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Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology


3.1 Introduction.
This chapter clearly defines the research methods used to conduct the study. The researcher
explains how the necessary data and information to address the research objectives and questions
was collected, presented and analyzed. Reasons and justifications for the research design,
research instruments, data sources, data collection techniques, data presentation techniques and
analytical techniques used are given.
The research methods that are used in the learning are clearly defined in this chapter. How the
essential information and data to lecture the purposes and queries were presented, gathered and
analyzed is clarified by the researcher. The explanation and basis of the data management
techniques and logical techniques, data sources, data compilation methods, and research tools
used are presented.
3.2 Research design
Heppner et al !""#$!%& describe a research design as a plan or structure for an investigation or a
list of specifications and procedure for conducting and controlling a research project. 'n other
words it can be described as a master plan which indicates the strategies for conducting a
research. ( research design serves as a master plan of the methods and procedures that should be
used to collect and analyze data needed by the decision ma)er. The research design is a
deliberately planned arrangement of conditions for the analysis and collection of data in a
manner that aims to combine relevance to research purpose with the economy procedure.
Research plan is a design or arrangement for examination or list of requirements and methods for
scheming and performing a research project by Heppner et al !""#$!%&. 't can also be defined as
a master plan that shows the strategies that are used in performing a research. ( research design
is the master plan of the techniques and processes that are in examining and assembling the data
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and information that is desirable by the decision ma)er and it is the intended understandings of
the conditions in studying and compilation in way that intend to join the significance to the idea
of the research by means of the process conducted by the economy.
3.2.1 Descriptive research design
*aunders et al #++,& defines the descriptive survey method as one which loo)s with intense
accuracy at the phenomena of the moment and then describes precisely what the researcher sees.
-escriptive research design is concerned with describing characteristics of a problem.
.uestionnaires and interviews are the two methods used to elicit information in a descriptive
research.
Justification
-escriptive research design helps portray an accurate profile of persons, events and situations. (
descriptive research design also allows for in/depth analysis of variables and elements of the
population to be studied and as well as collection of large amounts of data in a highly
economical way. 't enables generation of factual information about the study. This is so because
the descriptive design relies much on secondary data which helps in developing the case basing
on facts, sustained by statistics and descriptive interpretations from archival materials and data.
3.3 Sources of data
The research relied on both primary and secondary data in order to come up with accurate and
objective findings.
3.3.1 Primary data
0rimary data refers to data collected foe the first time in the field. 1ewel #++!&, defines it as data
that has been collected for the purpose for which it is originally used. 0rimary data for this
particular research was collected using interviews and questionnaires. 'nterviews were done to
the security management personnel for the 2222222222 while questionnaires were given to the
employees outside management.
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Justification
0rimary data collection was given the highest priority in this research as there was limited
published material on the subject under study. 3or a subjective study li)e this one primary data is
of prime importance because primary data draws information directly from the field. 3acts and
figures should be drawn directly from people because culture exists within a society of people.
3.3.2 Secondary data
(ccording to 1ewel #++!&, secondary data is data that is collected for purposes other than the
original use. 't is an analysis of data that have already been collected for some other purpose.
These may be contemporary or historical and the data may be qualitative or quantitative and
usually needs adjustments and validation before being put to use. This data can include survey
data and documentary data. *ources used to gather secondary data were document analysis
collected from published and unpublished company documents and subject/relevant literature,
internal company journals monthly reports and news letters& requested from the company
understudy and frequent visits to related websites became crucial in collecting up to date
secondary data as well as publications by renowned authors on security management.
Justification
4sing secondary data saves time and money since the wor) has already been done to collect the
data. 't avoids the problems associated with the data collection process. 4nli)e primary data,
secondary data generally provides a source of data that is both permanent and available in a form
that may be chec)ed relatively easily by others. The published documents gives the researcher
extra information on the research problem. *ome of the information may not be found within the
organization.
3.4 Data collection techniues
The study was carried out using questionnaires and interviews.
3.4.1 Intervie!s
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(n interview is an interactive forum involving two or more people engaged in a conversation
initiated and coordinated by the interviewer so as to get information specific to a certain area of
aspect.
"onducting the intervie!s
3ace to face interviews were carried out at 2222222222 with )ey respondents being the
management team of the organization. (ll interviews were carried out prior to setting of
appointments with the concerned respondents. The interviews had specified time limits of
approximately #% / ,+ minutes. (ll interviews were carried out with the help of already prepared
interview guide question papers and were recorded alongside the respective questions.
#a$le 3.4.1 %a& Intervie!s conducted
Security management team
Sample frame Population Sample si'e
5utare head office ! !
6himanimani # !
6hipinge # !
7umba ! !
8yanga , !
-unsinane ! !
#otal 1( )
Justification
'nterviews were used to gather data in this research because they allow for probing on answers
and questions that require further clarification. 4nclear questions and answers can be clarified in
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the dialogue between the interviewer and the interviewee. 9hen carrying out a research the
researcher must be in control and interviews allow the interviewer to be in control. The
interviewer has control over he who is being interviewed in comparison to the questionnaires
which maybe passed from one person to the other. (lso this helped the researcher to obtain
information that cannot be obtained by using questionnaires such as the technological jargon that
required more clarification. 3ace to face interviews enabled the researcher to build strong
relationships with the respondent because after or before the interview informal discussions
could be held. This helped both parties to demystify any fears and there was openness hence
accurate information was obtained.
3.4.2 *uestionnaires
Reason !":%& defines a questionnaire as a formalized list of questions that are used to solicit
information from respondents. 3or this research the researcher made use of both structured and
unstructured questions to gather necessary data. *tructured or closed questions are meant to save
the respondents; time and get definite answers and unstructured or open/ended questions are
meant to ensure that respondents; feelings are not disregarded and further explanations are made.
*uestionnaire distri$ution
The questionnaires were delivered in person. .uestionnaires were distributed in after initial
communication with the respondents to see) consent. The respondents were given one day to
answer the questionnaires after which the questionnaires were collected for analysis. 8o public
postal service or email service was used to distribute questionnaires.
#a$le 3.4.2 %a& distri$ution of uestionnaires
Security department employees
*ample frame Population Sample si'e
6himanimani !+ ,
6hipinge " ,
-unsinane , !
8yanga !< %
5
5utare
7umba < #
#otal 44 14
Justification
*aunders et al #++,& argues that a reasonable and moderate high response rate ,+/%+=& is
guaranteed with self/administered questionnaires, hand delivered and collected questionnaires.
The questionnaire survey also provides greater uniformity across research situations as
respondents respond to the same standardized questions. (t the same time the questionnaire
survey technique gives the respondents enough time to respond to the questions as they were
given the whole day to answer the questionnaires. 3inally the element of anonymity associated
with the questionnaire survey technique enhances the chances of getting honest responses.
3.+ Relia$ility of techniues
0eterson !":#& defines reliability as the extent to which measures are free from errors. Thus the
greater the reliability of an instrument, the less li)ely the errors of measurement to occur. 5ore
than one data collection instrument was used in order to eliminate the wea)nesses inherent in
each instrument.
3.) Sampling
( sample is a group in a research study in which information is obtained. >r a population
selected for observation and analysis. 't is a representative of a population ta)en to show what
the results are li)e. *idhu #++,$<?& stresses the importance of sampling and further explains that
if the population is very large, it can be satisfactorily covered through sampling.
3.).1 Sampling techniues
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*ampling technique are categorized into two, that is probability and non/ probability sampling
methods. *ampling procedures include random, judgmental, stratified and systematic sampling.
3or the purpose of this research, judgmental and stratified random sampling techniques were
used to find the right sample size.
Stratified random sampling
The total population is divided into segments or strata. 'ndividuals to be included in the sample
are then selected from these segments or strata. 'n this case the population was divided as
employees and management for the security department of the 9attle 6ompany @imited. They
are then further grouped according to the estates that is 8yanga, 7umba, -unsinane,
6himanimani, 6hipinge and the head office 5utare.
Justification
*tratified random sampling was used in this research because it ensures an equal representation
of each of the identified segments or strata.
Judgmental sampling
(ccording to -an)s !""<&, judgmental sampling occurs in a situation whereby the interviewer
selects respondents who are judged to be representative of the population in the mar)et.
1udgmental sampling is a non/probability sampling technique based on judgment. 3or the
purposes of this research the researcher chose the participants who were viewed as the best
source of information as the sample was li)ely to bring out the required data specific to the
research problem through the experience with the organization.
Justification
1udgmental sampling ensures optimization of time and resources since information is sought
from those people with valuable information and )nowledge about the area under study. This
ma)es the technique cheaper and easier since a few individuals with relevant information are
chosen.
3.).2 Population
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7arden Aergh and Batz !"""& defined population as the group of people from which a sample
can be drawn for the purposes of a research. 0opulation is the total collection of elements about
which we wish to ma)e some inferences. The population of this research consisted of the
security management team for the 9attle 6ompany @imited and all its employees.
3.).3 Sample si'e
-eciding on a sample size for a qualitative enquiry can be more difficult than for a quantitative
one because there are no rules to follow. 't all depends on what will be useful, what will have
credibility and what can be done within available time and resources. ( sample refers to a
representative sub/group of the population. 3or the purpose of this research the sample chosen
comprises of randomly selected individuals from the selected population and the information is
tabulated below.
#a$le 3.).3 %a&, Research sample si'e
Sample -rame Sample Population Sample Si'e
9attle 6ompany security management team !+ <
9attle 6ompany security department employees CC !C
T>T(@* %C #+
( total of twenty respondents which constitutes ,?= of the entire population was selected to
represent the whole population.
Justification
(ccording to 3ielding #++?&, a sample size must be at least ,+= of the total population under
research. The sample size from all respondents was ,?= which is above ,+=. The researcher
made the sample relatively smaller so as to cut down on costs and save time as well.
3.. Data presentation and analysis
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(fter data has been collected, it needs to be presented in a way that communicates the
information and enables conclusions to be drawn 1ewell, #++!&. -ata was collected from both
primary and secondary sources, processed, analyzed and presented.
3...1 Data presentation techniues
6lear, accurate and appropriate ways of presenting data were chosen out of the several ways of
data presentation. The several ways of presenting data include tables, pie charts, bar graphs and
line graphs. >nly tables, pie charts and bar graphs were used in this research.
#a$les
Tables are used to present large quantities of data arranged in labeled rows and columns.
Justification
The researcher used tables to present data because measurement units are shown clearly. Tables
are also easy to refer and the data can be easily interpreted.
Pie charts
0ie charts are useful when presenting data which is to be compared.
Justification
0ie charts are easy to understand and quic) to interpret.
/ar graphs
Aar graphs are one type of graphs that uses bands of standard width and varying length to present
magnitude. They are used to present data covering time.
Justification
The researcher used bar charts to present data because they help facilitate comparisons by virtue
of their clear visual impact. They are also easy to use when presenting quantitative data.
3...2 Data analysis techniues
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The data collected by the researcher was analysed using the inductive analysis, regression
analysis and the deductive analysis techniques.
Inductive analysis
(nalytical induction is an approach to the analysis of data in which the universal explanation of
phenomena by pursuing the collection of data until there is no consisted with hypothetical
explanation of phenomena Aryman and bell, #+++&. 4nli)e the deductive analysis, inductive
analysis moves from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. This analysis
is also )nown as the Dbottom upE approach.
Justification
This technique was used by the researcher because it does not construct a rigid methodology but
rather permits the researcher to explore alternative explanations and get a feel of the situation on
the ground and so understand the nature of the problem much better.
Regression analysis
This technique is used to ascertain the linear relationship between two or more quantitative
variables. The relationship can either be positive or negative. ( positive relationship shows that
the variables move in one direction and a negative relationship shoes that the variables move in
different directions. 'f variables are not related then they can not be regressed.
Justification
The researcher used regression and correlation analysis was used because the researcher wanted
to establish the relationship between the management of cultural diversity and organizational
performance.
Deductive analysis
(ccording to Aryman and Aell #+++& deductive analysis represents the commonest of the nature
of the relationship between theory and research. 't is referred to as the Dtop downE.
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Justification
-eductive analysis was used because it reconciles theory and research.
3.0 chapter summary
This chapter loo)ed at the research methodologies used in this research. 1ustifications on why the
researcher chose to use those methodologies were given. 'nterviews and questionnaires were the
main methods of data collection used to gather relevant data to achieve the research objectives.
'n data presentation, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. -ata was analysed
using the inductive analysis, regression analysis and the deductive analysis techniques.
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