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THE CITY COLLEGE OF NEW YORK


CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK

SECOND TERM DESIGN PROJECT

SPRING 2014

Name: ISRAEL MIRANDA




Title: SIMPLIFIED APPROACH TO PRELIMINARY IMPULSE STAGE


Course Title: Thermo-Fluid Systems Analysis and Design
Course No: ME 430
Section No: DD

Instructor: Prof. Rishi S. Raj
Teacher Assistant: Saman Reshadi












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Abstract

The overall efficiency of thermodynamic systems is derived from different
mechanisms; from the fuel used the furnace to the materials used on every physical
component. One essential mechanism that contributes to the efficiency and the cost of
power plant is the design of the blades in the turbine (high or low pressure). This text is
organized on a simplified impulse stage. The turbine is assume to operate at 3600 RPM
for a frequency of 60 Hz. The change in enthalpy is establish as 30 Btu/lbm. The exting
velocity from the stator is chosen to be 13. Important factors in the design such as mean
radius was found to be 1.268 ft., the specific work: = 27.35 / and the rotor
length,
2
= 1.35 .






























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Table of Contents
Nomenclature .4
Theory ...... 5
Calculations ... 8
Discussion and Conclusion ....15
References ....16



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Nomenclature



h Total heat is converted to work in a stage Btu/lbm

Gravitational constant ft/s


2
P Power plant power produced kWh
t Turbine efficiency %
v Specific volume ft
3
/lbm
n Angular frequency RPM
Mass flow rate lbm/hr
hnet Total heat in Btu/lbm
V2 Velocity observed by object outside the turbine, leading edge ft/s
U/V2 Ratio of Circumferential velocity of Observed velocity N/A
U Circumferential velocity ft/s

Median rotor radius ft


2 Angle between V2and the horizontal, leading edge rad
2 Angle between W2 and the horizontal, leading edge rad
W2 Velocity observed by object inside the turbine, leading edge ft/s
3 Angle between V2and the horizontal, trailing edge rad
V3 Velocity observed by object outside the turbine, trailing edge ft/s
w Actual specific work produced Btu/lbm
Efficiency of the rotor %
dm Mean diameter of rotor ft
C Chord length of blade in
C/s Ratio of Chord over spacing N/A
s Spacing between blades in
N Number of blades #
b Axial chord in
A Area of cross section of rotor ft
2

Ration of the radius of hub over the radius of tip N/A

Radius of hub ft

Radius of tip ft

Rotor blade length ft


Loading factor N/A
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Theory

Generally, a turbine is classified as a turbomachine that transfers energy through the
shaft as a result of hot steam flow rotates the rotor. Hence, a turbine main task is the electricity
production found in steam turbine power plants, gas turbine power plants, hydro-electric power
plant, and wind turbines. The internal turbine process can be subdivided as:
1. Fluid flowing in the axial direction towards the turbine blades.
2. Stator blades switch the flows direction to line it up with the turbine blades.
3. Turbine blades change the fluid flow back in the axial direction again with the
purpose of rotating the shaft.



The above Figure illustrates the some major mechanical components that can be found
a general turbine. A further visual analysis can be implemented in the first set of stator-rotor
stage known as the cascade view, Figure 3. The stator is the blade that is generally in a fixed
position whereas the rotor rotates with the shaft. The task is to design these two type of turbines
blades
Figure 1 Aircraft Turbine Explode View
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The impulse stage is considered on a basis of zero degree reaction. The reason for this
is because the reaction stage is defined to have enthalpy that is distributed to the rotor
over the total enthalpy available to change to work. The impulse stage is generally the
first stage in a turbine that allows the power plant to process enormous amounts of heat
that is eventually converted to shaft work. Absolute velocity, is then defined as the
velocity of an object relative to the earth. For this particular stage, the two different
blades move at separate velocities relative to each other. Calculation for the separate
velocities is determined using the formula

=
Where
V: is determined as the absolute velocity as observed from the outside
U: is the absolute velocity of the moving blades
W: is the relative velocity as observed from the rotor.

The steam that originates from the boiler and enters the turbine at a velocity of

, in
which the kinetic energy can be determined as
=

2
2

=
Using this equation, we can determine the inlet velocity by rearranging the equation to

= 2





Figure 3 Internal Turbine Process at the Impulse Stage
Figure 2 Cascade View for the Impulse Stage of a
simple Turbine
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While the steam is in transition between the stator and the rotor blades; it will
experience a change due to the turbine blades. As the steam continues through the
system, the fluid velocity will go from
2
to
3
. This change can be seen through the
equation
=

(
2

2
(
3

3
))
Knowing that power is equal to , the power equation comes to
=

(
2

2
(
3

3
))


The ratio of the energy that the rotor receives with the kinetic energy which the fluid can
potentially give the rotor, defines the measure of the efficiency of a system. This is define
as :
=
energy that the rotor recievs

=

(

0
2
2

)

A few more parameters are needed to finalize the overall design of the stator blade and
the rotor blade. One of these parameters is the distance between the stator blades. To
satisfy the equation it is necessary to calculate the spacing with:
=
0.85
4 tan()
2
()


To obtain the number of blades needed for the turbine: =
2



Figure 4 Simplify Schematic of inlet turbine showing the space between the blades

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Calculations
1. Initial parameters established from the previous design project are:
Power plant power output = 200,000 KW
Inlet pressure = 1800 psi
Inlet temperature = 1000
o
F
Reheat inlet temperature = 1000
o
F
Maximum moisture level = 13%
Mass Flow rate, = 324.48


Enthalpy drop upon exiting the impulse stage, h = 30


Assumed rotor spin, N = 3600 RPM
Assuming
2
= 13
o

To begin designing the impulse stage the following step are taken:
2. The velocity of the fluid is calculated by applying the known drop in enthalpy
along with the kinetic energy equation:

0
2
2

=

2
=
0
= 2

0
=

2(32.2

2
)(778

)(30

= .



3. Assuming

= 0.39 we calculate:
=


= (1226.01

)(0.39)
= .



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4. Assuming the turbine is rotating at 3600 rpm; we implement previous values to
obtain the average stage diameter and radius.
=
2

60

=
60
2

=
60(478.14

)
2(3600)

= 1.268 ft
5. Solving for the angles using the velocity triangles, we can implement the
assumed values of
2
= 13. To obtain the velocity at that angle we calculate:


Figure 5 Velocity Triangles for in coming and out coming Steam Flow for the First Stage

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2
=
2
2
2
2

2
+
2

= .

2
=
1
[

2

2

]

2
=
1
[
(1226.01

)(13)
(1226.01

) (13) (478.14

= .
o

6. Knowing
3
=
2
(Ideal Case) and that
2
=
3

7. By assuming that
3
=
2
and that
3
=
2
we can calculate the velocity and
angle. Implementing this along with the geometry diagram, we can find
3
and

3
.

3
= tan
1
(
2

2
)

2
2

3
=
1
(1226.1

)(13)
(1226.0

) (13) 2(478.14

= .
o

3
=
2
2
4
2

2
+4
2

3
=

(1226.01

)
2
4 (478.14

) (1226.01

) (13) +4(478.14

)
2

= .


8. By considering the impulse of the fluid acting on the blades, we can calculate the
work produced by the rotor:
=

(
2

2
+
3

3
) = 2
2


=2(767.69

)(cos 21.05)
(478.14

)
(32.2

2
)(778

)

= .


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9. For the Efficiency:
=

(

0
2
2

)
=
27.35

(
(1226.0

)
2
2 32.2

2
778

)

= 0.9116
= . %
10. For the lengths finding the specific volume at

= 1800 and
1
=1000
o
F:

1
= 0.45719

1
=

1

2

2
=

1
2

2

2

1
=
( 324.48

)(0.45719

3

)
2(1.2683 )(1226.01

)(13)

= . = 0.81 in


Figure 6 Simplify Schematic for Impulse Stage for Stator-Rotor Combination
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11. To compute the length of the rotor, one must identify the specific volume when
the flow enter the rotor blade. First we find the first enthalpy value of 1490.8
Btu/lbm from the pressure and temperature values provided in the first project,
and traced it to the left until we hit the temperature curve of 1000 F. Once we find
that point, we trace down keeping the entropy constant because in a turbine
while the steam expands, the entropy remains constant.


Figure 7 Mollier Graph use to
Obtained Temperature and
Pressure at the Rotor




























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Secondly, the fraction heat drop is 20 Btu/lbm, we find a new enthalpy value of
1470.8 Btu/lbm and trace it until it hits that vertical line. The point where they
intersect is the new pressure and temperature. From the graph, the following
values are found.

2
= 900

2
= 1000
From the superheated tables, a second specific volume is found to be:

2
= 0.76136
3
/
Therefore, the length of the rotor turns out to be:

2
=

2

2

2
=

2
2

2

2

2
=
( 324.48

)(0.76136

3

)
2(1.2683 )(1226.01

)(13)

= . = 1.35 in

12. It is possible to determine the number of blades needed for the rotors to produce
the power needed. To accomplish this it is necessary to find the blade spacing.
From the Zweifel relation:
2

(
1
+
2
)
2

2
= 0.85
Assuming b=0.5 in.
s =
0.85(0.5 )
2(249.17)
2
13

s= . in.
Knowing Ns=2
=
2


N= 301.75
Therefore, the number of blades needed are approximately 302 blades.
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With the number of blades known, the radius between the shaft and the blades can be
determined, but first the area is to be found using the formula
= 2


2
= 2 1.2683 0.1124 = 0.8958
2

The area allows the determination of the radii,

, with

= 0.3

=


(
1
0.3
2
1)
=

0.8958
(
1
0.3
2
1)
= 0.1679 = 2.015

0.3
= 0.5598 = 6.717

13. Calculating the loading factor leads to:
=

2

=
(27.35

)(32.2

2
)(778

)
(478.14

)
2

= 2.997









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An iteration procedure was used to calculate all parameters above with different angles
(). The major variables such as the loading factor and the efficiency are plotted in the
following graph. The left axis shows the loading factor and the right axis the efficiency of
the impulse stage for a range of 10 <
2
< 15.


Figure 8 Loading Factors and Impulse Stage Efficiencies according the Velocity Angles

Discussion and Conclusion
One can state that for the first stage impulse design the necessary velocity for the
exit nozzle must be close to ft/s. The exit nozzles velocity is the pillar for several
calculations and is a necessary part for the knowledge of the design of turbine blades.
Although further calculations, like the velocity of the rotor blade, are based this value; the
loading factor is the most crucial number that must not be greater than 3 to ensure that
turbine will work without putting the entire power plant in jeopardy. Equally important is
the efficiency of the impulse stage, Figure 8 exposes an important detail when design the
first stage. The efficiency and the loading factor really depend on the orientation of the
incoming velocity vector to the rotor blade. That is the velocity vector exiting the stator
determines the efficiency of the system and also whether the system will work properly
due the value of the loading factor. In this case, the adequate angle is 13; which produces
an efficiency of 91.16% and a loading factor of 2.997.
89
89.5
90
90.5
91
91.5
92
92.5
93
2.94
2.96
2.98
3
3.02
3.04
3.06
10 11 12 13 14 15
I
m
p
u
l
s
e

S
t
a
g
e

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
,


(
%
)
L
o
a
d
i
n
g

F
a
c
t
o
r

,

Velocity Angle,
(Degrees)
Loading Factor and Efficiency vs Velocity Angle
Loading Factor
Impulse Stage
Efficiency
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References

[1]. Cengel, Yunus A., and Boles, Michael A. Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach,
Vapor and combined Power Cycles,5th edition.

[2]. Raj, Rishi S. Thermo-Fluid Systems Analysis and Design, Forms of Rankine Cycle for
Steam Turbine Power Plants and Block Diagrams, 3rd edition.

[3]. Ingram, G. (2009). Concepts in Turbomachinery. Ventus Publishing Aps.