepare the convict for gradual release.
4. ;omets of Erance 7 esta(lished an agricultural colony for delin%uent (oys in 394>
providing housefathers as in charge of these (oys.
5. #ir Evelyn &uggles Brise 7 The ;irector of the English Prison who opened the Borstal
Institution for young offenders. The Borstal Institution is considered as the (est reform
institution for young offenders today.
:. 2alter )rofton 7 0e is the ;irector of the Irish Prison in 39:5 who introduced the Irish
system that was modified from the Aocanochie@s mar" system.
8. Ie(ulon Broc"way 7 The ;irector of the Elmira &eformatory in New Jor" .39F8/ who
introduced certain innovational programs li"e the following- training school type - compulsory
education of prisoners - casewor" methods - e1tensive use of parole - indeterminate sentence
C The Elmira Reformatory is considered forerunner of modern penology (ecause it had all the
elements of a modern system.
The Two &ival Prison #ystem in the 0istory of )orrection
. The u(urn Prison #ystem 7 the prison system called the )ongregate #ystem!.
- The prisoners are confined in their own cells during the night and congregate
wor" in shops during the day. )omplete silence was enforced.
B. The Pennsylvania Prison #ystem 7 the prisons system called #olitary #ystem!.
- Prisoners are confined in single cells day and night where they lived$ they slept$
they ate and receive religious instructions. )omplete #ilence was also enforced. They are
re%uired to read the Bi(le.
+
REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
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:II. PENALTY and T&E MODERN PERIOD O5 CORRECTION
PENLTJ is defined as the suffering inflicted (y the state against an offending mem(er
for the transgression of law.
*uridical )onditions of Penalty
Punishment must (e-
3. Productive of suffering 7 without however affecting the integrity of the human
personality.
<. )ommensurate with the offense 7 different crimes must (e punished with different
penalties .rt. <:$ &P)/.
4. Personal 7 the guilty one must (e the one to (e punished$ no pro1y.
5. Legal 7 the conse%uence must (e in accordance with the law.
:. E%ual 7 e%ual for all persons.
8. )ertain 7 no one must escape its effects.
F. )orrectional 7 changes the attitude of offenders and (ecome law-a(iding citi+ens.
;uration of Penalties
3. ;eath Penalty 7 )apital punishment
<. &eclusion Perpetua 7 life imprisonment$ a term of <6-56 yrs imprisonment
4. &eclusion Temporal 7 3< yrs and 3 day to <6 years imprisonment
5. Prision Aayor 7 8 yrs and 3 day to 3< years
:. Prision )orrectional 7 8 months and 3 day to 8 years
8. rresto Aayor 7 3 month and 3 day to 8 months
F. rresto Aenor 7 3 day to 46 days
9. Bond to Geep the Peace 7 discretionary on the part of the court.
The modern Period of )orrection
Aodern Penal Aanagement incorporates general principles of treating offenders that are
(ased on humane practices such as the following-
3. *ail or Prison rules shall (e applied impartially without discrimination on ground of
race$ color$ language$ religion or other opinion$ national or social origin$ property$
(irth or other status.
<. The religious (eliefs and moral precepts not contrary to law$ which a prisoner holds$
must (e respected.
4. Prison or *ail rules and regulations shall (e applied with firmness (ut tempered with
understanding.
5. )ustodial force shall$ at all times$ conduct themselves as good e1amples.
:. (usive or indecent language to prisoners shall not (e used.
8. #pecial care towards inmates shall (e practiced preventing humiliation or degradation.
F. No use of force must (e made (y any of the custodial force$ e1cept in self-defense or
attempt to escape or in case of passive physical resistance to a lawful order.
9. )ustodial force shall (ear in mind that prisoners are sic" people who need treatment.
,
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T&E P&ILIPPINE PRISON SYSTEM
I. B$rea$ of Corrections
Bureau of Prisons was renamed Bureau of )orrections under E1ecutive Order <><
passed during the %uino dministration. It states that the head of the Bureau of )orrections is
the ;irector of Prisons who is appointed (y the President of the Philippines with the confirmation
of the )ommission of ppointments.
The Bureau of )orrections has general supervision and control of all national prisons or
penitentiaries. It is charged with the safe"eeping of all Insular Prisoners confined therein or
committed to the custody of the Bureau.
)overage of the Bureau of )orrections
a. National Bili(id Prisons .Auntinlupa$ &i+al/
- New Bili(id Prisons .Aain Building/
- )amp #ampaguita
- )amp Bu"ang Liwayway
(. &eception and ;iagnostic )enter .&;)/
c. )orrectional Institution for 2omen .Aandaluyong/
d. The Penal )olonies-
- #a(layan Penal )olony and Earm .Occ. Aindoro/
- Iwahig Penal )olony and Earm .Palawan/
- ;avao Penal )olony and Earm .)entral ;avao/
- #an &amon Penal )olony and Earm .Iam(oanga/
- Ilo-Ilo Penal )olony and Earm .Ilo-Ilo Province/
- Leyte &egional Prison .(uyog Leyte/
PRISON Defined:
= penitentiary$ an institution for the imprisonment .incarceration/ of persons convicted of
ma'or, serious crimes.
- (uilding$ usually with cells$ or other places esta(lished for the purpose of ta"ing safe
custody or confinement of criminals.
= place of confinement for those for those charged with or convicted of offenses against
the laws of the land.
<&O IS A PRISONER>
- prisoner is a person who is under the custody of lawful authority. person$ who (y
reason of his criminal sentence or (y a decision issued (y a court$ may (e deprived of his li(erty
or freedom.
- prisoner is any person detained,confined in 'ail or prison for the commission of a
criminal offense or convicted and serving in a penal institution.
- person committed to 'ail or prison (y a competent authority for any of the following
reasons- To serve a sentence after conviction 7 Trial 7 Investigation 7
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Genera Cassification of Prisoners
3. ;etention Prisoners 7 those detained for investigation$ preliminary hearing$ or awaiting
trial. detainee in a loc" up 'ail. They are prisoners under the 'urisdiction of )ourts.
<. #entenced Prisoners 7 offenders who are committed to the 'ail or prison in order to
serve their sentence after final conviction (y a competent court. They are prisoners under the
'urisdiction of penal institutions.
4. Prisoners who are on #afe"eeping 7 includes non-criminal offenders who are detained
in order to protect the community against their harmful (ehavior. E1. Aentally deranged
individuals$ insane person.
Cassification of Sentenced Prisoners:
3. Insular or National Prisoners
- Those sentenced to suffer a term of sentence of 4 years and 3 day to life
imprisonment.
- Those sentenced to suffer a term of imprisonment cited a(ove (ut appealed the
'udgement and una(le to file a (ond for their temporary li(erty.
<. Provincial Prisoners
- Those persons sentenced to suffer a term of imprisonment from 8 months and 3
day to 4 years or a fine not more than 3$666 pesos$ or (othK or
- Those detained therein waiting for preliminay investigation of their cases
cogni+a(le (y the &T).
4. )ity Prisoners
- Those sentenced to suffer a term of imprisonment from 3 day to 4 years or a
fine of not more than 3$666 pesos or (oth.
- Those detained therein whose cases are filed with the AT).
- Those detained therein whose cases are cogni+a(le (y the &T) and under
Preliminary Investigation.
5. Aunicipal Prisoners
- Those confined in Aunicipal 'ails to serve an imprisonment from 3 day to 8
months.
- Those detained therein whose trials of their cases are pending with the AT).
Cassification of Prisoners Accordin! to De!ree of Sec$rit%:
3. #uper Aa1imum #ecurity Prisoners
- special group of prisoners composed of incorrigi(le$ intracta(le$ and highly
dangerous persons who are the source of constant distur(ances even in a ma1imum security
prison.
- They wear orange color of uniform.
<. Aa1imum #ecurity Prisoners
- The group of prisoners whose escape could (e dangerous to the pu(lic or to
the security of the state.
- It consist of constant trou(lema"ers (ut not as dangerous as the super
ma1imum-security prisoners. Their movements are restricted and they are not allowed to wor"
outside the institution (ut rather assigned to industrial shops with in the prison compound.
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REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
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- They are confined at the Aa1imum #ecurity Prison .NBP Aain Building/$ they
wear orange color of uniform.
- Prisoners includes those sentenced to serve sentence <6 years or more$ or
those whose sentenced are under the review of the #upreme )ourt$ and offenders who are
criminally insane having severe personality or emotional disorders that ma"e them dangerous to
fellow offenders or staff mem(ers.
4. Aedium #ecurity Prisoners
- Those who can not (e trusted in open conditions and pose lesser danger than
ma1imum-security prisoners in case they escape.
- It consist of groups of prisoners who may(e allowed to wor" outside the fence
or walls of the penal institution under guards or with escorts.
- They occupy the Aedium #ecurity Prison .)amp #ampaguita/ and they wear
(lue color of uniforms. =enerally$ they are employed as agricultural wor"ers.
- It includes prisoners whose minimum sentence is less than <6 years and life-
sentenced prisoners who served at least 36 years inside a ma1imum security prison.
5. Ainimum #ecurity Prisoners
- group of prisoners who can (e reasona(ly trusted to serve sentence under
open conditions!.
- This group includes prisoners who can (e trusted to report to their wor"
assignments without the presence of guards.
- They occupy the Ainimum #ecurity Prison .)amp Bu"ang Liwayway/ and wear
(rown color uniforms.
<&AT IS A #AIL>
*IL 7 is a place for loc"ing-up of persons who are convicted of minor offenses or
felonies who are to serve a short sentences imposed upon them (y a competent court$ or for
confinement of persons who are awaiting trial or investigation of their cases.
Types of *ails-
3. Loc"-up *ails 7 is a security facility$ common to police stations$ used for temporary
confinement of an individual held for investigation.
<. Ordinary *ails 7 is the type of 'ail commonly used to detain a convicted criminal
offender to serve sentence less than three years.
4. 2or"houses$ *ail Earms or )amp 7 a facility that houses minimum custody offenders
who are serving short sentences or those who are undergoing constructive wor" programs. It
provides full employment of prisoners$ remedial services and constructive leisure time activities.
II. Pro(incia #ais
Provincial *ails in the Philippines are not under the 'urisdiction of the Bureau of
)orrections. They are managed and controlled (y the provincial government.
III. B$rea$ of #ai Mana!ement and Penoo!% /B#MP0
The B*AP e1ercises supervision and control over all cities and municipal 'ails throughout
the country. The enactment of &epu(lic ct no. 8>F: created the B*AP. It operates as a line
(ureau under the ;epartment of the Interior and Local =overnment .;IL=/.
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REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
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Mission of t"e B#MP: The *ail Bureau shall direct$ supervise and control the
administration and operation of all district$ city and municipal 'ails to effect a (etter system of 'ail
Aanagement nationwide.
O3?ecti(es of t"e B#MP -
3. To improve the living conditions of the offenders in accordance with the accepted
standards set (y the Hnited Nations.
<. To enhance reha(ilitation and reformation of offenders in preparation for their eventual
reintegration into the mainstream of society upon their release.
4. To professionali+e 'ail services.
Princi'es of t"e B#MP:
3. It is the o(ligation of 'ail authorities to confine offenders safely and provide
reha(ilitative programs that will negate criminal tendencies and restore their positive values to
ma"e them productive and law a(iding citi+ens.
<. No procedure or system of correction shall deprive any offender of hope for his
ultimate return to the fold of the law and full mem(ership in society.
4. Hnless provided otherwise$ any person accused of a criminal offense shall (e
presumed innocent and his rights$ as a free citi+en shall (e respected$ e1cept for such
indispensa(le restraints during his confinement in the interest of 'ustice and pu(lic safety.
5. Offenders are human (eings entitled to the same (asic rights and privileges en'oyed
(y citi+ens in a free society$ e1cept that the e1ercise of these rights are limited or controlled for
security reasons.
:. 0ealth preservation and prompt treatment of illness or in'ury is a (asic right of every
person confined in 'ail and it is the duty of 'ail facilities to arrange for their treatment su('ect to
security measures.
8. Aem(ers of the custodial force shall set themselves as e1amples (y performing their
duties in accordance with the rules and respect the laws duly constituted (y authorities.
F. No 'ail personnel shall (e a(usive$ insulting$ indecent languages on the offenders.
9. No 'ail personnel shall use unnecessary force on offenders e1cept for legitimate self-
defense or in cases of attempted active and passive physical resistance to a lawful order.
>. No penalty shall (e imposed upon any offender for violation of rules,regulations unless
in accordance with duly approved disciplinary procedures.
36. Penalties to (e imposed shall not (e cruel$ inhuman$ or degrading$ and no physical
punishment shall (e employed as a correctional measure.
33. Aem(ers of the custodial force must understand that offenders need treatment and
counseling and the primary purpose of confinement is for safe"eeping and reha(ilitation.
3<. 2hen conducting routinary custodial guarding$ the ratio of 3-F$ or one guard for every
F offenders shall (e o(served.
34. 2hen the offender is in transit$ the ratio of 3-3L3 for every offender shall (e o(served.
In case of high-ris" offender that demands e1tra precaution additional guards shall (e employed.
This manning level shall (e national in scope for effective 'ail administration.
Po2ers@ 5$nctions and Or!aniAation of t"e B#MP
A. Po2ers:
The Bureau shall e1ercise supervision and control over all districts$ city and municipal
'ails to ensure a secured$ clean$ sanitary and ade%uately e%uipped 'ail for the custody and
safe"eeping of city and municipal prisoners$ any fugitive from 'ustice or persons detained awaiting
investigation or trial and,or transfer to the National Penitentiary$ and any violent$ mentally ill
person who endangers himself or the safety of others.
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REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
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B. 5$nctions:
Inline with its mission$ the Bureau endeavors to perform the following-
3. Eormulate policies and guidelines on the administration of all districts$ city and
municipal 'ails nationwideK
<. Eormulate and implement policies for the programs of correction$ reha(ilitation and
treatment of offendersK
4. Plan the program funds for the su(sistence allowance of offendersK
5. )onduct researches$ develop and implement plans and programs for the improvement
of 'ail services throughout the country.
C. Or!aniAation and 6e% Positions in t"e B#MP:
The B*AP$ also referred to as the *ail Bureau$ was created pursuant to #ection 86$ &..
no. 8>F:$ and initially consisting of uniformed officers and mem(ers of the *ail management and
Penology service as constituted under P.;. no. F8:.
The Bureau shall (e headed (y a chief with the ran" of ;irector$ and assisted (y a
;eputy )hief with the &an" of )hief #uperintendent.
The )entral Office is the )ommand and #taff 0M of the *ail Bureau composed of 4
)ommand =roups$ 8 )oordinating #taff ;ivisions$ 8 #pecial #taff =roups and 8 Personal #taff
=roups namely-
3. )ommand =roup
- )hief$ B*AP
- ;eputy ),B*AP
- )hief of #taff
<. )oordinating #taff =roups
- dministrative ;ivision
- Operations ;ivision
- Logistics ;ivision
- Einance Aanagement ;ivision
- &esearch Plans and Programs ;ivision
- Inspection and Investigation ;ivision
4. #pecial #taff =roups
- =eneral #ervices Hnit
- 0ealth #ervices Hnit
- )haplain #ervices Hnit
- )ommunity #ervices Hnit
- Einance #ervices Hnit
- 0earing Office
5. Personal #taff =roups
- ide-de-)amp
- Intelligence Office
- Pu(lic Information Office
- Legal Office
- d'udication Office
- Internal udit
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&egional Office-
t the &egional Level$ each &egion shall have a designated ssistant regional
;irector for *ail management and Penology.
Provincial Level-
In the Provincial Level$ there shall (e designated a Provincial *ail dministrator
to perform the same functions as the &;s province wide.
;istrict Office-
In the ;istrict Level$ where there are large cities and municipalities$ a district 'ail
with su(ordinate 'ails$ headed (y a ;istrict warden may (e esta(lished as necessary.
)ity and Aunicipal Office-
In the )ity and Aunicipal level$ a city or municipal 2arden shall head each 'ail.
Ran4 Cassification of t"e B#MP:
&NG PO#ITION,TITLE PPOINTIN= HT0O&ITJ
;irector )hief of the B*AP #ecretary of ;IL=
), #upt. ;eputy ),B*AP same
#n. #upt. sst. &egional ;ir. same
#upt. sst. &egional ;ir. same
)hief Insp. 2arden Hnder #ecretary
#n. Insp. 2arden same
Inspector 2arden same
#*O 5 to *ail =uards )hief of the B*AP
*O3
D$ties and Res'onsi3iities:
. 2&;EN
- ;irection$ )oordination$ and )ontrol of the *ail
- &esponsi(le for the-
C #ecurity$ safety$ discipline and well (eing of inmates
- The office of the warden may organi+e the following units-
3. Intelligence and Investigation Team
7 It gathers$ collates and su(mits intelligence information to the office of the
warden on matter regarding the 'ail condition.
<. *ail Inspectorate #ection
- Inspect 'ail facilities$ personnel$ prisoners and su(mit reports to the warden.
4. Pu(lic &elation Office
- Aaintain pu(lic relation to o(tain the necessary and ade%uate pu(lic
support.
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B. ##I#TN)E 2&;EN
- The office of the ssistant 2arden underta"es the development of a systematic process
of treatment.
- )hairman of the )lassification Board and ;isciplinary Board.
). ;AINI#T&TI?E =&OHP#
The administrative groups ta"e charge of all administrative functions of the 'ail (ureau.
3. Personnel Aanagement Branch
- ssignment of personnel
- Procedures of selection
- Preparation of personnel reports
- Individual record file
<. &ecords and #tatistics Branch
- Geep and maintain (oo"ing sheets and arrest reports
- Geep an orderly record of fingerprints and photographs
- Present, Prepare statistical data of inmates
4. Property and #upply Branch
- Ta"e charge of the safe"eeping of e%uipments and supplies
and materials needed for the operation of the 'ail.
5. Budget and Einance Branch
- Ta"e charge of all financial matters such as (udgeting$ financing$ accounting$
and auditing.
:. Aess #ervice Branch
- Ta"e charge of the preparation of the daily menu$ prepares and coo" the food
and serve it to inmates.
8. =eneral #ervice Branch
- &esponsi(le for the maintenance and repair of 'ail facilities and e%uipments. It is
also tas" with the cleanliness and (eautification of the 'ail compound.
F. Aittimus )omputing Branch
- Tas"ed to receive court decisions and compute the date of the
full completion of the service of sentence of inmates.
Aittimus 7 is a warrant issued (y a court directing the 'ail
or prison authorities to receive the convicted
offender for the service of sentence imposed
therein or for detention.
;. #E)H&ITJ =&OHP#-
- The security groups provides a system of sound custody$ security and control of
inmates and their movements and also responsi(le to enforce prison or 'ail discipline.
3. Escort Platoon
a/ Escort #ection 7 to escort inmate upon order of any 'udicial
(odyK upon summon of a courtK or transfer to other penal
institutions.
(/ #u(poena #ection 7 receives and distri(ute court summons$
notices$ su(poenas$ etc.
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<. #ecurity Platoon 7 a three .4/ wor"ing platoon shifts responsi(le for over all security of
the 'ail compound including gates$ guard posts and towers. They are also responsi(le for the
admitting and releasing unit.
E. &E0BILITTION PH&PO#E# =&OHP#-
- This group provides services and assistance to prisoners and their families to ena(le
them to solve their individual needs and pro(lems arising from the prisoners@ confinement.
3. Aedical and 0ealth #ervices Branch
- Provides medical and physical e1aminations of inmates upon confinement$
treatment of sic" inmates and conduct medical and physical e1aminations and provide medicines
or recommends for the hospitali+ation of seriously ill prisoners or inmates. It also conducts
psychiatric and psychological e1aminations.
<. 2or" and Education Therapy #ervices
- It ta"e charge of the 'o( and educational programs needed for reha(ilitation of
inmates (y providing them 'o( incentives so they can earn and provide support for their families
while in 'ail.
4. #ocio- )ultural #ervices
- It ta"es care of the social case wor" study of the individual prisoners (y ma"ing
interviews$ home visits$ referral to community resources$ free legal services$ and liaison wor"s for
the inmates.
5. )haplaincy #ervices
- It ta"es charge of the religious and moral upliftment of the inmates through
religious services. This (ranch caters to all religious sects.
:. =uidance and )ounseling #ervices
- &esponsi(le for the individual and group counseling activities to help inmates
solve their individual pro(lems and to help them lead a wholesome and constructive life.
T&E RECEPTION AND DIAGNOSTIC CENTER /RDC0
This is a special unit of prison .)amp #ampaguita/ where new prisoners undergo
diagnostic e1amination$ study and o(servation for the purpose of determining the programs of
treatment and training (est suited to their needs and the institution to which they should (e
transferred.
It is composed of the following staff mem(ers-
3. The Psychiatrist 7 responsi(le in the e1amination of the prisoner@s mental and emotional
ma"e-up.
<. The Psychologist 7 responsi(le to conduct study on the character and (ehavior of the
prisoners.
4. The #ociologist 7 study the social case situation of the individual prisoner.
5. The Educational )ounselor 7 conducts orientation classes in order to change inmates@
attitude towards education and recommends educational program for the prisoner.
:. The ?ocational )ounselor 7 to test the prisoner@s special a(ilities$ interest and s"ills and
recommends for the vocational course (est suited to the prisoner.
8. The )haplain 7 encourage the prisoner to participate in religious activities.
F. The Aedical Officer 7 conducts physical e1amination and recommends medical treatment of
prisoners.
9. )ustodial-)orrectional Officer 7 recommends the transfer and type of custody of inmates.
T&E B;ARANTINE CELL OR ;NIT
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This may (e a unit of the prison or a section of the &;) where the prisoner is given
thorough physical e1amination including (lood test$ 1-rays$ vaccinations and immunity. This is for
the purpose of insuring that the prisoner is not suffering from any contagious disease$ which
might (e transferred to the prison population.
ADMISSION PROCED;RES IN PRISON
3. &E)EI?IN= 7 the new prisoner is received at the &;). The new prisoner usually
comes from a provincial or city 'ail where he was immediately committed upon conviction (y the
court$ and escorted (y the escort platoon during his transfer to the National Prison.
<. )0E)GIN= OE )OAAITAENT PPE&# 7 the receiving officer chec"s the
commitment papers if they are in order. That is$ if they contain the signature of the 'udge or the
signature of the cler" of court$ and the seal of the court.
4. I;ENTIEI)TION 7 the prisoner@s identity is esta(lished through the picture and
fingerprint appearing in the commitment order. This is to insure that the person (eing committed
is the same as the person (eing named in the commitment order.
5. #E&)0IN= 7 this step involves the fris"ing of the prisoner and searching his
personal things. 2eapons and other items classified as contra(and are confiscated and
deposited to the property custodian. Other properties are deposited with the trust fund officer
under recording and receipts.
:. B&IEEIN= N; O&IENTTION 7 the prisoner will (e (rief and oriented on the rules
and regulations of the prison (efore he will (e assigned to the &;) or the %uarantine unit.
T&E TREATMNENT PROGRAMS
A. T"e Instit$tionaiAed Treatment Pro!rams
). Prison Ed$cation 7 the cornerstone of reha(ilitation. It is the process or result of
formal training in school or classrooms intended to shape the mind and attitude of prisoners
towards good living upon their release.
7. <or4 Pro!rams + these are programs conducive to change (ehavior in morale (y
training prisoners for a useful occupation. It is purposely to eliminate idleness on the part of
prisoners$ which may contri(ute to Prison stupor!$ and it affects the incidence of Prison riot.
*. Rei!io$s Ser(ices in Prison = The purpose of this program is to change the attitudes
of inmates (y inculcating religious values or (elief.
,. Recreationa Pro!rams - The only program that is conducted during free time
schedule.
:. Medica and &eat" Ser(ices = Aedical and health services includes- Aental and
physical e1amination - ;iagnosis and treatment 7 Immuni+ation 7 #anitary -
inspections - Participation in training
-. Co$nsein! and Case2or4
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B. Comm$nit%=Based Treatment Pro!rams
5orms of Comm$nit%=Based Pro!rams
). PROBATION 7 It is a disposition where(y a defendant$ after conviction of an offense$ the
penalty of which does not e1ceed 8 years of imprisonment$ is released su('ect to the conditions
imposed (y the releasing court and under the supervision of a pro(ation officer.
Pro(ation is a su(stitute for imprisonment$ the pro(ationer is compared to an out-patient$
a sic" person who does not need to (e hospitali+ed (ecause his illness is considered less
serious.
Presidential ;ecree >89 otherwise "nown as the Philippine Pro(ation Law! approved
and too" effect on *uly <5$ 3>F8. #ection 39$ P; >89 as amended states the creation of
Pro(ation dministration under the ;O*$ which shall e1ercises general supervision over all
pro(ationers.
7. PAROLE
Parole is the process of suspending the sentence of a convict after having served the
minimum of his sentence without granting him pardon$ and prescri(ing the terms upon which the
sentence shall (e suspended. .)irilo Tradio/.
It is a decision (y an authority constituted accordingly (y statute to determine the portion
of the sentence$ which the inmate can complete outside of the institution. It is the status of
serving the remainder of the sentence of a convict in the community in accordance with the rules
and regulations set-up (y the Board of Parole. .)orrectional and Parole dministration/.
C Parole is not a reward per se for good (ehavior (ut rather$ it is a follow-up of his institutional
program.
C Parole is not claimed as a right (ut it is granted (y the Board as a privilege to a %ualified
prisoner.
The Board of Pardons and Parole .BPP/
%uasi-'udicial (ody which was created under ct no. 5364 otherwise "nown as the
Indeterminate #entence Law or the Parole Law$ the agency that grants parole to any prisoner
who is %ualified to en'oy its (enefit.
It employs the service of Parole Officers in providing supervision and guidance to
parolees.
2ho are dis%ualified for ParoleN
3. Those prisoners who are sentenced with capital punishment or life imprisonment$
<. Those who are convicted of treason$ conspiracy or proposal to commit treason$
misprision of treason$ re(ellion$ sedition or piracy$
4. 0a(itual Offenders$
5. Those who escaped from confinement or evaded sentence$
:. Those who have (een granted with conditional pardon (ut violated the terms and
conditions thereof$ and
8. Those prisoners who are serving a ma1imum term of imprisonment not e1ceeding one
year.
*. CONDITIONAL PARDON
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)onditional pardon serves the purpose of releasing$ through e1ecutive clemency$ a
prisoner who is already reformed or reha(ilitated (ut who can not (e paroled (ecause the parole
law does not apply to him.
Distinction of Paroe from Pro3ation
Paroe: Pro3ation:
3. n administrative function e1ercised 3. It is a 'udicial function
(y the e1ecutive (ranch of government
<. =ranted to a prisoner only after he <. =ranted to an offender
has served minimum of his sentenced. Immediately after conviction in prison

4. It is an e1tension of institutional 4. It is a su(stitute for
treatment program. imprisonment.
5. It is granted (y the BPP 5. It is granted (y the court
:. Parolee is supervised :. Pro(ationer is supervised
(y a Parole Officer (y a Pro(ation Officer.
5orms of ECec$ti(e Cemencies
Comm$tation 7 an act of the president changing, reducing a heavier sentence to a lighter one or
a longer term into a shorter term. It may alter death sentence to life sentence or life sentence to a
term of years. It does not forgive the offender (ut merely to reduce the penalty pronounced (y the
court.
Re'rie(e 7 a temporary stay of the e1ecution of sentence especially the e1ecution of the ;eath
#entence. =enerally$ reprieve is e1tended to prisoners sentenced to death. The date of e1ecution
of sentenced is set (ac" several days to ena(le the )hief to study the petition of the condemned
man for commutation of sentenced or pardon.
Pardon 7 an act of grace e1tended to prisoners as a matter of right$ vested to the )hief E1ecutive
.The President/ as a matter of power.
Two Ginds of Pardon
a. )onditional Pardon 7 a pardon given with re%uirements attached.
(. (solute Pardon 7 a pardon given without any condition attached.
)an the Offended Party grant PardonN
- Jes$ the offended party can grants pardon.
Distinction of t"e 'ardon 3% t"e Offended Part%
And Pardon Granted 3% t"e President
3. Pardon granted (y the )hief E1ecutive e1tinguishes the criminal lia(ility of the offender$ (ut not
in the pardon granted (y the offended party.
<. Pardon granted (y the )hief E1ecutive does not include civil lia(ility$ which the offender must
pay$ while pardon granted (y the offended party can waive the civil lia(ility$ which the offender
must pay.
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4. Pardon granted (y the offended party should (e given (efore the prosecution of the criminal
action$ whereas pardon (y the )hief E1ecutive may (e e1tended to any of the offenders after
conviction.
Distinction 3et2een Amnest% and Pardon
Pardon 7 includes any crime and is e1ercised individually (y the President. It is e1ercised when
the person is already convicted. It loo"s forward and forgives the offender from the conse%uences
of an offense of which he has (een convicted$ that is it a(olishes or forgives the punishment.
Amnest% + a general pardon e1tended to a class of persons or community who may (e guilty of
political offenses. It may (e e1ercised even (efore trial or investigation. It loo"s (ac"ward and
puts into o(livion the crime that has (een committed. It is proclamated (y the President with the
concurrence of congress.
INSTIT;TIONAL C;STODY@ SEC;RITY AND CONTROL
I. Di(ersification: Conce't and Im'ortance
;iversification is an administrative device of correctional institutions of providing varied
and fle1i(le types of physical plants for the more effective custody$ security and control of the
treatment programs of its diversified population.
II. T"e Cassification Process
Cassification is a method (y which diagnosis$ treatment planning and e1ecution of the
treatment programs are coordinated in the individual case study. It is a process of determining the
needs and re%uirement of prisoners for assigning them to programs according to their needs and
e1isting resources.
III. PRISON Sec$rit%@ C$stod% and Contro
Sec$rit% + It involves safety measures to maintain the orderliness and discipline with in the 'ail or
prison.
Prison Disci'ine + is the state of good order and (ehavior. It includes maintenance of
good standards of wor"s$ sanitation$ safety$ education$ health and recreation. It aims at self-
reliance$ self control$ self respect and self discipline.
Pre(enti(e Disci'ine + is the prompt correction of minor deviations committed (y
prisoners (efore they (ecome serious violations.
Contro + It involves supervision of prisoners to ensure punctual and orderly movement from one
place wor" program or assignment to another.

C$stod% 7 is the guarding or penal safe"eeping$ it involves security measures to insure security
and control with in the prison. The Prison )ustodial ;ivision carries it out.
PENAL PRO:ISIONS ON CORRECTION
I. P"ii''ine Correctiona P"ioso'"ies and t"eir Le!a Basis
. The Philippine )onstitution of 3>>F
3. The state values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for
human rights. .#ec 33$ rt. II/
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<. No person shall (e detained solely (y reason of his political (eliefs and aspirations.
.#ec 39 .3/$ rt. III/
4. No involuntary servitude in any form shall e1ist e1cept as a punishment for a crime
whereof the party shall have (een fully convicted. .#ec. 39 .</$ I(id./
5. E1cessive fines shall not (e imposed$ nor cruel$ degrading or inhuman punishment
inflicted. 1 1 1 .#ec. 3> .</. I(id./
:. The employment of physical$ psychological$ or degrading punishment against any
prisoner or the use of su(standard or inade%uate penal facilities under su(human conditions shall
(e dealt (y law.
.#ec.3> .</$ I(id./
B. The &evised Penal )ode
No felony shall (e punisha(le (y any penalty not prescri(ed (y law prior to its
commission!. .rt. <3$ &P)/
). The Philippine Pro(ation Law .P.;. No. >89/
1 1 1 one of the ma'or goals of the government is to esta(lished a more enlightened and
humane correctional system that will promote the reformation of offenders and there(y reduce the
incidence of recidivism.
1 1 1 the confinement of all offenders in prisons and other institutions with reha(ilitation
programs constitutes an onerous drain on the financial resources of the country.
1 1 1 there is a need to provide a less costly alternative to the imprisonment of the
offenders who are li"ely to respond to individuali+ed$ community-(ased treatment programs.
;. &ules for the Treatment of Prisoners .;O*$ *an F$ 3>:>/
3. The purpose of committing a prisoner to prison is two-fold-
a. To segregate from society a person who (y his acts has proven himself a
danger to the free communityK
(. To strive at the correction or reha(ilitation of the prisoner with the hope that
upon his return to society he shall (e a(le to lead a normal well ad'usted and self supporting life
as a good and law a(iding citi+en.
<. There is no man who is all (ad and there is something good in all men. .rt. I/
II. Pena Pro(isions
;elay in the ;elivery of ;etained Persons to the Proper *udicial uthorities.
.rt 3<:$ &P)/$ felony committed (y a pu(lic officer or employee who shall detain any
person for some legal ground and shall fail to deliver such person to the proper 'udicial authorities
with in the period of-
3< hours 7 for crimes or offenses punisha(le (y light penalties$
39 hours 7 for crimes or offenses punisha(le (y correctional penalties$
48 hours 7 for crimes or offenses punisha(le (y afflictive or capital penalties.
The crime of r(itrary ;etention is committed when the detention of a person is without
legal ground.
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REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
By: Rommel K Manwong
Downloadable file a www!"#mfile$!ne
The legal ground of detention are - a/ commission of a crime and (/ violent insanity or
other ailment re%uiring compulsory re%uirement.
;elaying &elease
This is committed (y a pu(lic officer or employee who delays for the period of
time specified in rt 3<:$ the performance of any 'udicial or e1ecutive order for the release of a
prisoner or unduly delays the services of the notice of such order to said prisoner.
;elivery of Prisoners from *ail .rt. 3:8$ &P)/
Elements-
a/ The offender is a private individual$
(/ 0e removes a person confined in 'ail or a penal institution or helps in
the escape of such person$
c/ The means employed are violence$ intimidation$ (ri(ery or any other
means.
The prisoner may(e a detention or sentenced prisoner and the offender is an outsider to
the 'ail. If the offender is a pu(lic officer or a private person who has the custody of the prisoner
and who helps a prisoner under his custody to escape$ the felony is )onniving with or )onsenting
to Evasion .rt. <<4/ and Escape of a Prisoner under the custody of a person not a pu(lic officer
.rt. <<:/ respectively.
This offense li"e other offenses of similar nature may (e committed through imprudence
or negligence.
Evasion of #ervice of #entence .rt 3:F-3:>$ &P)/
3. Evasion of #ervice under rt 3:F$ &P)
Elements-
a/ Offender is a prisoner serving sentence involving deprivation of li(erty
(y reason of final 'udgement.
(/ 0e evades the service of his sentence during the term of his
imprisonment.
This felony is %ualified when the evasion ta"es place (y (rea"ing doors$ windows$ gates$
roofs or floorsK using pic"loc"s$ false "eys$ disguise$ deceit$ violence$ intimidation orK connivance
with other convicts or employees of the penal institution. .*ail (rea"ing is synonymous with
evasion of sentence/.
<. Evasion of #ervice of #entence on the Occasion of ;isorders due to )onflagrations$
Earth%ua"es$ or Other )alamities .rt. 3:9$ &P)/
Elements-
a/ Offender is a prisoner serving sentence and is confined in a penal
institution.
(/ 0e evades his sentence (y leaving the institution.
c/ 0e escapes on the occasion of a disorder due to conflagration$
earth%ua"e$ e1plosion$ or similar catastrophe or mutiny in which he has not participated$ and
d/ 0e fails to give himself up to the authorities with in 59 hours following
the issuance of a proclamation (y the )hief E1ecutive regarding the passing away of the
calamity.
&&
REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
By: Rommel K Manwong
Downloadable file a www!"#mfile$!ne
special time allowance for loyalty shall (e granted. deduction of one-fifth of the period
of the sentence of any prisoner who evaded the service of sentence under the circumstances
mentioned a(ove. The purpose of the law in granting a deduction of one-fifth .3,:/ of the period of
sentence is to reward the convict@s manifest intent of paying his de(ts to society (y returning to
prison after the passing away of the calamity.
2henever lawfully 'ustified$ the ;irector of Prisons .Bureau of )orrections/ shall grant
allowance for good conduct and such allowances once granted shall not (e revo"ed.
4. Other cases of Evasion of #ervice of #entence .rt. 3:>$ &P)/
The violation of any conditions imposed to a )onditional Pardon is a case of evasion of
service of sentence.
The effect of this is$ the convict may suffer the une1pired portion of his original sentence
Infidelity of Pu(lic Officers
3. Infidelity in the )ustody of Prisoners Through )onnivance
.rt.<<4$ &P)/
felony committed (y any pu(lic officer who shall consent to the escape of a
prisoner in his custody or charge.
<. Infidelity in the )ustody of Prisoners through Negligence
.rt. <<5$ &P)/
felony committed (y a pu(lic officer when the prisoner under his
custody or charge escaped through negligence on his part.
4. Escape of a Prisoner under the )ustody of a Person not a Pu(lic Officer. .rt <<:$
&P)/
Other Offenses or Irregularities (y Pu(lic Officers
3. Aaltreatment of Prisoner .rt. <4:$ &P)/
Elements-
a/ Offender is a pu(lic officer or employee$
(/ 0e overdoes himself in the correction or handling of such prisoner (y
imposition of punishment not authori+ed (y regulation or (y inflicting such punishment in a cruel
and humiliating manner.
The felony of Physical In'uries if committed if the accused does not have the charge of a
detained prisoner and he maltreats him. nd if the purpose is to e1tort a confession$ =rave
)oercion will (e committed.
III. Good Cond$ct Time Ao2ance /GCTA0
=ood conduct time allowance is a privilege granted to a prisoner that shall entitle him to a
deduction of his term of imprisonment.
Hnder rt.>F$ &P)$ the good conduct of any prisoner in any penal institution shall entitle
him to the following deduction from the period of his sentence-
3. ;uring the first two years of his imprisonment$ he shall (e allowed a deduction of :
days for each month of good (ehavior.
<. ;uring the third to the fifth years of his imprisonment$ he shall (e allowed a deduction
of 9 days each month of good (ehavior.
4. ;uring the following years until the tenth years of his imprisonment$ he shall (e
allowed a deduction of 36 days each month of good (ehavior.
&'
REVIEW NOTES IN CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
By: Rommel K Manwong
Downloadable file a www!"#mfile$!ne
5. ;uring the eleventh and the successive years of his imprisonment$ he shall (e allowed
a deduction of 3: days each month of good (ehavior.
&(