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PREFACE

It is an honour for me to present this report through the


sincere efforts and training done by me at the Verka Milk
Plant, Mohali in the months of June and July. The co-ordinator
assigned to me helped me immensely through the various
sections of the plant and hence forth Im able to present my
learning in the pages ahead.
I would like to welcome valuable suggestions and criticism
from teachers as well as from the student community for
further enhancing my learning.








HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION
OF ORGANIZATION


The Plant was established in 1980 by The Punjab Dairy
Development Corporation. The Punjab Dairy Development
Corp. and Milked are the two Government dairy organizations
which are running pay rolled to each other. In 1982 both these
organizations submerged into one which is now named as
MILKFED. In the beginning the capacity of the plant was
1,00,000 liters per day and the number of workers was only
700. The products manufactured initially were liquid milk,
ghee and cheese. Paneer production started in 1990 and curd
production started in 1997. The Plant has introduced ISO-
9002 quality Management System to ensure highest quality
products with built in safety to the consumers.
Milk Plant, Mohali is located at District Ropar in Punjab. It is
located on National Highway No. 21, joining Chandigarh with
Ropar, Jalandhar and Amritsar. It is situated in Phase-VI
Industrial area, Mohali at a distance of about 8km.from
Chandigarh. There is a great advantage as it is directly

connected to National Highway which is facilitating all
transportation and allied facilities.

The main objectives for its establishment were:
1. To create an organized factor to develop and command a
major share of urban milk market of Patiala.
2. To provide year around renumeration price to the small
rural Milk producers organized into co-operative.
3. To provide quality milk and milk products to the customers.
4. To carry out activities conductive to the economic
development to agriculturist by organizing effective
production, process and marketing of commodities.
The milk plant has installed capacity of processing 1,00,000
litre of milk per day and it is managed by the qualified
professionals in the dairy field. The production facility is
backed by quality assurance, marketing training, financial
management, data processing and other required services,
providing a vibrant work environment to its personnel in
pursuit of excellence.
The milk plant is committed to supply quality and safe milk
and milk products to its esteem customer at the right time.
The milk plant is ISO 9001:2000 certified and also has a
Indian Standard of Hazard Analysis and Critical Points
certificate (HAACP)/IS: 15000-1998 to ensure highest quality
products with built in safety to customers.

PRODUCTS
It produces Standardized and Pasteurized Milk, Double Toned
Milk, PANEER, GHEE, LASSI, KHEER, CURD, SWEETENED
FLAVOURED MILK , etc. All these products are marketed at
the plant under the name the Punjab State Co-operation Milk
Producers Federation Ltd under the brand name of Verka
Milk Plant.
ORGANISATION NETWORK
For the smooth running of plant, various sections are
managed by the management. Each and every activity is
delegated to particular section. It is impossible for top
management to take decision on every problem, so various
risks are delegate to various sections. These sections are
interrelated to have frequent contacts with one other and it is
easy to share the ingormarition. These integrated tasks teams
handle their problems and make their supervision easy.
The following are the sections in the Verka Organisation:
1. Procurement Section
2. Production Section
3. Quality Control Section
4. Marketing Section
5. Accounts Section
6. Administrative Section
7. Engineering Section
8. Purchase Section
9. Store Section
10. Security Section
I had the opportunity to explore and learn in the engineering
section under the able guidance of our coordinator and learn
about machines and latest processes utilised for milk
treatment. The engineering section comprised of the following
segments
BOILER SECTION
REFRIGERATION SECTION
HTST TREATMENT SECTION

It is my immense pleasure to present the report on all the
three sections of ENGINEERING SECTION based on the
observations and learning opportunity i had during my
training.






BASIC LAYOUT OF ENGINEERING
SECTION



In the following report all the 3 sections are described in the
following defined pattern in very descriptive way.





ENGINEERING
SECTION
REFREGERATION
SCETION
BOILER
SECTION
HTST
SECTION
REFREGERATION SECTION

Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move
heat from a low temperature to a high temperature and
typically also from one location to another. The work of heat
transport is traditionally driven by mechanical work, but can
also be driven by heat, magnetism, electricity, laser, or other
means. Refrigeration has many applications, including, but
not limited to: household refrigerators,
industrial freezers, cryogenics, and air conditioning. Heat
pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process,
and also may be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise
similar to refrigeration units.
The refrigeration system requires a efficient material to
transport the heat which is known as refrigerant.
A refrigerant is a substance used in a heat cycle usually
including, for enhanced efficiency, a reversible phase
transition from a liquid to a gas. It changes from vapour liquid
to vapour during the process of absorbing heat and
condenses to liquid from vapour while liberating heat in most
of the refrigerating system. Traditionally, fluorocarbons,
especially chlorofluorocarbons, were used
as refrigerants, but they are being phased out because of
their ozone depletion effects. Other common refrigerants used
in various applications are ammonia, sulphur dioxide, and
non-halogenated hydrocarbons such as propane. Many
refrigerants are important ozone depleting and global
warming inducing compounds that are the focus of worldwide
regulatory scrutiny.

TYPES OF REFRIGERANT

1. Primary Refrigerant
These refrigerants directly take part in the refrigerating
system and actually produce the low temperature. These are
ammonia, CO2, Sulphur Dioxide, Freon etc.


2. Secondary Refrigerant
These are firstly cooled by the primary refrigerant and
then they are further circulated for economical application in
the place to be cooled. They cools the substance by
absorbing their sensible heat. These include water, ice and
brine solution.
Refrigerants may be divided into three classes according to
their manner of absorption or extraction of heat from the
substances to be refrigerated:
Class 1:
This class includes refrigerants that cool by phase change
(typically boiling), using the refrigerant's latent heat.
Class 2:
These refrigerants cool by temperature change or 'sensible
heat', the quantity of heat being the specific heat capacity x
the temperature change. They are air, calcium chloride brine,
sodium chloride brine, alcohol, and similar nonfreezing
solutions. The purpose of Class 2 refrigerants is to receive a
reduction of temperature from Class 1 refrigerants and convey
this lower temperature to the area to be air-conditioned.
Class 3:
This group consists of solutions that contain absorbed vapors
of liquefiable agents or refrigerating media. These solutions
function by nature of their ability to carry liquefiable vapors,
which produce a cooling effect by the absorption of their heat
of solution.


REFRIGERANT CHARACTERISTICS
Odor
Most refrigerants contain no odor in low concentrations. While
having no odor at low levels, some concentrations of
refrigerants smell distinctly chemical and refrigerant leakage
is often identified by its chemical smell. In concentrations
above 20 percent by volume of air, the odor resembles carbon
tetrachloride, which smells sweet and is similar to the smell of
cleaners used for dry cleaning.
Color and Stability
All pure refrigerants are colorless in both gaseous and liquid
forms. Color may be added for identification purposes or may
appear when mixed with other chemical compounds. Many
refrigerant compounds are considered stable because of their
ability to not decompose while going through the physical
change of a gas to a liquid.
Boiling Point
The boiling point of refrigerants depends on the atmospheric
pressure. Many refrigerants have a boiling point between -45
and -33 degrees Celsius, with the exceptions of R12 and R11
that have very low boiling points of -29 and 9 degrees Celsius,
respectively. At normal temperatures under average pressure,
most refrigerants

remain in liquid form and must reach their boiling point to
become a vapor.
Dangers and Benefits
Refrigerants with low boiling points may damage the eyes in
their liquid states and protective eyewear must be worn at all
times. If the liquid refrigerant comes into contact with the
eyes, the tissues freeze. Most refrigerants dont contaminate
foods and are nonpoisonous in both gas and liquid forms, with
the exception of ammonia, which is highly toxic. When mixed
with air, vapor forms of refrigerants cause no harm to the
eyes, nose, throat or lungs if inhaled. Excessive
concentrations of refrigerant vapor causes unconsciousness
and possible death because of a lack of oxygen to the brain. It
has solvent properties that reduce and remove particles of dirt
and oil within the cooling system. Most liquid and vapor forms
of refrigerants will not corrode metals in cooling systems.
Some, such as ammonia and R290, are highly explosive or
flammable.



AMMONIA REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
The milk plant requires a very efficient refrigeration system so
as to maintain the quality of their products and store them at
low temperatures. For this purpose the refrigeration system
employed in the milk plant is AMMONIA GAS
REFRIGERATION system in which ammonia (NH
3
) is used as
the refrigerant.

The basic components of refrigeration system are:
Compressor
Condenser
Expansion device
Evaporator



The line numbers denote:
1. Hot gas (high pressure, high temperature)
2. Liquid (high pressure, warm temperature)
3. Liquid + vapor (low pressure, cold temperature)
4. Vapor (low pressure, cold temperature + ~10 F
superheat)

Starting at the discharge connection of the compressor, line 1
conveys a high pressure superheated hot ammonia gas
where it enters a heat exchanger i.e. the cooling tower where
ammonia gas is cooled using water (the condenser). After
entering, the gas is first desuperheated. Upon reaching its
saturation temperature, the vapour then begins to condense,
changing from a vapour state back into a liquid state. If
additional heat is removed from this liquid stream, the process
is known as subcooling.
Line 2 conveys the high pressure ammonia liquid stream from
the condenser into an expansion device. There are many
different types of expansion devices; in the following short list.
1. Capillary tubes (fixed)
2. Orifices (fixed, short orifice, Accurator)
3. Electronic expansion valves (modulating, senses
refrigerant temperature rise across evaporator)
4. Thermal expansion valves (modulating, senses refrigerant
superheat generated within evaporator)
5. Hand expansion valves (fixed but manually readjustable)
6. High-side floats (modulating, senses liquid level)
7. Liquid control valves (usually positioned by a remote high
side float)

Expansion devices numbered 1 through 4 are commonly
applied in halocarbon refrigeration systems. Devices
numbered 4 through 7 are used as throttling devices in
industrial refrigeration systems and practices. In this milk plant
HAND EXPANSION VALVE is used as expansion valve.

After leaving the expansion device, the refrigerant has now
become a mixture of low pressure cold ammonia liquid and
ammonia vapour as it travels down line 3. This mixture then
enters an evaporator where the remaining liquid is boiled
away while transferring heat energy across the evaporator
tubing of cold stores or cooling water. If the expansion device
measures ammonia superheat (or a temperature rise)
occurring within the evaporator, the gaseous ammonia is then
superheated slightly before it leaves the evaporator and
enters line 4.

Line 4 (also known as suction) conveys the now slightly
superheated low pressure vapour back into the compressor
where its pressure and temperature are simultaneously raised
to a level where heat can be rejected from the condenser into
a heat sink (air).

COMPONENTS
i. Compressor motor
ii. Compressor
iii. Discharge line
iv. Oil separator
v. Check valve
vi. Condenser
vii. Receiver
viii. Safety valve
ix. Liquid line
x. Expansion valve
xi. Chilled water tank
xii. Agitator fan
xiii. Evaporator (cooling coil)
xiv. Chilled water
xv. Suction line

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

Reciprocating compressors utilize crankshaft driven pistons to
compress gases for use in various processes. Much like
internal combustion engines, an offset crankshaft causes
rotary motion of a piston rod which is converted to linear
motion via a crosshead. The crosshead can only move in a
linear motion so that the rotary motion of the crankshaft is
transformed into linear motion of the piston. As the piston
moves to and fro, it takes in low pressure gas and increases
its pressure. Unlike an internal combustion engine, the gas is
not ignited. It is allowed to leave the compressor cylinder at a
higher level of pressure than when it went in
Main parts of reciprocating compressor:
1. HEAD PLATE

It consists of two compartments made of cast iron with a
very smooth surface. The refrigerant is sucked and
discharged through these compartments. Both are
connected with inlet & outlet of compressor.


2. VALVE PLATE AND VALVES

A valve plate has suction and discharge valve seats with a
very fine and smooth surface. The function of valve is to
direct the flow of refrigerant through the compressor and
maintain difference of pressure between the high side and
low side of the compressor. A valve which sucks the
refrigerant is called suction valve and the other one which
discharge the refrigerant is called discharge valve.

3. CYLINDER

Gas is compressed in cylinder of the compressor be
reciprocating motion of the piston.

4. PISTON AND PISTON RINGS

Piston are made of best grade cast iron and mechanically
polished. The Se has drilled holes to fit the piston pin. The
function of the piston is to compress the refrigerant in an
enclosed cylinder. Generally two or more piston rings are
used on a piston. They are made of cast iron. The function
of a piston ring is to maintain the proper lubrication and a
good seal between the piston wall and a cylinder wall to
prevent the leakage of the compressed gas in the crank
case.

5. CONNECTING RODS and PISTON PIN

It forms the link between the piston and the shaft. To
provide piston pin lubrication mant connecting rods have an
oil holes for supplying the oil.

6. SHAFT

It is a moving part, which moves, in a rotary motion in the
main bush bearings of compressor. It is used to change
the rotary motion of fly wheel to reciprocating motion of the
piston, with the help of connecting rod. Only two types of
shafts are used in compressor:-
(a) Crankshaft (b) Eccentric Shaft

7. SHAFT SEAL

It is located where shaft leaves the compressor towards
the flywheel. It is the main part where leakage

can be occurred easily. There are two types of shaft seal:-
(a) Bellow type Seal (b) Rotary type Seal



8. FLY WHEEL

Fly wheel is generally made of cast iron. It is connected to
the one end of the shaft for driving the compressor. The V
belt is connected with it.

















BOILER SECTION

A boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for
combustion heat to be transferred into water until it becomes
heated water or steam. The hot water or steam under
pressure is then usable for transferring the heat to any
process. This steam thus generated is used in different
processes to transfer heat in manufacturing of different
products in milk plant.
Steam boiler can be categorized into 2 types:

1. Fire tube boiler: Fire tube or "fire in tube" boilers contain
long steel tubes through which the hot gasses from a
furnace pass and around which the water to be
converted to steam circulates
2. Water tube boiler: Water tube or "water in tube" boilers
in which the conditions are reversed with the water
passing through the tubes and the hot gasses passing
outside the tubes


Both types are described below in detail with diagrams.




FIRE TUBE BOILER



In a fire tube steam boiler, heat and gases of combustion
pass through the tube surrounded by water. Fire tube boilers
steam boilers maybe either high or low pressure boilers. The
three types of fire tube steam boilers are horizontal return
tubular boiler, scotch marine boiler, and vertical fire tube
boiler.
All fire tube boilers have the same basic operating principles.
The heat produced by the gases of combustion pass through
the tubes while the water surrounds the tubes. However, fire
tube boilers have different designs
like 2 pass, 3 pass, and 4 pass based on application and
installation considerations. Fire tube boiler tubes are always
measured by their outside diameter (O.D.). Fire tube boilers
are usually designed for pressures up to a maximum of 250
psi and approximately 750 horsepower.


HOW THEY WORK:

When water is heated, it increases in volume and becomes
lighter. This warmer water, now lighter, rises and the cooler
water drops to take its place. The steam bubbles that
eventually form break the surface of the water and enter the
steam space. The addition of tubes inside the drum containing
the water increases the heating surface. The heating surface
is that part of the boiler with water on one side and the heat
and gases of combustion on the other. By increasing the
heating surface, more heat is taken from the gases of
combustion. This results in a more rapid water circulation and
faster formation of steam bubbles. When larger quantities of
steam are released, the thermal efficiency of the boiler
increases. Thermal efficiency is the ratio of the heat supplied
from the fuel to the heat absorbed by the water. Modern fire
tube boilers with improved design and heat transfer rates
have achieved thermal efficiency rates as high as 80% to
85%. Placing an internal furnace within the boiler shell greatly
increases the heating surface allowing for maximum
absorption of heat thus reducing the time to create steam.


BOILER SAFETY:

Because of the large volume of water fire tube boiler contain,
disastrous explosions may occur. Explosions may occur
because of a sudden drop in pressure without a
corresponding drop in temperature. Knowledge of basic
principles of boiler operation can prevent serious accidents.
Water will boil and turn into steam when it reaches 212
degrees F at atmospheric pressure. The higher the steam
pressure, the higher the boiling point of the water in the boiler.
As steam pressure in the boiler increases, there is a
corresponding increase in temperature. When a steam boiler
is operating at 100 psi gauge pressure the temperature of the
water and steam will be about 337 degrees F. If there is a
sudden drop in pressure from 100 psi to 0 psi without a
corresponding drop in temperature, the water at 337 degrees
F flashes into steam. When water flashes into steam its
volume increases tremendously. This can result in a
disastrous explosion. It is imperative that maximum care is
exercised in the operation and maintenance of the fire tube
boiler. This includes annual boiler inspections of the waterside
and fireside of the boiler. Controls such as the low water cut
off, relief valves, and flame safeguards must all be in correct
working order.
















WATER TUBE BOILER





A water tube boiler is a type of boiler in which water
circulates in tubes heated externally by the fire. Fuel is burned
inside the furnace, creating hot gas which heats water in the
steam-generating tubes. In smaller boilers, additional
generating tubes are separate in the furnace,
while larger utility boilers rely on the water-filled tubes that
make up the walls of the furnace to generate steam.
The heated water then rises into the steam drum. Here,
saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum. In some
services, the steam will reenter the furnace through
a superheater to become superheated. Superheated steam is
defined as steam that is heated above the boiling point at a
given pressure. Superheated steam is a dry gas and therefore
used to drive turbines, since water droplets can severely
damage turbine blades.
Cool water at the bottom of the steam drum returns to the
feedwater drum via large-bore 'downcomer tubes', where it
pre-heats the feedwater supply. (In 'large utility boilers', the
feedwater is supplied to the steam drum and the downcomers
supply water to the bottom of the waterwalls). To increase
economy of the boiler, exhaust gases are also used to pre-
heat the air blown into the furnace and warm the feedwater
supply. Such water tube boilers in thermal power station are
also called steam generating units.

In the VERKA MILK PLANT MOHALI the type of boiler used is
FIRE TUBE BOILER which are, two 3 pass horizontal fire
tube boilers which work with the capacity of 3 ton and 2 ton
respectively.

Boiler Fittings and Accessories
BED
The silica sand is used for the proper combustion of husk.
Silica sand is used because it can bear high temperature. The
bed is nozzle type; its shape is square type. The air for
combustion of fuel comes from the air pre-heater. Then this
preheated air goes inside the bed at very high speed through
nozzles. When the air comes at high pressure the silica sand
jumps due to high pressure of air and proper mixing of fuel
and air takes place. Thus firing of fuel easily takes place.
There are two beds in a boiler. Each bed has two gates one at
the front and the other at the rarer side. Temperature of bed is
normally 700c.
The ash due to the firing of husk is removed with the help of
rotary valve. The ash goes to the ash collector with the help of
ID fan. There are two rotary valves in a boiler operate by the
electric motor. The ash from the rotary valve goes to the ash
conveyor. In the ash conveyor a plastic belt moves on the
roller normally a small quantity of water is added to ash so as
to easily collect the ash.


ECONOMIZER
An economizer is a device used to heat feed water by utilizing
the heat in the exhaust flue gases before leaving through the
chimney. As name indicates the economizer improves the
economy of the steam boiler. It may be note that temperature
of the feed water should not be very low; otherwise there is
danger of corrosion.
Advantage of economizer
There is about 15to 20% saving of fuel
It increases the steam rising capacity of the boiler because
it shortens the time required to converts water into steam.
It prevents the formation of scale.
Since the feed water entering the boiler is hot, therefore
starting due to unequal expansion is minimize

AIR PREHEATER
An air pre-heater is used to recover heat from exhaust flue
gases. It is installed between the economizer and chimney.
The air required for the purpose of combustion is drawn
through the air pre-heater where its temperature is raised. It is
then passed through the duct of the furnace. The air is passed
through the tubes of the heater
internally while the flue gases passed over the outer side of
the tubes.
Advantages of using air pre-heater:
The pre-heater gives higher furnace temperature which
results in more heat transfer to the water and thus
increases the evaporation capacity per kg of fuel.
There is an increase of about 2% in the boiler efficiency
for each 35to 40c rise in temperature.
It results in better combustion with less soot, smoke and
ash.
It enables a low grade fuel to be burnt with excess air.

BOILER DRAUGHT
It is used to remove the energy content from the flue gases to
the water being evaporated.
Forced Draught Fan

This is used for proper mixing of air and fuel. By proper
mixing the efficiency of boiler is increased. It is placed with
the air pre-heater. Hot air from the pre-heater is fed in the
furnace with the help of forced draught fan.


Induced Draught Fan

It is used to produce vacuum. Due to vacuum the flue
gases are easily removed from the grate. It is placed the
chimney and ESP.

CHIMNEY
It is used to remove exhaust gases to the environment. In this
industry the height of chimney is 55m.

BOILER DRUM
The water goes in the boiler drum. In boiler drum there is 75%
water and 25% air. There are steel pipes welded in the drum.
The flue gases are passed through these pipes for heating the
water. The level of water is checked with the help of water
level indicator.

FUEL FIRING
Heated air from the air preheated goes to the firs grate, where
firing of fuel takes place with the help of wood, coal and
kerosene oil.

STEAM HEADER
Saturated steam produced in the boiler comes to the steam
header from where some steam goes directly to the plant and
some to the super heater.

SUPERHEATER
Its function is to convert the saturated steam to superheated
steam. In internal type super heater, super heater is fitted in
side the furnace. Saturated steam is passed through tubes on
the super heater and due to high temperature the saturated
steam is converted into superheated steam.

SAFETY VALVE
Its function is to permit the steam in the boiler to escape to
atmosphere when pressure in the steam space exceeds a
certain specified limit. Thus the two safety valves prevent the
building up of excessive pressure in the boiler.
WATER LEVEL INDICATOR
The function of water level indicator is to keep water level
constant. It is also known as water gauge. It is fitted at the
front of the boiler from where it is easily visible.

PRESSURE GUAGE
Its function is to record the pressure at which the seam is
being generated in the boiler. The gauge is mounted at the
front top of the boiler shell. The gauge has to be clearly visible
to the attendant so that operator can easily record the
pressure reading. Mostly bourdon pressure gauge is used.
BLOW OFF COCK
It serves to drain out the water from the boiler periodically so
as to:
Discharge mud, scale and other impurities which settle
down at the bottom of the boiler.
To empty the boiler for internal cleaning and inspection.
To lower water level rapidly if level becomes too high. This
unit is fitted at the lower portion f the boiler. It may be
mounted directly to the boiler shell.

FEED CHECK VALVE
Its main function is:
To allow the feed water to pass into the boiler.
To prevent the backflow of water from the boiler in the
event of the failure of the feed pump.
This valve is installed between the feed pump and the
boiler shell.

MANHOLE
There are two man holes to allow men to enter inside the
boiler for inspection and repair. Manholes are in water drum
one on lower side and other on the upper side of the drum.

STEAM STOP VALVE
It is the largest valve on the boiler. It is usually fitted to the
highest part of the shell by means of a flange. The main
function of this valve is:
To control the flow of steam from the boiler to the main
steam pipe.
To shut of the steam completely when required.

INDIAN BOILER REGULATIONS(1950)
HISTORY
In the year 1863, a very serious boiler explosion occurred in
Calcutta which caused the loss of several lives. As a result of
this explosion, the necessity of inspection of boilers was
widely recognised and a bill was introduced in the Bengal
Council to provide for the inspection of steam boilers. In the
year 1864, the Bengal Act VI of 1864 was passed which
provided for the inspection of steam boilers and prime movers
in the town and suburbs of Calcutta. In the year 1863, a very
serious boiler explosion occurred in Calcutta which caused
the loss of several lives. As a result of this explosion, the
necessity of inspection of boilers was widely recognised and a
bill was introduced in the Bengal Council to provide for the
inspection of steam boilers. In the year 1864, the Bengal Act
VI of 1864 was passed which provided for the inspection of
steam boilers and prime movers in the town and suburbs of
Calcutta. This is the beginning of boiler legislation in India.
Following the Bengal Act of 1864, each of the other provinces
framed legislation. At that time there were seven different Acts
and seven different sets of rules and regulations. Those Acts
and rules & regulations were
inconsistent with one another. As the differences in the Acts
and rules and regulations among the various provinces in
India gave rise to many difficulties and hampered the
development of industries, the Central Government appointed
a committee called "The Boiler Law Committee" in 1920 to
examine and report on the general question of boiler
legislation in India.
The Boiler Laws Committee, 1920-21, the first to review the
boiler laws on a national scale reported in March, 1921. The
report criticised the differences in the Acts, rules and
regulations. The Committee recommended that regulations to
cover the standard conditions for material, design and
construction of boilers should be framed by Government of
India and make applicable to all the provinces. The
Committee prepared a draft Act on the lines of which, the
basic All-India Act was passed in 1923. The Boiler Laws
Committee also prepared a uniform set of technical
regulations and a model set of administrative rules. A sharp
distinction was drawn between the regulations and the rules.
The regulations referred entirely to technical matters where as
the rules referred to questions concerning the administration
of the Act. Indian Boiler act, 1923 provides for the safety of life
and

property of persons from the danger of explosion of boilers.
The Government of India Act, 1935 assigned the subject
'Boilers' to the concurrent field. The provision for constituting
Central Boilers Board having the authority to make regulations
consistent with the Act was made in the Indian Boilers
(Amendment) Act, 1937. A Board called the Central Boilers
Board was accordingly constituted in the year 1937.
The Central Boilers Board in exercise of the powers conferred
under section 28 of the said Act, formulated regulations on
boilers. The current version of these regulations is known as
the Indian Boiler Regulations, 1950 with amendments up to
22nd February, 2005.
Some of the definitions given by the IBR are as follows:
Boiler means any closed vessel exceeding 22.75 litres (five
gallons) in capacity, which is used expressly for generating
steam under pressure and includes any mounting or other
fitting attached to such vessel, which is wholly or partly under
pressure when steam is shut off.
Calculation Pressure, in relation to a boiler, means the design
pressure of any part adjusted to take into account the
pressure drops corresponding to the most severe

conditions of pressure drop and hydraulic head.
Design Pressure means :-
i) In relation to a natural or assisted circulation boiler, the
maximum allowable working pressure in the steam drum
of the boiler.
ii) In relation to a once through forced-circulation boiler, the
maximum allowable working pressure at the final
superheater steam outlet.

Economiser means any part of a feed-pipe that is wholly or
partly exposed to the action of flue gases for the purpose of
recovery of waste heat.

Feed-pipe means ;-
(i) any pipe or connected fitting wholly or partly under
pressure through which feed-water passes directly to a boiler.
(ii) every reference to a steam-pipe or steam-pipes shall be
deemed to include also a reference to feed-pipe or feed-pipes
respectively.





Steam-pipe means any pipe through which steam passes
from a boiler to a prime-mover or other user or both if :-
i) the pressure at which steam passes through such pipe
exceeds 3.5 Kilograms per square centimetre above
atmospheric pressure or
ii) such pipe exceeds 254 millimetres in internal diameter;
and includes in either case any connected fitting of a
steam-pipe.

























HTST PASTEURIZATION SECTION

PASTEURIZATION
Pasteurization is a process of heating a food, which is
usually a liquid, to a specific temperature for a predefined
length of time and then immediately cooling it after it is
removed from the heat. This process slows spoilage due
to microbial growth in the food.
Pasteurization typically uses temperatures below boiling point.
The two main types of pasteurization used today are: high-
temperature, short-time (HTST) and "extended shelf life"
(ESL) treatment. Ultra-high temperature (UHT or ultra-heat-
treated) is also used for milk treatment. In the HTST process,
milk is forced between metal plates or through pipes heated
on the outside by hot water, and is heated to 73.8C (165F)
for 1520 seconds. UHT processing holds the milk at a
temperature of 135C (275F) for a minimum of one second.
In VERKA MILK PLANT MOHALI, HTST method is used for
pasteurization which was designed to achieve a five-log
reduction, killing 99.999% of the number of viable micro-
organisms in milk. This is considered adequate for destroying
almost all yeasts, moles, and common spoilage bacteria and
also to ensure adequate destruction of common pathogenic,
heat-resistant organisms.




A pasteurization system normally contains the following
components:

Balance tank with a float valve assembly: The balance, or
constant level tank provides a constant supply of milk. It is
equipped with a float valve assembly which controls the liquid
level nearly constant ensuring uniform head pressure on the
product leaving the tank. The overflow level must always be
below the level of lowest milk passage in regenerator. It,
therefore, helps to maintain a higher pressure on the
pasteurized side of the heat exchanger. The balance tank
also prevents air from entering the pasteurizer by placing the
top of the outlet pipe lower than the lowest point in the tank
and creating downward slopes of at least 2%. The balance
tank provides a means for recirculation of diverted or
pasteurized milk.


Regenerator: A regenerative heat exchanger, or more
commonly a regenerator, is a type of heat exchanger where
the flow through the heat exchanger is cyclical and
periodically changes direction. a regenerator mixes the two
fluid flows while a counter current exchanger maintains them
separated. The temperature profile remains at a nearly
constant temperature, and this includes the fluid entering and
exiting each end.
Heating and cooling energy can be saved by using a
regenerator which utilizes the heat content of the pasteurized
milk to warm the incoming cold milk. Its efficiency may be
calculated as follows:
% regeneration = temp. increase due to regenerator/total
temp. Increase.


REGENERATOR
High-pressure homogenizer: Milk homogenization is
accomplished by mixing massive amounts of harvested milk
to create a constant, then forcing the milk at high pressure
through small holes. Yet another method of homogenization
uses extruders, hammer mills, or colloid to mill (grind) solids.
Milk homogenization is an essential tool of the milk food
industry to prevent creating various levels of flavour and fat
concentration.
A centrifugal pump with magnetic flow meter and
controller: A centrifugal pump or a booster pump maintains
the constant flow of milk in the regenerator with high pressure
so that the pressure required for the pasteurization is
maintained.

Holding tube: A holding tube has a known-diameter pipe
designed to provide an established residence time for product
at the pasteurization temp., the critical time/temperature
relationship needed for pasteurization is achieved by the
residence time requirement in the holding tube. The length of
holding tube ensures the necessary residence time of
product.
Recorder-controller: Recorder-controller is a digital device
which controls the temperature of the heat exchanger and the
regenerator at a constant point that is required for the
pasteurization.
Flow diversion Valve: The FDV is controlled by a
temperature-sensing device located at the exit of the heating
section. If temperature is below the desired temperature, the
valve diverts flow to the entrance point. As soon as the
established temperature is reached, the flow diversion valve
changes and the product moves forward through the holding
tube. This control device ensures safety of product
Centrifugal Separator: The separation of cream from milk
in the centrifugal separator is based on the fact that when
liquids of different specific gravities revolve around the same
centre at the same distance with the same angular velocity, a
greater centrifugal force is exerted on the heavier liquid than
on the lighter one. Milk can be regarded as two liquids of
different specific gravities, the serum and the fat.

(+) some process automation and process integration.
CONCLUSION

Came to know about various sections required for
running of an industry.
Boiler and its various equipments such as
Inlet of fuel and its pre-treatment.
Treatment of water before feeding.
Various safety measures taken with the
help of various valves installed.
Insulation care to increase the effectiveness
and for proper working.
How the different components work together to make
the industry and precisely how the different things
are recycled.
How HTST milk is processed and its various
components and methodology.
Most importantly how several constraints such as
capital and space utilization are used.





REFRENCES


1. www.wikipedia.com
2. www.google.com
3. A book named: Description of Modern HTST Plants
4. Thermax Boilers manual, Sustainable soiutions
Energy and Environment, PUNE






















ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives me immense pleasure & happiness to submit the
training report for training undertaken by me at VERKA
MILK PLANT, MOHALI.
Before I embark with the presentation of this training
report, I would like to acknowledge all contributions by
respected teachers and trainers who guided me
throughout my training.
I would like to EXPRESS MY HEART FILLED
GRATITUDE to our respected head of department Dr.
Rajeev Mehta for giving me the opportunity to undertake
this training programme.
I would like to thank our respected asst. Professor Mr.
Rakesh Kumar Gupta for his guidance and immense
support given by him to complete my training.
I would also like to express my deep sense of gratitude to
the general manager, verka milk plant Mohali Mr. T.P.S
Walia for extending his full support and help in completion
of my training.
They have been a great source of inspiration throughout
my training.



DECLARATION



I Har shi t j ohar her eby decl ar e t hat t he wor k
pr esent ed her ei n i s genui ne work done
ori gi nal l y by me and has not been publ i shed or
submitted elsewhere for the requirement of a degree
programme. Any literature, data or works done by
others and cited within this project r epor t h as
bee n gi v en due ac k no wl e dgemen t .



Harshit Johar
Roll no.-101001026
B.E. THIRD YEAR