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HOCHSCHULE KONSTANZ

TECHNIK, WIRTSCHAFT UND GESTALTUNG


UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES

hofer-pdc GmbH


MASTER THESIS
Simulation Based Comfort Evaluation for Vehicles with
Automated Transmissions


Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan
Automotive Systems Engineering
28.02.2013
Supervisors:
Prof. Dr.-Ing Uwe Kosiedowski
Dr. Mathias Lutz


Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan i
Abstract
In the last few years, the design variation of automated transmission is becoming more and more
diverse. Some examples besides the well-known automatic transmission with torque converters and
planetary gears are the Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) and the Automated Manual Transmission
(AMT), to name a few. These transmission variations are further divided according to their
realisation concept, such as the Dry Dual Clutch and Wet Dual Clutch Transmission.
The very diverse design of a transmission causes different driving experience and influences the
driving comfort. This comfort perception is evaluated in a subjective way by the driver. The aim of
this master thesis is to reproduce comfort-relevant driving situations in simulation models and to
evaluate the driving situations with both proven and newly defined evaluation criteria. The
evaluation steps and result obtaining were automated with programming scripts for convenience.
The long term aim of this thesis is to provide a knowledge of simulation based comfort evaluation.

In den letzten Jahren wchst bei den automatisierten Getrieben die Vielfalt der Getriebetypen.
Neben den bekannten Wandlerautomatgetrieben mit Planetenradstzen sind das automatisierte
Schaltgetriebe (AMT) und das Doppelkupplungsgetriebe (DCT) zu nennen. Zu den verschiedenen
Getriebetypen existieren verschiedene Realisierungskonzepte, wie z.B. Getriebe mit nasser und mit
trockener Doppelkupplung.
Die verschiedenen Realisierungskonzepte und Getriebetypen verursachen unterschiedliches
Fahrerlebnis. Das Fahrerlebnis wird subjektiv von Fahrer wahrgenommen. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist
die verschiedenen komfortrelevanten Fahrsituationen realistisch in Simulationsmodellen
nachzubilden und die Situationen mit sowohl bewhrten als auch mit neu entwickelten Kriterien zu
bewerten. Die Bewertungsschritte wurden durch programmierte Skripte automatisiert. Das
langfristige Ziel dieser Arbeit ist das Bereitstellen von Kenntnissen fr die simulationsbasierte
Komfortbewertung.

Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan ii
Declaration of Confidentiality
We, the University of Applied Sciences Konstanz, hereby acknowledge and agree to comply that this
master thesis entitled
Simulation Based Comfort Evaluation for Vehicles with Automated Transmissions
and the all the information contained in this thesis are not to be revealed to a third person or made
public without the written approval of hofer-pdc GmbH.

hofer-pdc GmbH Prof. Dr. Ing. Uwe Kosiedowski
Stuttgart, Konstanz,


Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan iii
Declaration of Originality
I hereby declare that this master thesis entitled
Simulation Based Comfort Evaluation for Vehicles with Automated Transmissions
submitted as the final thesis of the master program Automotive Systems Engineering of University
of Applied Sciences Konstanz is written on my own and not made use of the work of any other party
or students past or present without acknowledgement, except those indicated by referencing.


____________________
Stuttgart, 28.02.2012
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan


Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan iv
Acknowledgement
This master thesis for the final thesis of the Master course Automotive Systems Engineering would
not have been possible without the generous support and guidance of several individuals who in one
way or another contributed their valuable assistance in the preparation and completion of this
study.
First and foremost, I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisors Prof. Dr. Ing. Uwe
Kosiedowski of HTWG Konstanz and Dr Mathias Lutz of hofer-pdc GmbH for the opportunity as well
as the continuous assistance and supervision during my 5 month Master Thesis at hofer-pdc GmbH.
I would also like to thank Mr Jens Schfer and Mr Matteo Mocchi for the assistance in regards to the
software AMESim and DIAdem as well for the helpful advises for this thesis. My gratitude also goes
to Ms Elke Gamper and Ms Julia Hendrich for the help in reviewing this thesis.
Finally, I would like to thank the whole Simulation Department of hofer-pdc GmbH for the
comfortable and friendly atmosphere from the start till the end of my master thesis.


Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan v
Table of Contents

1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Motivation ............................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Scope of Work ......................................................................................................................... 2
2 Simulation Software Used ............................................................................................................... 3
2.1 LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim....................................................................................................... 3
2.2 DIAdem ................................................................................................................................... 5
3 Theoretical Foundations ................................................................................................................. 6
3.1 Automotive Transmission and Powertrain ............................................................................. 6
3.1.1 Dual Clutch Transmission ................................................................................................ 7
3.1.2 Powertrain .................................................................................................................... 12
3.2 Subjective Evaluation of Driving Situation ............................................................................ 13
3.3 Objectification of Comfort Criteria ....................................................................................... 14
3.3.1 Driving Capability vs. Driving Tasks ............................................................................... 14
3.3.2 Driving Situations and the Respective Comfort Evaluation Criteria ............................. 15
3.3.3 Summary of the Driving Situations ............................................................................... 23
4 Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation ............................................................................ 25
4.1 Overview of the Complexity of the Simulation Model ......................................................... 25
4.2 Simulation Components in AMESim ..................................................................................... 26
4.3 Reference Car ........................................................................................................................ 27
4.4 Reference Transmission: Getrag Powershift 6DCT250 ......................................................... 29
4.4.1 Dry Dual Clutches .......................................................................................................... 29
4.4.2 Electromechanical Actuator of the Dual Clutches ........................................................ 31
4.4.3 Gears and Gear Actuators ............................................................................................. 34
4.5 Reference Engine: 1.6 Ti-VCT ................................................................................................ 38
4.6 Control System ...................................................................................................................... 40
4.6.1 Launch / Moving Off ..................................................................................................... 42
4.6.2 Upshift ........................................................................................................................... 45
4.6.3 Downshift ...................................................................................................................... 48
5 Evaluation of Results ..................................................................................................................... 54
5.1 Script/Apps for Evaluation of Results ................................................................................... 54
5.2 Evaluation of Simulation Results........................................................................................... 55
5.2.1 Launch/Moving Off ....................................................................................................... 55

Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan vi
5.2.2 Upshift ........................................................................................................................... 65
5.2.3 Downshift ...................................................................................................................... 76
5.3 Comparison of Simulated Driving Situations with the Real Measurement Data .................. 82
6 Conclusions and Future Improvements ........................................................................................ 85
7 Reference Index ............................................................................................................................ 87
8 Appendix ....................................................................................................................................... 89
8.1 AMESim Submodels Used in Simulation ............................................................................... 89
8.2 Table for Subjective Evaluation of Driving Situations ........................................................... 93
8.3 Simulation Model Basis ......................................................................................................... 95
8.4 App Interfaces ....................................................................................................................... 98
8.5 Python Code Snippets ......................................................................................................... 102



Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan vii
List of Figures

Figure 1: LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim ....................................................................................................... 3
Figure 2: App Designer in AMESim ......................................................................................................... 4
Figure 3: Gear ratio ................................................................................................................................. 6
Figure 4: Schematic of a dual clutch transmission [1] ............................................................................ 7
Figure 5: Dry dual clutch with external torsion damper (left) and friction disk integrated damper
(right) [2] ................................................................................................................................................. 8
Figure 6: Electromechanical actuator of a dry dual clutch [4] ................................................................ 9
Figure 7: Concentric (left) and parallel design (right) of a multi disk wet dual clutch [1] ...................... 9
Figure 8: Wet dual clutch [2] ................................................................................................................. 10
Figure 9: Single cone synchroniser unit [5] ........................................................................................... 11
Figure 10: Gear shifter unit [1].............................................................................................................. 11
Figure 11: Powertrain structure of a commercial vehicle [1] ............................................................... 12
Figure 12: Driving capability vs. driving task ......................................................................................... 14
Figure 13: Launch, t
L
and launch hesitation, t
LH
.................................................................................... 16
Figure 14: Jerk during gear upshift 1 to 2 ............................................................................................. 18
Figure 15: Upshift from gear 1 to 2 ....................................................................................................... 19
Figure 16: Power on downshift from gear 4 to 3 .................................................................................. 20
Figure 17: Judder during clutch harmonisation .................................................................................... 22
Figure 18: Change of mind (let off) ....................................................................................................... 23
Figure 19: Rotary load in AMESim ........................................................................................................ 26
Figure 20: AMESim model of the b-segment car .................................................................................. 28
Figure 21: Getrag Powershift 6DCT250 Transmission [7] ..................................................................... 29
Figure 22: Cross-section view of Getrag 6DCT250 dry dual clutches [7] .............................................. 30
Figure 23: Dry dual clutch model in AMESim ........................................................................................ 31
Figure 24: LuK actuator unit for Ford 6DCT250 dual clutch transmission [8] ....................................... 31
Figure 25: Lever concept (left) and clutch actuator unit (right) [4] ...................................................... 32
Figure 26: Clutch actuator (for launch) ................................................................................................. 32
Figure 27: Clutch actuator for launch and gearshift ............................................................................. 33
Figure 28: Complex model of the clutch actuator ................................................................................ 34
Figure 29: Getrag Powershift 6DCT250 transmission layout [7] ........................................................... 35
Figure 30: Transmission model in AMESim ........................................................................................... 36
Figure 31: Gear actuator of Getrag Powershift 6DCT250 Transmission [7] ......................................... 36
Figure 32: Gearshift diagram for gear 1 to gear 4 ................................................................................ 37
Figure 33: 1.6 Ti-VCT engine [11] .......................................................................................................... 38
Figure 34: Engine torque characteristic curve ...................................................................................... 39
Figure 35: Engine model in AMESim ..................................................................................................... 39
Figure 36: Direct control system ....................................................................................................... 40
Figure 37: Control system with AMESim Sequential Function Chart .................................................... 41
Figure 38: Engine speed controller ....................................................................................................... 42
Figure 39: Desired engine speed curve ................................................................................................. 42
Figure 40: Control stages during launch in flowchart view .................................................................. 43
Figure 41: Launch from creep ............................................................................................................... 44

Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan viii
Figure 42: Launch from brake ............................................................................................................... 45
Figure 43: Control stages during upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 in flowchart view ............................... 46
Figure 44: Engine torque controller ...................................................................................................... 47
Figure 45: Upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 ............................................................................................... 47
Figure 46: Gearshift diagram areas ....................................................................................................... 48
Figure 47: Control stages during power on downshift for gear 4 to gear 3 in flowchart view ............. 50
Figure 48: power on downshift for gear 4 to gear 3 ............................................................................. 51
Figure 49: Control stages during power on downshift for gear 2 to gear 1 in flowchart view ............. 52
Figure 50: Power off downshift for gear 2 to gear 1............................................................................. 53
Figure 51: Form window for base App (right) and scripted App for evaluation (left) .......................... 54
Figure 52: Launch from creep with simple clutch actuator model (see chapter 4.4.2) ........................ 56
Figure 53: Launch from creep with the complex clutch actuator model (see chapter 4.4.2) .............. 58
Figure 54: Launch from brake with simple clutch actuator model ....................................................... 60
Figure 55: Launch from brake with complex clutch actuator model .................................................... 61
Figure 56: Launch on hill with simple actuator model .......................................................................... 63
Figure 57: Comparison of upshift of gear 1 to gear 2 between the simple and complex actuator
model .................................................................................................................................................... 65
Figure 58: Upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 % ................ 67
Figure 59: Jerk of upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 % ..... 68
Figure 60: Upshift from gear 2 to gear 3 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 % ................ 70
Figure 61: Jerk of upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 % ..... 71
Figure 62: Upshift from gear 3 to gear 4 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 % ................ 73
Figure 63: Jerk of upshift from gear 3 to gear 4 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 % ..... 74
Figure 64: Power on downshift from gear 4 to gear 3 .......................................................................... 77
Figure 65: Jerk of power on downshift from gear 3 to gear 4 for different accelerator pedal position
change ................................................................................................................................................... 78
Figure 66: Power off downshift for gear 4 to gear 3............................................................................. 80
Figure 67: Jerk during power off downshift from gear 4 to gear 3 and gear 2 to gear 1 ..................... 80
Figure 68: Launch comparison between measured data and simulation ............................................. 82
Figure 69: Upshift gear 1 to gear 2 comparison between measured data and simulation .................. 83
Figure 70: Comparison of acceleration between measured and simulation ........................................ 84
Figure 71: Simulation model basis for launch ....................................................................................... 95
Figure 72: Simulation model basis for upshift ...................................................................................... 96
Figure 73: Simulation model basis for downshift ................................................................................. 97
Figure 74: App interface for launch with simple actuator model ......................................................... 98
Figure 75: App interface for launch with complex actuator model ...................................................... 98
Figure 76: App interface for upshift (shift time) ................................................................................... 99
Figure 77: App interface for upshift (jerk) ............................................................................................ 99
Figure 78: App interface for power on downshift (shift time) ............................................................ 100
Figure 79: App interface for power on downshift (jerk) ..................................................................... 100
Figure 80: App interface for power off downshift (shift time) ........................................................... 101
Figure 81: App interface for power off downshift (jerk)..................................................................... 101
Figure 82: Code snippet for basic plotting app class .......................................................................... 102
Figure 83: Code snippet for basic LED display of calculated values.................................................... 103


Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan ix
List of Tables

Table 1: Subjective evaluation widely used by Automakers [1] ........................................................... 13
Table 2: Summary of the driving situations .......................................................................................... 24
Table 3: Overview of the simulation model complexity ....................................................................... 25
Table 4: Overview of the variable parameters and evaluation criteria for the simulation .................. 26
Table 5: Technical data of the reference b-segment car ...................................................................... 27
Table 6: Technical data of Getrag Powershift 6DCT250 transmission [7] ............................................ 29
Table 7: Gear ratio of Getrag Powershift 6DCT250 Transmission ........................................................ 35
Table 8: Technical data of the reference engine [9] [10] ...................................................................... 38
Table 9: Evaluation criteria for launch from creep with simple actuator model .................................. 57
Table 10: Evaluation criteria for launch from creep with complex actuator model ............................. 59
Table 11: Evaluation criteria for launch from brake with simple actuator model ................................ 60
Table 12: Evaluation criteria for launch from brake with simple actuator model ................................ 62
Table 13: Evaluation criteria for launch on hill with simple actuator model ........................................ 64
Table 14: Jerk of upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 % ...... 68
Table 15: Jerk of upshift from gear 2 to gear 3 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 % ...... 71
Table 16: Evaluation criteria for upshift from gear 3 to gear 4 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70
%, 100 % ................................................................................................................................................ 74
Table 17: Evaluation criteria for power on downshift for gear 4 to gear 3 .......................................... 78
Table 18: Evaluation criteria for power off downshift for gear 4 to gear 3 and gear 2 to gear 1 ........ 81
Table 19: AMESim Signal and Control library ....................................................................................... 90
Table 20: AMESim Mechanical library .................................................................................................. 91
Table 21: AMESim Powertrain library ................................................................................................... 92
Table 22: AMESim Sequential Functional Chart (SFC) library ............................................................... 93



Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan x
List of Abbreviations
AMESim LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim
AMT Automated Manual Transmission
DCT Dual Clutch Transmission
CVT Continuous Variable Transmission
App Application
ICE Internal combustion engine
OSS Output shaft sensor
ISS Input shaft sensor
Acc pedal Accelerator pedal
CAN Controlled Area Network
SFC Sequential Functional Chart
c1, c2 Clutch 1, clutch 2
Tc1, Tc2 Torque of clutch 1, torque of clutch 2
Fc1, Fc2 Actuation force on clutch 1, actuation force on clutch 2
hofer hofer-pdc GmbH
VW Volkswagen AG

Introduction
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 1
1 Introduction
1.1 Motivation
In the last few years, the number of passenger vehicles with automated transmission is increasing
rapidly. At the same time, the design variation of automated transmission is becoming more and
more diverse. Besides the well-known automatic transmission with torque converter and planetary
gear wheels, other types of transmission such as the continuous variable transmission (CVT),
automated manual transmission (AMT) and the dual clutch transmission (DCT) are becoming more
popular in the passenger car market. The listed automated transmission types can be further
classified according to their realisation concept, such as the wet and the dry variation type of the
dual clutch transmission.
As a result of the differences in the concept implementation of the listed transmissions, the driving
experience also varies according to the different transmission concept. The driving dynamics, as well
as the comfort perception are evaluated by the driver in a subjective way. As a way to improve the
development of the transmission, objectification of the drivers subjective perception is the way
forward. As an example, the power interruption period during acceleration with an automated
transmission can be used as an evaluation criterion, since the transmission does not allow a power -
interruption-free shifting.
A lot of evaluation criteria such as the one mentioned above are already put into used in the early
stages of simulation-based evaluation. The challenge however lies in the complete evaluation using
the objective criteria defined, without relying on the subjective perception of the driver. It is also
important to make sure that the parameters as well as the control strategies used in the simulation
can be implemented realistically on the real transmission.

Introduction
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 2
1.2 Scope of Work
The aim of this master thesis is to evaluate the subjective perception of comfort in different driving
situations by means of simulation. These driving situations are focused on vehicles with automated
transmission.
To start off, a variety of driving situations was listed and defined. In order to evaluate the listed
situations, suitable evaluation criteria were determined to produce the required objective results,
i.e. representing and explaining the evaluated driving situations in an accurate matter, in other
words, to objectify the subjective perception of comfort during driving. To help the author of the
thesis to understand more about the driving situations, several test drives were performed.
Subsequently, suitable driving situations were chosen considering the time constraint of the master
thesis and the difficulty to realise such driving situations on a simulation program.
The chosen driving situations were simulated using the simulation program LMS Imagine.Lab
AMESim, or simply AMESim. Depending on the necessity, other programs such as Diadem were used
to assist the simulation and evaluation process. The simulation model parameters were calibrated to
the reference transmission. The simulation model in the early stage was relatively simple and
uncomplicated. Depending on the results of the early stage simulation, improvements were made
where deemed necessary by increasing the complexity of the model.
Using the measurement methods determined in the first part of the task, objective results were
obtained and evaluated. By comparing the simulation results achieved from the hofer benchmark,
results from the simulation would then be compared with the measurement data from hofer,
further improvements of the simulation were made where deemed necessary. Additionally, in order
to facilitate the evaluation process of the obtained results, several programming scripts were
written. In the end, conclusions are made according to the comparisons and evaluation of the
results.

Simulation Software Used
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 3
2 Simulation Software Used
To carry out the tasks of the thesis smoothly, it is required that the student were able to use the
software products such as AMESim and DIAdem. Since both software programmes were not familiar
to the student, an introduction time to learn and familiarise with the software was needed. The
software products used to carry out this Master Thesis are described in the following sub chapter.
2.1 LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim
LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim or simply AMESim is an element or component based simulation software
for the modelling and simulation of one-dimensional systems developed and distributed by LMS
International. The software package offers a 1D simulation suite to model and analyse the hydraulic,
pneumatic, electrical and mechanical behaviour of the 1D system. In its usage AMESim is similar to
Simulink.
For modelling of the system, AMESim is equipped with approximately 30 libraries. Due to the
partnership of hofer-pdc GmbH with LMS, the complete library package is provided. The important
libraries for this thesis are controls, mechanical, pseudo-mechanical, hydraulics, electrical,
thermodynamics and powertrain. More about the elements used for the simulation in this thesis can
be read under appendix.

Figure 1: LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim
The figure 1 shows a standard interface of AMESim. The modelling and simulation of a system is
done in four steps: sketch, submodel, parameter and run. These four steps are represented or
highlighted by the 4 panels on the left side of the screen. The four steps are:
Simulation Software Used
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 4
Sketch mode: Components are selected from the library and are linked together to form a
system. Drag-and-drop functionality simplifies and accelerates modelling processes.
Submodel mode: Physical submodel associated to each component is chosen.
Parameter mode: The parameters for each submodel of the system are set and compiled.
Run mode: The simulation is run. The run mode also includes the pre-processing mode. The
needed curves which show the behaviour of the system (e.g. displacement vs. time) can be
viewed after the simulation ended.
AMESim also provides an App Designer. The App Designer is a pre and post-
processing IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that can be used to create user interfaces
(which are also called App) for the users specific needs, use and reuse them within AMESim. The
App Designer uses the already known QT-Platform with several modifications by AMESim to
accommodate its users. Normal users can use the available widgets to assist their work. Advanced
python users can additionally design their own widgets by writing their own python scripts (e.g. to
enable them to automate the obtaining and evaluation of the simulation results).

Figure 2: App Designer in AMESim
The simulations in this thesis are done using this software program. The App Designer is used
automate the repeating steps taken to obtain the simulation results.

Simulation Software Used
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 5
2.2 DIAdem
DIAdem is a technical software for managing, analysing, and reporting technical data developed by
National Instruments. It is used to analyse data sets that are obtained from test drive equipment,
provided by National Instrument. With this software it is also possible to use mathematical functions
on a data set or a curve such as the average, integration and differentiation function and in the end
graphically present it in a report.
This software program is used to read and edit the results obtained from the test drives.

Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 6
3 Theoretical Foundations
3.1 Automotive Transmission and Powertrain
A transmission plays a very important role in passenger and commercial vehicles. The main task of a
transmission is to convert the traction supplied from the power source, mainly the internal
combustion engine, to satisfy the requirements of the driving situations performed by the driver. A
transmission consists of sets of gears to provide different gear ratios for the mentioned different
driving situations. As an example, during start up or launch of a vehicle from stationary, the driver
might want to accelerate from stationary to the desired speed. Hence, a combination of gears which
provide a high gear ratio is needed to convert the supplied torque from the engine and accelerate
the vehicle. In addition, a transmission also plays an important role in respect to fuel consumption,
reliability and safety.
The following figure depicts a simple gear set in a schematic view. Gearwheel 1 is connected to shaft
1 and gearwheel 2 to shaft 2 respectively. The letters n stands for rotation per minute, T stands for
the torque and z stands for the gear teeth number.

Figure 3: Gear ratio
The gear ratio of a gear set can be calculated as follows:


(3.1)
As mentioned, an automotive transmission consists of several gear sets as depicted above to provide
suitable gear ratios respective to driving situations and fuel consumption. In general, an automotive
transmission may be in the form of manual transmission, automatic transmission or automated
manual transmission.

Shaft 1
Shaft 2
n
1
, T
1

n
2
, T
2

z
1

z
2

Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 7
3.1.1 Dual Clutch Transmission
To understand this thesis, it is important to get to know the type of transmission used in the test
drive and for the simulation. The evaluation of the comfort criteria would be done using a dual
clutch transmission (see chapter 4.4).
Dual clutch transmissions (DCT) are categorised as automatic transmission with various gear ratios
due to their similarities with respect to control and functionality [1]. A DCT combines the
characteristics of a manual transmission, such as a high level of efficiency, a broad range of gear
ratios and sportiness, with the ease of handling and shifting without power interruption from an
automatic transmission.
A DCT generally consists of two sub-gearboxes, each connected to the engine through its own clutch.
One sub-gearbox contains the odd gears (1, 3, 5) while the other contains the even gears (2, 4, 6).
The following figure shows a schematic design of a DCT.

Figure 4: Schematic of a dual clutch transmission [1]
With the help of the figure above, a basic gear shifting process can be explained as follows. While
accelerating in the first gear, the idle second gear is preselected and engaged. Since clutch 2 is not
engaged during the idle gear synchronisation process, there is no interruption to the torque supplied
by the engine. The driver does not notice the synchronisation process. When the speed for the
upshift from first gear to second gear is reached, clutch 1 disengages at the same time when the
clutch 2 engages. This phase is known as the cross-fading phase. This enables a power-interruption-
free gear shifting. Once the shifting process ends, the next gear, the third gear, can be preselected,
while the first gear is disengaged and the same steps is repeated for upshift. This principle is
basically the same for upshift and downshift.
The dual clutch built in a DCT can be further divided into two variant types, namely the wet dual
clutch and the dry dual clutch transmission.
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 8
Dry Dual Clutches
Dry dual clutches are normally used in small vehicle with low engine torque not more than 250 Nm.
A clutch of a dry dual clutch transmission usually consists of a single friction plate and the torque is
transmitted via pressure plate and friction plate of the clutch, like a normal clutch of a manual
transmission. However, there are some design differences compared to the clutch of a manual
transmission, such as the dry clutch is normally designed to be in open position (disengaged) when
no force is applied to the clutch. It is designed that way to fulfil the safety requirement, which
requires the clutch to open automatically when the clutch actuation system fails. Another difference
is, because of the high actuation force of dual clutches, direct linkage and bearing support on the
crankshaft is not feasible due to the high load. So, the clutch needed to be supported at one of the
two shafts of the transmission.
There are further two known variants of support design on the shaft. The position of the support
bearing is preferred to be on the hollow shaft. What differs here is the position of the damper to
eliminate or reduce unwanted oscillation between the engine and the clutches. In variant 1, the
torque damper is mounted on the crankshaft, and the crankshaft is linked to the clutch via a drive
gear. This drive gear is preloaded in circumference direction and can also compensate axial tolerance
between the engine and the transmission shafts. In variant 2, torque dampers are integrated to each
friction plate of each clutch. The crankshaft is connected to the transmission shafts via a flywheel
with a cardanic function. The cardan joint is made of elastic elements which can compensate radial
and axial tolerance between the engine and the transmission shafts [2].

Figure 5: Dry dual clutch with external torsion damper (left) and friction disk integrated damper (right) [2]
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 9

Figure 6: Electromechanical actuator of a dry dual clutch [4]
The figure above presents the electromechanical actuation concept of a dry clutch. The dry clutch is
actuated by an E-Motor by means of engagement lever. When the E-Motor is supplied with power,
its shaft-rotation would be converted to translational displacement by the ball screw. The roller on
the ball screw here acts as a variable pivot. The apply spring supplies the preload on one lever end.
By varying the position of the pivot, different actuation can be achieved on the other end of the
lever.
Wet Dual Clutches
Wet dual clutches are used in vehicles with high engine output, typically 250 Nm and above. The
typical design of wet dual clutches consists of multiple friction disks, to accommodate the high input
load. They are mounted directly on the transmission shafts or in an external clutch carrier connected
directly to the transmission. Most of the wet dual clutches currently in the market are actuated by
hydraulic means [2]. There are two typical wet dual clutch designs known implemented by
automakers, which are
concentric design (also called radial arrangement)
parallel design (also called axial arrangement)

Figure 7: Concentric (left) and parallel design (right) of a multi disk wet dual clutch [1]
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 10
Concentric clutches are advantageous for short installation spaces. In a vehicle which uses the
concentric design, the outer clutch is preferred as master clutch due to its higher thermal capacity,
suitable for low gears which need to transfer high input torque. The cooling oil flows first through
the outer clutch to the inner clutch. In the contrary, parallel design are applied in transmission which
has limited space in the radial direction. The parallel design enables the first gear to be controlled by
either the outer or the inner clutches. Another advantage of such arrangement is that the cooling oil
can be supplied separately to each clutch.
The following figure presents a dual clutches in concentric design. From the figure, it can be
identified that the torque damper are arranged in the dry space between the engine and the dual
clutch. Another alternative to this design is to integrate the torque damper to the dual clutch plates
in the wet chamber, similar to the dry dual clutch design. To actuate the clutches
electrohydraulically, an external hydraulic pack is necessary. The hydraulic pack consists of a
hydraulic pump, which pumps the cooling oil and the oil to actuate the clutches, and a valve block
for controlling. The actuation oil from the pump would flow through the rotary oil passages to the
pressure chambers. Parallel to the pressure chambers are compensation chambers, which are
needed to compensate the influence of centrifugal oil pressure that builds up from the rotation.

Figure 8: Wet dual clutch [2]
Synchronizer and Gear Actuation
In simpler words, synchronisation of a gear in a vehicle with dual clutch transmission can be defined
as firstly, friction coupling with non-planar friction plane, that follows with form locking of an idle
gear to a sub-gearbox shaft, to transfer power from the input shaft via the now engaged idle gear
and sub-gearbox shaft, to the output shaft. Depending on the application in vehicles (passenger
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 11
vehicle and commercial vehicle), a synchronizer unit may differ in terms of the number of non-planar
friction plane (also known as cone) involved during synchronisation process. In practice there can be
up to 3 non planar friction planes in a synchroniser unit (single cone, double cone or triple cone). The
number of cones is a multiplication factor for the synchronisation capability of a synchronizer [5].
The figure below depicts a single cone synchronizer.

Figure 9: Single cone synchroniser unit [5]
The same or similar synchroniser unit can also be found on each sub-gearbox shaft in a dual clutch
transmission. However, in a dual clutch transmission, the far left and far right idle gears should be
consecutive either odd or even number gears (e.g. 1
st
gear and 3
rd
gear or 2
nd
gear and 4
th
gear) so
that gear pre selection during upshift and downshift can be achieved. During gear change, the
gearshift sleeve would be shifted to the desired shift position. The gearshift sleeve is connected to a
gear shifter, which can be seen in the figure 10 below.

Figure 10: Gear shifter unit [1]
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 12
Gear shifter can be actuated by means of hydraulics or electric. The gear shifter presented above is a
hydraulic operated gear actuator of a dual clutch transmission. As mentioned under the previous
chapter (3.1.1 Dry Dual Clutches), a hydraulic operated actuator is preferred for wet dual clutch
transmission and hydraulically operated DCT-systems. The same applies to eletromechanically
operated DCT-systems. One distinguished feature of a hydraulic gear shifter is the locking element,
which is needed to supply the locking force to the synchronisation force from the hydraulic piston.
3.1.2 Powertrain
In general, the torque supplied by the engine in a vehicle must pass through several components
before the output at the vehicle tyres. The engine torque is converted through multiplication of each
gear ration from these components. The whole combination of the components is called powertrain.
A powertrain mainly consist of 4 sections, which is the engine, the coupling element, the
transmission and the final drive, as depicted below.

Figure 11: Powertrain structure of a commercial vehicle [1]
The total ratio i
A
is the multiplication product of the ratio of each the coupling element, the selector
gearbox and the final drive.

(3.2)
It is important to understand how the powertrain works, since the output torque at the tyres are
influenced by the components in each section, as can be seen above.
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 13
3.2 Subjective Evaluation of Driving Situation
The evaluation of comfort by a driver, which consists of noise, visible and sensible oscillation, can
be developed through his or her subjective perception. Since every drivers perception can differ
from one another, it is important to evaluate how comfortable the driving experience through a
group of trained evaluators and a group of customers and taking the average marks from each
group. The following table presents one of the ways to summarise the evaluation given by the
evaluators that is normally used by the major automakers. The scale used is 1 to 10, with 10
representing the best mark and 1 the worst.
Marks Flaw detection Evaluation
10 Not detectable by trained evaluators Excellent
Marketable
9 Detectable by trained evaluators Very good
8 Detectable only by critical customers Good
7 Detectable by all customers Satisfying
6 Sensed by some customers as disturbing Acceptable
Not marketable
5 Sensed by all customers as disturbing Not acceptable
4 Sensed by all customers as faulty Faulty
3 Complained and claimed by customers Fail
2 Only partly functioning Bad
1 Not functioning Very bad
Table 1: Subjective evaluation widely used by Automakers [1]
The subjective evaluation data are already available as reference for this thesis. However, to
increase the understanding of how the subjective evaluation is carried out, a simple subjective
evaluation was done by the student as an example. The test was carried out using a VW Passat 2.0
which is also equipped with a dual clutch transmission. The evaluation table used by hofer can be
found under appendix.

Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 14
3.3 Objectification of Comfort Criteria
To evaluate how comfortable a person driving is actually a very difficult task because there are no
objective guidelines to it. The feeling of comfortable is very subjective depending on different
person. Therefore, this chapter would elaborate on the objectification of subjective feelings that
would be used to evaluate the driving situation chosen.
3.3.1 Driving Capability vs. Driving Tasks
Before proceeding with the objectification of the subjective criteria, it is important to determine the
target type of drivers. The type of driver is typically differentiated in two categories, the sporty
driver and the driver that prefers comfortable driving. One way to differentiate between the two
types of drivers is by using the following driving capability vs. driving tasks curve.

Figure 12: Driving capability vs. driving task
A drivers capability is determined by:
competence: Driving licence, extra training, experience
psychological factors: feelings (under stress, anxiety)
substance: under alcohol or drug influence
and many more. Whereby driving tasks are determined by the following factors:
increase with increasing driving resistance (air resistance, slope, rolling resistance,
acceleration)
secondary factors: pedestrian, road regulations and many more [6].
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 15
From the curve, we can clearly conclude that a comfortable driver is a driver that feels that they
have the vehicle under control by having more capabilities than tasks, while a sporty driver is a
driver that likes to prefer using their own capabilities to take on the driving tasks.
Our target driver is the comfortable driver. This means that the drivers in this category would like to
have, to some extent, driving assistance to have a smooth and unburdening driving. An example of
such driver is a driver that prefers automatic transmission with smooth gear shifts without
vibrations.
3.3.2 Driving Situations and the Respective Comfort Evaluation Criteria
Driving situations that affect the comfort of driving were determined, before an appropriate method
of evaluating can be assigned. The following driving situations were identified as having most effect
on the driving comfort and needed to be evaluated.
Launch
Creep
Gear upshift and downshift
Hill hold
Judder
Change of mind
To assist the simulation process regarding the driving situations, it also makes sense to identify the
participating sub-systems as well as the measurement instruments (sensors and actuators) used for
each driving simulations. This information is to be summarised in a table and suitable driving
situations can be chosen based on the information of each driving situations.
Launch
In a non-technical term, launch is understood as start-up or moving off of a vehicle from stationary
condition to the desired speed. In this thesis, launch is further divided into two sub-definition, that is
launch and launch hesitation. The definitions used in launch are as following:
Launch hesitation, t
LH
: Period between accelerator pedal actuation and maximum vehicle
acceleration
Launch, t
L
: Period between maximum vehicle acceleration and full clutch engagement
Total time, t
T
: Sum of launch and launch hesitation
The sub-systems taking part during launch are:
Accelerator pedal
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 16
Transmission, which includes first gear and final drive ratios and inertias
Clutch, including clutch actuator and clutch control
Engine, including inertia and engine control strategy
Road profile, for plane and hill launch
Figure 13 can help present the definitions of launch and launch hesitations. The upmost curve shows
the engine speed in red and shaft 1 speed in green. The middle curve shows the acceleration of the
vehicle while the last curve shows the accelerator pedal actuation signal.

Figure 13: Launch, t
L
and launch hesitation, t
LH

To determine the exact time where each section (launch and launch hesitation) starts, a method of
quantification is needed. The right parameters must first be determined, and then the respective
signals from the respective sensors can be obtained, either from the Transmission Control Unit or
through external built sensors.
In this case, the accelerator pedal potentiometer can provide the start time of the launch. The time
where maximum acceleration is reached, which signals the end of launch and start of launch
hesitation, is calculated through the speed signal of the output speed sensor (OSS). The speed of
each sub-gearbox is obtained from its own sensors while the input speed sensor (ISS) provides the
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 17
engine speed. Therefore, the moment of the speed harmonisation of the engine and shaft 1 can be
calculated at the time when both speeds reach a common speed with a constant micro slip.
Creep
Creep is normally associated with automated transmission. At start-up, when the driver shifts the
gear lever into drive mode (D) but without following up by actuating the accelerator pedal or the
brake pedal, the vehicle would accelerate on its own until it reaches a certain creeping speed and
moves forward constantly with this speed. This phenomenon is called creep. Creep in a vehicle with
dual clutch transmission is usually achieved by actuation of the clutch with a certain amount of slip
(the clutch is not 100% closed).
Creep is simulated together with launch. Hence, the sub-systems taking part are almost the same as
during launch, except that an extra creep control strategy which control the clutch slip during
creeping is needed.
The figure 13 also shows creep of the vehicle. If the driver still has not actuated the accelerator
pedal after 1 s, the vehicle would start accelerating until it reaches the creep speed. This can be seen
through the shaft 1 speed (green curve) of the upmost curve in the figure. The speed difference
between the engine speed and the shaft 1 speed can be seen here, which indicates the micro slip in
the clutch.
Gear Upshift and Downshift
One of the main reasons of the introduction of dual clutch transmission into the automotive market
was to improve the smoothness of gear shifting. The key to determining the evaluation parameter is
the change felt by the driver. When a driver is driving at a constant speed, he or she would not feel
any significant vibration with his or her body. Only when the driver is accelerating would the driver
feel the change with his body. Therefore, peak to peak acceleration, a
pp
, as an example, can be used
as a criterion for objectification of the subjective comfort feeling felt by the driver during gear
shifting.
Another criterion widely used by the automakers to evaluate shifting smoothness is shock intensity
or jerk (J). Shock intensity or jerk is defined as rate of change of longitudinal acceleration.


(3.3)
It is widely accepted by automakers that jerk value of 5 m/s
3
as comfortable to drivers.
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 18

Figure 14: Jerk during gear upshift 1 to 2
The figure above shows the acceleration (top) and jerk (bottom) during upshift from gear 1 to gear 2.
The acceleration which falls almost instantaneously during the cross-fading from around 6.3 s to
6.62 s (labelled A) causes average jerk (in green) of approximately -6 m/s
3
. As the engine speed is
reduced to match the shaft 2 speed, the vehicle is moving with a constant acceleration, hence the
constant jerk, labelled with B. As the engine speed reaches the speed of the shaft 2, the matching up
of the two speeds causes a slight increase in acceleration hence an average jerk around 5 to 10 m/s
3

(labelled with C).
Besides the named criteria above, it is also plausible to take into account the torque phase time,
speed phase time and the total shifting time [3]. These parameters can be defined as follows.
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 19
Torque phase time, t
TP
: The period between start of torque reduction of the off going clutch
and until the oncoming clutch fully engaged (also known as clutch cross-fading). It can also
be approximately measured from the acceleration curve, from the fall of acceleration until
the minimum acceleration (area labelled as A in figure 14)
Speed phase time, t
SP
: The period of the deceleration of the engine speed to oncoming shaft
speed. It can approximately be measured starting from the minimum acceleration until the
acceleration rise again (area labelled as B in figure 14)
Shifting time, t
S
: Total shifting time which is the sum of torque phase time and speed phase
time.
The two phases of gear upshift (torque phase and speed phase) are explained in detail in chapter
4.6.2. The following figure presents the evaluation parameters mentioned above, which are torque
phase time, speed phase time and shift time.

Figure 15: Upshift from gear 1 to 2
For power on downshift, the order of the t
TP
and t
SP
is reversed. The reason is further discussed in
chapter 4.6.3. The following figure depicts the evaluation parameters for power on downshift of
gear 4 to 3.
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 20

Figure 16: Power on downshift from gear 4 to 3
The sub-systems taking part during upshift and downshift are:
Accelerator pedal
Transmission, which includes first gear and final drive ratios and inertias
Transmission control unit, which is responsible for transmission control strategies
Clutch, including clutch actuator and clutch control
ICE , including inertia and engine control strategy
ICE control unit, which is responsible for ICE control strategies
Road profile
Engine speed, shaft 1 and shaft 2 speeds are provided by their own sensors respectively. The vehicle
speed is obtained from the OSS and then differentiated by means of evaluation software programs
such as DIAdem or even MS Excel to get the evaluation parameters acceleration and jerk
respectively. From the acceleration curve, the torque phase time and speed phase time can be
calculated.

Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 21
Hill Assist Control
Hill assistant is a mechanism that prevents the vehicle from rolling backwards down a hill when the
brake pedal is released by the driver. The aim of the mechanism is to increase driving comfort during
hill launch. The implementation of hill hold mechanism for a vehicle with a dry dual clutch
transmission is particularly complicated, since the dry clutch would be closed when the brake pedal
is released on hill. If the hill is too steep or the time taken to actuate the accelerator pedal is too
long, the clutch would get hot and subsequently lose its friction coefficient. To avoid any defect on
the clutch, most of the hill hold strategy used by the automakers is to disengage the clutch and let
the vehicle roll backwards.
It is plausible to measure the hill hold time, t
H
, of a vehicle on different angle of slope. Hill hold time
can be defined as period between releasing the brake pedal until the vehicle starts rolling
backwards. Generally it is preferable to drivers that a vehicle has a long hill hold time, so that a
driver could switch from brake to accelerator pedal without rushing, hence avoiding mistakes such
as rollback or engine stalling.
An additional element which is important for hill hold is the slope sensor. One of the requirements
of the activation of the hill start is that the vehicle needs to be on a slope. However, if the slope
angle is more than the critical angle, the hill hold mechanism would not be activated at all to avoid
hot clutch. The moment when the vehicle starts to roll backwards can be determined from the
speed signal provided by the OSS.
Judder
Judder can be defined as vertical oscillation of a vehicle. Judder usually happens during vehicle
motion at low speed and low accelerator pedal actuation level, which is normally lower than 30%.
Vehicle controls nowadays are optimised to avoid judder at every speed; hence it is very difficult to
get a vehicle to judder intentionally. Evaluation parameters that can be used to measure judder are
the peak to peak values of the vehicle speed oscillation and its frequency. Low amplitude judder can
however be easily detected at sub-gearbox-shafts mainly during engagement of the clutch due to
the unoptimised controller settings.
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 22

Figure 17: Judder during clutch harmonisation
Figure 17 shows a low amplitude judder during clutch harmonisation at launch. The shaft oscillation
does not cause the vehicle to judder, as can be seen from the speed curve of the vehicle most
probably due to the damping in the powertrain.
Change of Mind
Change of mind can be divided further into two sub categories, which is tip in and let off.
Tip in can be defined as quick sudden pressing of the accelerator pedal during deceleration. This can
occur in situation such as when a driver, who is on a branch road, is decelerating to find a gap in
between vehicles on the main road, and as soon as a gap was found, the driver would press the
accelerator pedal quickly to drive his or her vehicle into the gap. The tip in time, t
TI
, which is the time
between the actuation of the accelerator pedal and the moment when the vehicle starts
accelerating, can be used as a criterion to evaluate tip in.
In contrary to tip in, let off is defined as the sudden releasing of accelerator pedal when accelerating
(pressing of accelerator pedal). This can occur when a driver suddenly sees an obstruction in front of
him that needs to be avoided, and quickly releasing the accelerator pedal to actuate the brake pedal.
At this moment the vehicle control unit should be able to detect the drivers request and react as
fast as it can to reduce the vehicle speed. The let off time, t
LO
, is the time period between the release
of the accelerator pedal and the moment when the vehicle starts decelerating.
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 23
The following figure depicts the change of mind driving situation, namely sudden the let off of the
accelerator pedal during driving. As can be seen from the figure, the vehicle only starts to slow down
after 2 s letting off of the accelerator pedal.

Figure 18: Change of mind (let off)
3.3.3 Summary of the Driving Situations
The driving situations explained in the previous sub-chapters are summarised in the table below.
Driving
situation
Description Measurement
instruments
Measurement method &
quantification
Root causes /
corresponding subsystems
Test
data
Launch &
launch
hesitation
Launch hesitation:
defined as the period
between acc pedal
actuation and the
moment when the
vehicle reaches peak
acceleration

Launch:
period from the moment
of peak acceleration
until clutch is fully closed

Total time:
Launch hesitation +
launch

test variation:
-on plane & on slope
-from creep & from
brake
-Acc pedal
potentiometer
-OSS
-ISS
-Sensors on
sub-gearboxes
Potentiometer (sensor) at
acc pedal provides time
when acc pedal is pressed,
Output speed sensor
provides time of
acceleration begin.

'Intersection' of engine
speed and shaft speed to
detect closed clutch.
Sensor at sub-gearbox
shaft provides shaft speed,
input speed sensor (ISS)
provides engine speed.
Signals from sensors
acquired from TCU/ECU
through CAN
Acc pedal
-Transmission
- Clutch
- Clutch Actuation
(electromot. or hyd.)
-Road profile
-Engine
- Inertia
- Delays from ECU (incl.
discreteness)
- ICE control strategy (ICE
speed by control of
torque)
Yes
Theoretical Foundations
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 24
Driving
situation
Description Measurement
instruments
Measurement method &
quantification
Root causes /
corresponding subsystems
Test
data
Creep
Creep:
Vehicle moves forward
when driver shifts to 1st
gear, without pressing
acc pedal
Variation:
-zero pedal, from brake
release
-on fixed grade
-OSS
-ISS
Creep speed and
acceleration provided by
the OSS
-Engine
-Acc pedal
-Transmission
- Clutch controlled in Slip
mode?
- Control towards target
speed?
Yes
Gearshift
(up-/
downshift)
Upshift from gear 1 to
gear 6 / downshift from
6 to 1 under normal
condition.
-Acc pedal
potentiometer
-OSS
-ISS
-Sensors on
sub-gearboxes
Evaluation of shifting
through 'jerk' and velocity
curve of the car
-Acc pedal
-Transmission
- Clutch
- Clutch control (slip)
-Road profile (flat road)
-Engine
- Inertia
- ICE sontrol strategy (ICE
speed by control of
torque)
Yes
Hill hold &
hill assist
control
Hill hold:
Vehicle does not slip
down when driver
switch from brake pedal
to acc pedal on hill

Measure maximum
holding time at certain
slope

Variation of strategy:
-closing of clutch
- brake assistance
-Slope sensor
-Acc pedal
sensor
-OSS
-ISS
-Sensors on
sub-gearboxes
-Brake signal
Slope sensor,OSS provides
time when the vehicle
begins to slip. Signal from
acc pedal must be zero!


Indentify brake assistance
strategy through brake
signal, clutch closing
through shaft speed
sensor and ISS
-Transmission
- Thermal model for
clutch
-Road profile
-(brake/brake assistance)
Yes
Judder
Judder:
Vibration during idle and
low vehicle velocity
-Acc pedal
sensor
-OSS
-ISS
-Sensors on
sub-gearboxes
(-Slope sensor)
Evaluation of shifting
through 'jerk' and velocity
curve of the car
- Transmission
- Clutch with "capability
for judder"
Yes
Change of
mind
-tip in
-let off
Tip in:
Quick sudden pressing
of the acc pedal during
deceleration. Instead of
shifting down, stay at
the same gear and
anticipate next move of
the driver.

Let off:
Qquick sudden releasing
of the acc pedal during
acceleration. Instead of
shifting up, stay at the
same gear and
anticipate next move of
the driver.
-Accelerator
pedal
potentiometer
-OSS
-ISS
-Sensors on
sub-gearboxes
Period between tipping
the accelerator pedal until
the car starts accelerating
is calculated.
Measurement same as
'launch hesitation'.


Period between let off of
the accelerator pedal until
the car starts decelerating
is calculated.
Measurement same as
'launch hesitation'.
-Acc pedal
-Transmission
- Shift Strategy
-(Engine)
Partially
avail-
able
Table 2: Summary of the driving situations
After careful consideration regarding the time frame of the thesis and the workload, the driving
situations launch, creep, upshift and downshift were chosen to be simulated.
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 25
4 Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
This chapter deals with the modelling of the simulation sub-systems by using the chosen reference
vehicle. Besides the model setup, variable parameters used and model complexity variations are also
presented in the following chapters. This chapter would be the prerequisite to understanding
chapter 5, which presents the simulation results.
4.1 Overview of the Complexity of the Simulation Model
The following table depicts the overview for the simulation done for this thesis. There are a total of 5
submodels that needed to be modelled, which are the engine, clutch actuator, car, gears and
synchronizers, and the control system.

Launch Upshift Downshift
from
Brake
From
Creep
Launch
on
slope
1-4 Power off Power on
(gear 2-1) (gear 4-3)
Engine Basic
x x x x x x
Extended
x x x

Complex

Clutch-Actuator Basic
x x x x x x
Extended



Complex
x x

x (gear 1-2)

Car Basic

Complex
x x x x x x
Gears & Synchronizer Basic
x x x x x x
Control

Direct
x x

Flow diagram
x x x x x x
Table 3: Overview of the simulation model complexity

Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 26
The variable parameters and the evaluation criteria for each driving situations are listed in table 4.

Launch Upshift Downshift
from
Brake
From Creep Launch on
slope
1-4 Power off Power on
(gear 2-1) (gear 4-3)
Variable
parameters


Acc pedal position
(1,0 - 0,3)
x x x x

x
Slope

x

Friction coefficient
x x x

Evaluation
criteria






Launch
x x x

Launch hesitation
x x x

Cross-fading time


x x x
Total shift time


x x x
Jerk


x x x
Max. creep speed
x x x

Max. slope
x x x


Table 4: Overview of the variable parameters and evaluation criteria for the simulation
4.2 Simulation Components in AMESim
Simulation components in AMESim are called submodel and usually consist of one or more ports. It
is important to understand that the number of ports does not necessarily represent the number of
input or output. A port can consist of multiple numbers of input or output and at the same time the
combination of both input and output.

Figure 19: Rotary load in AMESim
Figure 19 shows as an example a rotary load with two shafts and friction in AMESim. The two shafts
represent the ports of the submodel. As can be seen, the both shafts consist of inputs and outputs at
the same time. The left shaft has an input torque and provides an output angular speed, whereby
the right shaft has an input torque, which can occur because of reaction force from other connected
component, and an output angular acceleration.

Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 27
4.3 Reference Car
The car that is used as a reference for the simulation is one of a b-segment class car. Some of the
examples in this class include VW Polo, Ford Fiesta and Peugeot 206. Further information about the
engine, transmission and other submodels are presented together with their simulation models in
the following sub-chapters.
The general information of the car is summarised in the following table. The information is provided
by hofer internal.
Curb weight 1110 kg
Maximum speed 190 km/h
Acceleration 1-100 km/h 10.0 s
Drag coefficient c
w
0.3
Front cross-section area A
F
2.2 m
2

Fuel type Gasoline
Fuel consumption urban/outside urban/combined 7.8/4.5/5.8 (litre/100 km)
CO
2
Emission 133 g/km
Tyres 195/50 R 15 H
Power density 0.09 kW/kg
Table 5: Technical data of the reference b-segment car
The following figure presents the vehicle model in Amesim. The vehicle submodel is a 2D submodel
with 3 degrees of freedoms due to its longitudinal, vertical and pitch translation. Basic geometrical
parameters of the vehicle such as its mass, centre of gravity position, pitch inertia, wheelbase and
track dimensions, cross-section area and drag coefficient were set in this submodel. The inputs into
the vehicle part are the headwind speed, longitudinal forces partly due to the road profile and drive
torque from the powertrain via the tyres and shock absorbers. The vehicle submodel provides the
output of distance, speed and acceleration of the vehicle in all three degrees of freedoms. Spring
and damping coefficient of the car suspensions were set in the respective model, while parameters
such as tyre types and tyre dynamic rolling radius were set in the wheel and tyre submodel. The
wheel and tyre submodel has the outputs of drive torque on the road and longitudinal and vertical
forces on the vehicle carbody. Its inputs are torque from the powertrain, input torque resulting from
the friction with the road and the brake signal (can be set as brake torque, brake force or in %). The
road profile also enables the user to set the inclination and the condition of the road, such as dry or
slippery road.
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 28

Figure 20: AMESim model of the b-segment car
The inertia of the tyres and wheels as well as the car suspension stiffness and damping were set as
following.
Wheel and tyres: J = 1 kgm
2
; r
dyn
= 0.270 m
Car suspension: c = 20000 N/m; d = 2000 Ns/m

Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 29
4.4 Reference Transmission: Getrag Powershift 6DCT250

Figure 21: Getrag Powershift 6DCT250 Transmission [7]
The reference transmission used to investigate the comfort criteria of a DCT is the Getrag Powershift
6DCT250 Transmission. It is developed together by Getrag and Ford, and is mainly targeted for the B-
and C-segment vehicles. The main target of its development is to achieve better fuel consumption
than any other automatic transmission. It is claimed that this transmission shows 10-20%
improvement of fuel consumption compared to the state of art planetary automatic transmission
with torque converter. Besides better fuel consumption, by using electromechanical concept for the
clutches and gear actuations, a reduction in CO
2
emission is achieved.
The Getrag 6DCT250 is a three shaft design transmission developed for B and C-segment vehicles of
Ford and Renault vehicles with front-transverse engine position. Since the transmission uses the dry
dual clutch system, the torque capacity of the transmission is limited to maximum 250 Nm. No
additional cooling system for the dry dual clutches is required. The important information of this
transmission is summarised in the table below.
Weight 75kg (without EM)
Length 350-380 mm
Clutches Dry single plate dual clutches
Clutch actuation Electromechanical
Clutch torque capacity 250 Nm
Gears 6 forward gears, 1 reverse gear
Drive mode Automatic, manual (sequential)
Oil Volume 1.7-1.9 litre
Table 6: Technical data of Getrag Powershift 6DCT250 transmission [7]
4.4.1 Dry Dual Clutches
The dual clutches in the Getrag transmission were designed according to variant 2 of dry dual clutch
(see chapter 3.1.1 Dry Dual Clutches), which uses friction plate integrated with torque damper for
each clutch. This design is favourable for applications with low engine excitation such as for petrol
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 30
application. The clutches are axially supported by a support bearing on the hollow shaft and radially
supported on the crankshaft.

Figure 22: Cross-section view of Getrag 6DCT250 dry dual clutches [7]
Figure 23 describes the dual clutch model in AMESim. The clutch is modelled as two rotating bodies
with a common rotation axis. It uses the coulomb friction model which is represented as follows. The
input of the clutch is set to normal force, F
normal
.

(4.1)
The coulomb friction model is extended with the tanh function that helps eliminate the difculty in
determining the friction force at zero sliding speed both at start up and at direction change. This
model is more numerically stable than the coulomb-viscous friction model [12]. The friction force
developed at the contact can be described as following.

]
(4.2)
Whereby V
rel
is the relative speed of the two rotating bodies and dV is the rotating speed threshold.
F
dyn
is the coulomb friction force and can be calculated from the input normal force F
normal
and
coefficient of friction
dyn
[13].
An inertia-element is connected to each clutch, and this inertia represents the reduced inertia of the
clutch and the involving gears on each subgearbox-shaft. Appropriate viscous friction value can also
be set if needed. The parameters of the inertia are set as below.

Friction disks
Pressure plate 2
Pressure plate 1
Flywheel
Flexplate
Torque dampers
Support bearing
Cover
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 31
Reduced inertia, J = (0.005 0.01) kgm
2

Viscous friction coefficient, d = (0.0 0.001) Nm/(rev/min)

Figure 23: Dry dual clutch model in AMESim
4.4.2 Electromechanical Actuator of the Dual Clutches

Figure 24: LuK actuator unit for Ford 6DCT250 dual clutch transmission [8]
Figure 24 shows the arrangement of the clutch actuator motors on the dual clutch unit. The actuator
motor, also known as electronically commutated motor (or simply EC-Motor), has a range of power
from 110-170 Watt. However, the limit of continuous loading is approximately 20 Watt of electrical
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 32
energy input to avoid thermal overload of the EC-Motor. The dual clutch actuator, together with the
dual clutch unit, is developed by LuK and uses a simple lever actuator concept.
The mechanism of the lever actuator can be explained using the following figure of a simple lever. A
preloaded spring will provide the spring force F
spring
on one end of the lever. By varying the position
of the pivot by means of the EC-Motor via a ball screw (see also chapter 3.1.1 Dry Dual Clutches),
variable clutch actuation force on the other end of the lever can be achieved.


Figure 25: Lever concept (left) and clutch actuator unit (right) [4]
Thus, by referring figure 25 (left) the clutch actuator force, F
clutch
, can be calculated as following.



(4.3)

Figure 26: Clutch actuator (for launch)
At the early phase of the simulation, a simple PID controller was used to model the slip controlled
clutch actuation (figure 26). The actual slip is calculated from the difference between feedback
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 33
engine speed and shaft speed. The desired slip input is given. The desired slip is located at the
negative port to make sure that the input value into the PID controller is positive to further avoid
negative output force from the controller. The limiter also serves the same purpose. A PT1-Filter is
connected at the output to smoothen the output clutch force.
To simulate gear shifting during driving, the clutch actuator was enhanced to include torque
controller during clutch cross-fading phase. The torque controller also uses a PID-controller with the
input of error between actual and desired torque and the output of clutch actuator force.

Figure 27: Clutch actuator for launch and gearshift
A more complex model of the clutch actuator was later built to take the power limit of the actuator
motor and the friction force caused by the normal force acting on the lever pivot into account. The
actuator is still slip-controlled; hence using the same input as the previous actuator model. A torque
limiter was placed for the actuator motor. The upper and lower torque limit, T
U/L
is calculated as
follows, whereby the maximum power of the actuator motor is set as 110W and the actuator shaft
rotation speed, n
EM
, can be read from the rotational speed sensor element connected to its shaft.


|
(4.3)
The friction torque acting on the pivot is a function of the output clutch force is calculated as
follows.

(4.4)
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 34
These defined equations were set as a function in the new actuator model. The implementation of a
variable PID-controller enables the user to use only one PID-controller for both slip control as well as
cross-fading control. Only the input to the controller needed to be switched using the signal switch
element (input error from torque during cross-fading, input error from slip during other condition).
Endstop elements were added to set the maximum distance of the actuator. The following figure
presents the more complex clutch actuator modelled for the simulation.

Figure 28: Complex model of the clutch actuator
4.4.3 Gears and Gear Actuators
The Getrag 6DCT250 transmission is a 3 shaft design type transmission, which enables a compact
design for small and medium size vehicles. It has 6 forward gears and 1 reverse gear. The low gears
(1
st
and 2
nd
gears), which requires high torque capacity transfer, are synchronised with double cone
synchronisers whereas the rest of the gears are synchronised with single cone synchronisers. The
intermediate gear required to change the direction of the vehicle in reverse gear is integrated
together with the idle 2
nd
gear, thus saving space of an extra shaft for the reverse gear.
The input shaft 1, which is actuated by clutch 1, is responsible for the actuation of the odd gears (1
st
,
3
rd
and 5
th
gear) while the input shaft 2 for the even gears (2
nd
, 4
th
and 6
th
gear). The idle gears of the
1
st
, 2
nd
, 5
th
and 6
th
gear are located on the output shaft 1 while the idle gears of the 3
rd
, 4
th
and
reverse gear are on the output shaft 2. Both output shafts are connected to the differential. Thus,
while driving in a certain gear, the power flows from the ICE through the clutch and input shaft,
depending either on odd or even gear, and then through the respective output shaft to the
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 35
differential and the tyres. An exception for the reverse gear, the power flows firstly through the
intermediate gear which is integrated to the idle 2
nd
gear on output shaft 1, to the idle reverse gear
on output shaft 2 and lastly to the differential and tyres. Thus, a change of direction can be achieved.
Figure 28 presents the layout of the Getrag 6DCT250 transmission.

Figure 29: Getrag Powershift 6DCT250 transmission layout [7]
The following table summarises the location of each idle gear, the gear ratios for each gear and the
total ratio of each gear after multiplication with the final drive ratio.
Input Gears Output Gear ratio Final drive ratio Total ratio
Input shaft 1
(Clutch 1)
1 Output shaft 1 3.92 3.89 15.2488
3 Output shaft 2 1.44 4.35 6.264
5 Output shaft 1 0.87 3.89 3.3843
Input shaft 2
(Clutch 2)
2 Output shaft 1 2.43 3.89 9.4527
4 Output shaft 2 1.02 4.35 4.437
6 Output shaft 1 0.70 3.89 2.723
R Output shaft 2 3.51 4.35 15.2685
Table 7: Gear ratio of Getrag Powershift 6DCT250 Transmission
The transmission gear sets were modelled using the 3 ports gear submodel and the 4 ports idle gear
submodel. The idle gear submodel must be used with together with the half synchroniser submodel
for it to fully function. By using the gear submodels provided by AMESim, the user can set the
geometry of the gears, as an example the working transverse pressure angle,
tw
and helix angle, .
However, the parameters used for the simulation in this thesis were only the working radius and the
constant gear efficiency. As mentioned before, the inertia for the participating gear is reduced to a
single inertia for each shaft (see chapter 4.4.1). The differential is not modelled for the simulation
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 36
since the driving situations simulated were assumed to have been done on a straight road; hence no
influence from the differential. The differential ratio is already included in the final ratio gear. The
powertrain model is built as the following in AMESim.

Figure 30: Transmission model in AMESim
The Getrag 6DCT250 transmission uses an electromechanical gear actuator, which comprises two
actuator motors, one for each output shaft. A shift drum, which is designed with groove around it, is
linked to the actuator motor via two intermediate gears. Each shift drum with groove is responsible
for two shift forks on its respective output shaft. During actuation, because of the groove design, the
rotating shift drum would slide the shift fork axially and the shift fork, which is attached to the
synchronizer, will engage the desired idle gear.

Figure 31: Gear actuator of Getrag Powershift 6DCT250 Transmission [7]

Actuator motors
Intermediate gears
Shift drums
Shift forks
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 37
Due to the pre-select gear mechanism of the dual clutch transmission, gear synchronisation does not
have a big influence on the comfort during gear shifting. So, the gear pre-engage and disengaging
mechanism was simplified with a logic function of binary signal (0/1) as an input for the AMESim
synchroniser model. Attention should be paid to the gear pre-select logic, so that there is no double
overlapping of pre-select, to avoid unnecessary energy loss due to the extra inertia.
The following figure shows the gear shift diagram for upshift and downshift of the transmission from
gear 1 to 4 and vice versa. The input parameters are accelerator pedal position and the actual
vehicle speed. The gear shift diagram is designed so that gear upshift occurs at low rpm for low
accelerator pedal actuation for a fuel efficient drive. At high accelerator pedal position, which signals
a need for high load, the gear upshift occurs at high rpm. The normal lines represent upshift curves
while the dotted lines represent the downshift curves.

Figure 32: Gearshift diagram for gear 1 to gear 4

Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 38
4.5 Reference Engine: 1.6 Ti-VCT

Figure 33: 1.6 Ti-VCT engine [11]
The ICE used as a reference is the 1.6 TI-VCT Engine. It is a small inline four cylinder engine with 1.6
litre volume. The Ti-VCT stands for Twin independent Variable Camshaft Timing. The current
model is from the year 2010 and complies with the Euro 5 emission level. The important information
of the engine is summarised in the table below.
Design type Inline four cylinder engine
Cylinder capacity 1596 cm
3

Injection system Multi point fuel injection with fuel pump and
piezo injectors
Maximum power 88 kW @ 6000 rpm
Maximum Torque 152 Nm @ 4050 rpm
Compression 11.0:1
Emission level Euro 5
Table 8: Technical data of the reference engine [9] [10]
With the information of maximum power and torque provided, a curve of torque vs. rpm at
maximum throttle/accelerator pedal position was generated. Automakers normally do not disclose
the characteristic curve of their engine torque. Thus, further curves at different accelerator pedal
position were estimated using the maximum value curve as reference. These curves altogether
represent the engine operating map, which is needed for the modelling of the ICE in the simulation
model. The following figure presents the torque vs. rpm curves at different accelerator pedal
position for the 1.6 Ti-VCT engine. One non negligible part of the engine operating map is the
negative torque at 0% accelerator pedal actuation, which is caused by the drag torque from the
engine and rotating components of the powertrain.

Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 39

Figure 34: Engine torque characteristic curve
The following figure presents the vehicle engine modelled in AMESim. The engine is modelled as the
characteristic curve of figure 34 with the accelerator pedal position as the input, the engine speed
and as the feedback input and the engine torque as output. The engine is equipped with a PI-
Controller as the engine limit speed controller. The controller has the engine speed input and
equipped with a limiter at the input. The lower limit is set at idle speed (800 rev/min) while the
upper limit at 6500 rev/min. If the engine speed is outside the allowed range, the error builds up at
the summation point and hence the PI-controller is activated. The controller output will act on the
accelerator pedal signal (e.g. throttle signal) by increasing the input if the engine speed is below the
idle speed or by decreasing the input if the engine speed exceeds the maximum limit speed.

Figure 35: Engine model in AMESim
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 40
4.6 Control System
There are two possible methods of modelling the control systems in by AMESim. The first one is
modelling with the provided signal blocks. This type of control system is advantageous for a simple
and small control loop, since it provides a clear overview of the control loop. Simulation of a driving
situation normally requires more than one stage transition. To realise these transitions, the signal
switch element needed to be used. The signal switch element however does not allow a rapid
change (e.g. step type of signal) due to its discontinuity handling. Thus, to implement a control
system of a driving situation consisting of a number of stages, control loops with a lot of signal
switch elements are not preferred.

Figure 36: Direct control system
However if one has more than one control loop with a lot of input and output parameters, control
system modelling with the Sequential Function Chart (SFC) is preferred. The SFC is a graphical
programming language based on GRAFCET. The SFC enables the user to model control system that is
split into stages (similar to the flow chart method) and is used with a BUS line. The control model
consists of 3 submodel types, the SFC step and action, the SFC transition and condition and the
control supercomponent. The SFC step and action submodel controls the activation of the
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 41
supercomponents. One SFC step and action submodel represents one stage in a flow chart, but not
limited to the number of control supercomponent assigned. When a certain predetermined
condition is fulfilled, a transition to the next stage occurs. This condition can be defined in the SFC
transition and condition. Using the jump branch in combination with the SFC transition and
condition, a decision junction such as one in a flow chart can be modelled. Control system
modelling with the SFC has a big advantage in terms of parameter settings, since the parameters of
the submodels from the signal and control library can be re-defined in the control submodels of each
stage. Other advantages include a more orderly modelling and can avoid discontinuities that occur
from transition modelling with the signal switch.

Figure 37: Control system with AMESim Sequential Function Chart
Figure 36 and 37 show the complete AMESim model for the driving situation launch. Initially the
driving situation was modelled directly, as presented in figure 36. As a preparation for model
expansion to accommodate other driving situations, modelling with the sequential function chart
was chosen instead of the direct control system. The engine speed controller in figure 36, which
cannot be seen in figure 37, is actually built in the control supercomponent of stage 2 and is only
activated when stage 2 is activated. The submodels which build the clutch actuator are grouped as
one supercomponent.

Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 42
4.6.1 Launch / Moving Off
The clutch is predominantly responsible for the vehicle launch in a vehicle with automated
transmission. Hence, a clutch control with the right launch strategy needed to be modelled for the
vehicle model in AMESim. Before proceeding to the control stages of launch, it is important to know
that the simulation model for launch has an extra PID controller to control the engine speed during
engagement of the clutch. The engine speed controller maintains a constant engine shaft speed as it
waits for the clutch to fully engage.

Figure 38: Engine speed controller
The desired engine speed is a function of the accelerator pedal position. The increase in desired
engine speed is proportional to the increase of accelerator pedal position. The desired engine speed
curve is displayed below.

Figure 39: Desired engine speed curve
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 43
The following figure describes the control stages that take place during vehicle launch. This includes
the variation of launch from creep and launch from brake.
Initial stage
Vehicle stationary
Engine speed is on idle speed

Transition condition:
Accelerator pedal not pressed and 1 s delay
-If accelerator pedal pressed, bypass stage 1
(launch from brake)

Stage 1
First gear selected
Clutch engaged with slip to bring vehicle to
creep
Stage bypassed if accelerator pedal
engaged

Transition condition:
Accelerator pedal pressed

Stage 2
Full clutch engagement begins
Engine speed controller limits the engine
speed


Transition condition:
Target engine speed reached
Equality of engine and shaft speed



Stage 3
Clutch fully engaged

Figure 40: Control stages during launch in flowchart view
The following figure describes the stages of launch from creep observed from the engine and shaft
speed.
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 44

Figure 41: Launch from creep
As presented in figure 41, the simulation begins with the engine speed at constant idle speed of 800
rev/min and the shaft 1 speed of 0 rev/min. At 1 s, clutch torque starts to increase indicating the
beginning of stage 1. The vehicle accelerates until it reaches the creep speed and continues moving
with constant creep speed. At 4 s, the driver actuates the accelerator pedal and stage 2 begins.
Clutch torque starts to increase. The engine speed also increases until around 2000 rev/min and
stays constant due to the engine speed controller. The engine speed controller is set with a relatively
high value for the proportional and integral gain to make sure that the clutch actuation has only little
influence on the engine shaft speed and keep the engine speed constant at this stage. The desired
value of the target engine speed is set according to the accelerator pedal position, i.e. the higher the
accelerator pedal position, the higher the desired value of the target engine speed (see also Figure
39). At 5.2 s, speed equality of engine and shaft 1 is reached and the clutch is fully engaged.
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 45

Figure 42: Launch from brake
During launch from brake, the accelerator pedal is actuated before creep starts, causing the vehicle
to move off before it enters the creep phase. From the flowchart (see Figure 40), the control skips
stage 1 and goes directly to stage 2. This is also displayed in figure 42, when the accelerator pedal is
actuated at 0.9s, and a transition from the initial stage to stage 2 occurs. The rest of the stages are
similar to launch from creep.
4.6.2 Upshift
The clutch-to-clutch shifting process, which normally occurs in a DCT, mainly consists of two parts,
the torque phase and the speed phase. During the torque phase of upshift, torque is transferred
from the off going clutch to the oncoming clutch. This process is also called clutch cross-fading. At
the speed phase, the engine speed is synchronised to the shaft speed of the oncoming clutch [3].

Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 46
The upshift (here gear 1 to gear 2) is also modelled with the SFC in AMESim and consists of 5 stages.
Initial stage
Vehicle accelerating constantly in gear 1 due to constant
accelerator pedal position

Transition condition:
Upshift curve crossed
-Upshift curve defined in gearshift diagram (see Figure 32)

Stage 1
Reduction of clutch 1 torque
Control of clutch 2 torque increase to maintain constant
micro slip between engine speed and shaft 1 speed
Also known as torque phase /cross-fading phase

Transition condition:
Clutch 1 does not transfer torque anymore

Stage 2
Reduction of engine torque to decelerate engine speed to
shaft 2 speed
Complete disengagement of clutch 1
Also known as speed phase

Transition condition:
Equality of engine speed and shaft 2 speed

Stage 3
Engine torque brought back to normal
Clutch 2 fully engaged

Transition condition:
Time delay of 0.05 s to 0.1 s


Stage 4
Disengagement of gear 1
Preselect gear 3

Figure 43: Control stages during upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 in flowchart view

Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 47
During stage3, the reduction of the engine torque (also known as torque down) is controlled by a
PID-controller. The desired engine torque is a function of accelerator pedal position. The input of the
engine torque controller is the error between desired engine torque and actual engine torque and
the output is the accelerator pedal position.

Figure 44: Engine torque controller
The following figure describes the stages of upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 based on the engine speed
and shaft speed curves as well as the torque curves.

Figure 45: Upshift from gear 1 to gear 2
Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 48
At the initial stage, the vehicle is accelerating constantly due to the constant accelerator pedal
position. Shaft 2 is also rotating due to the pre-engaged gear 2. Stage 1 starts at 2.75 s, as the
torque of the off going clutch (clutch 1) starts reducing its torque capacity, due to the upshift curve
of gear 1 to gear 2 crossed (see Figure 32). To maintain a micro slip between the engine and shaft 1,
the oncoming clutch (clutch 2) engagement begins. At 3.05 s, clutch 1 is fully disengaged, signalling
the transition to stage 2. The engine torque is reduced to decelerate the engine speed to the speed
of shaft 2. Stage 3 begins as soon as speed equality of the engine and shaft 2 is reached at 3.48 s.
The engine speed is brought back to normal and clutch 2 is fully engaged. At 3.54 s (stage 4), gear 1
is disengaged and gear 3 is pre-engaged. The disengagement and pre-engagement of gears causes a
little disruption to the torque progression, as can be seen at gear 3.54 s.
4.6.3 Downshift
Downshift of a gear during driving is further differentiated to two types, precisely the power on
downshift and the power on upshift. Similar to the upshift process of a DCT, downshift also consists
of the known two parts, the torque phase and the speed phase. However, the order of the two
phases is reversed for power on downshift but is the same for power off downshift. The control
strategy of a downshift process is also completely different compared to upshift [3]. The following
figure can be used to differentiate between power on downshift and power up downshift.

Figure 46: Gearshift diagram areas

Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 49
Power on downshift occurs when more torque is needed compared to the maximum torque offered
at the actual gear. In this case, the driver may have further pressed the accelerator pedal in a short
period, signifying the need of more torque for acceleration. Power on downshift can only occur at
the positive torque region. In the case of this thesiss simulation model, the positive torque is above
the 15 % of accelerator pedal actuation, as highlighted in figure 46. Using figure 46 as a reference,
the driver presses the accelerator pedal from 50 % further to 100 % at vehicle speed of 55 km/h. The
downshift-line is crossed at around 60 % of accelerator pedal actuation and hence a downshift from
gear 4 to gear 3 occurs. In special cases a crossing of more than one downshift-line can occur,
causing a multiple gear downshift.
Power off downshift can only take place during deceleration of a vehicle. A vehicle deceleration can
occur because of braking or simply due to a very little or no actuation of actuator pedal, which
causes a negative torque on the clutch. Referring to figure 46, at 0 % accelerator pedal actuation, the
vehicle is decelerating. As the vehicle decelerates, it crosses the downshift-line at around 10 km/h
and a power off downshift from gear 2 to gear 1 occurs. As the engine shaft reaches the idle speed,
the clutch is disengaged to avoid the engine from stalling.


Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 50
Power On Downshift
The power on downshift (here gear 4 to gear 3) was modelled in AMESim and consists of 4 stages.
Power on downshift differs from upshift in terms of the order of torque and speed phase, which is
reversed. A control strategy during speed phase of increasing the engine torque to accelerate the
engine speed to the speed of oncoming shaft is implemented by automakers. However it works only
if there is available reserve torque (accelerator pedal is not fully pressed by the driver during
acceleration demand). The engine torque increase strategy is not implemented in this simulation.
The following flowchart presents the 4 stages during power on downshift.
Initial stage
Vehicle acceleration increase due to accelerator pedal
actuation from 50 % to 100 %
Next low gear (gear 3 is preselected)
Transition condition:
Downshift curve crossed due to increase in accelerator pedal
position

Stage 1
Clutch 2 torque reduction to half of its original value to
accelerate engine speed to oncoming shaft speed (helped by
engine torque increase due to demand from driver)
Also known as speed phase

Transition condition:
Speed equality of engine and shaft 1

Stage 2
Clutch 2 torque further reduced to 0.
Clutch 1 torque increased through control for micro slip
between engine and oncoming shaft

Transition condition:
Clutch 2 does not transfer torque anymore


Stage 3
Clutch 1 fully engaged


Figure 47: Control stages during power on downshift for gear 4 to gear 3 in flowchart view

Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 51

Figure 48: power on downshift for gear 4 to gear 3
Figure 48 can assist the description of power on downshift stages of gear 4 to gear 3. In the initial
stage, the driver is actuating the accelerator pedal at a constant position. At this stage, it is still
possible to accelerate to a certain degree, as can be seen from the engine torque curve. However, at
around 2.68 s, the desired torque exceeds the torque capacity supplied by the current gear, thus a
power on downshift to the next low gear begins. At stage 1, which is the speed phase, the torque
capacity of clutch 2 is reduced to half of its initial amount to assist the acceleration of engine speed
to shaft 1 speed. As soon as speed equality of the engine and shaft 1 is reached, transition to stage
2, also called the torque phase, begins. The torque capacity of clutch 2 is further reduced to zero and
at the same time, clutch 1 is engaged to bring micro slip between the engine and shaft 1. Finally at
stage 3, clutch 1 is fully engaged as soon as clutch 2 disengages.

Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 52
Power Off Downshift
The order of the torque phase and speed phase during power off downshift is the same as that of
upshift. For the simulation of this driving situation in AMESim, clutch actuation force is controlled
during clutch cross-fading instead of the of clutch torque, since the negative torque on the clutch
due to the drag torque is difficult to control. Negative value of desired slip is used for slip control due
to the transmission shafts rotating faster than the engine shaft. The clutch control during power
off downshift consists of 4 stages.
Initial stage
Vehicle decelerating in gear 2 at 0 % accelerator pedal
actuation
Gear 1 preselected

Transition condition:
Downshift curve crossed due to vehicle deceleration

Stage 1
Clutch 2 actuation force reduced to 0
Clutch 1 slip controlled to maintain the current condition
(moving with clutch 2s speed)
Also known as torque phase

Transition condition:
Clutch 2 disengages, does not transfer any more torque

Stage 2
Clutch 1 force further increased as clutch 2 completely
disengages
Also known as speed phase

Transition condition:
Speed equality of engine and shaft 1

Stage 3
Clutch 1 fully engages and slip controlled
Figure 49: Control stages during power on downshift for gear 2 to gear 1 in flowchart view

Simulation Model Setup and Parameterisation
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 53
Figure 50 presents the power off downshift from gear 2 to gear 1 simulated in AMESim.

Figure 50: Power off downshift for gear 2 to gear 1
In the initial stage, the vehicle is decelerating due to the low accelerator pedal actuation and at 1.1 s
a complete release of the accelerator pedal. At around 1.58 s, stage 1 begins. The actuation force of
clutch 2 is reduced constantly while clutch 1 is actuated through control to make sure that there the
engine shaft is still rotating with the same speed as the shaft 2 speed. As clutch 2 completely
disengages, which signals the start of stage 2, clutch 1 actuation force is further increased to
accelerate the engine shaft to the speed of shaft 1. As the engine speed reaches approximately the
same value as the shaft 1 speed, the clutch 1 is slip-controlled again, and clutch 1 adapted its
actuation force to keep a constant slip between engine shaft and shaft 1.

Evaluation of Results
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 54
5 Evaluation of Results
A variety of results were obtained from the simulation due to the variable parameters and
simulation model variation. These results are the pre-defined evaluation criteria as defined under
chapter 3.3.2 (see also Table 4).
5.1 Script/Apps for Evaluation of Results
Python scripts were written for each simulation model to design Apps for each model (see also
chapter 2.1). With one click of the App, the needed simulation results can be extracted. In addition
to the simulation results, the respective areas where the comfort criteria are evaluated can also be
displayed.

Figure 51: Form window for base App (right) and scripted App for evaluation (left)
Figure 51 displays the App designed for the evaluation. On the right is the Form window for the base
App. The form window must contain a Qwidget, which prepares an area for the plot. A script was
written to display the curves used for evaluation in the Qwidget. From the curves, the results of the
evaluation criteria were calculated and displayed in the ready-made LCD widgets. The calculations
however were also done in the script written for the App. The script is written in the programming
language Python and its extensions (scipy, numpy).
The python scripts for evaluation of each driving situation can be found in the appendix.
Evaluation of Results
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 55
5.2 Evaluation of Simulation Results
To investigate the effect of variable value of a parameter on the result, a simulation must be run for
each value of the parameter. AMESim however have a function called batch run, which enables
the user to run simulations with variable parameter values sequentially. The variable batch
parameters are set in parameter mode, and in simulation mode the user can select batch run.
This enables the presentation of different curves of a simulation due to the variable parameter
values, and is really useful for comparison of results for variable values of a parameter. This function
is used to vary the accelerator pedal between 30 % to 100 % actuation, the road slope value and the
friction coefficient value of the clutch plates.
5.2.1 Launch/Moving Off
In this thesis, the situation of launch is further divided to three variations, launch from brake, launch
from creep and launch on hill. Launch from brake and launch from creep were done on plane. For
launch on hill, it was simulated from creep. This way, the maximum creep speed on a slope as well as
launch hesitation and launch time can be measured.
Launch from Creep
During launch from creep, the accelerator pedal is actuated only after a constant creep speed is
reached (see also 4.6.1). To evaluate launch, the evaluation parameters launch hesitation, t
LH
and
launch, t
L
and total time t
T
are used (see chapter 3.3.2 Launch and 3.3.3).
Figure 52 displays launch from creep for 4 cases due to the different accelerator pedal position.
Some of the description of the figures in the following chapters might use the terms such as stage
and transition condition which are already defined in chapter 4.6 and its subchapters. The
acceleration fall to 0 m/s
2
at the end for each curve is due to the speed limiter at maximum speed.
Gear upshift to the next gear (here gear 2) is not simulated in the simulation model to evaluate
launch / moving off.

Evaluation of Results
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 56

Figure 52: Launch from creep with simple clutch actuator model (see chapter 4.4.2)
The accelerator pedal is actuated within a period of 0.2 s in each case. Only the end actuation
position is different, which are 100 %, 70 %, 50 % and 30 % respectively. Referring to the engine and
shaft 1 speed, there is a difference between the curve gradient of each case after the clutch is fully
engaged. This is due to the different loads from the engine as a respond to the accelerator pedal
position. The maximum acceleration of each case is also different due to the same reason. At 4 s,
stage 2 begins due to the accelerator pedal pressed. The engine speed should have increased
instantaneously to the desired engine speed as soon as the stage begins. However, the clutch
actuation which also begins quite early drags the engine shaft and reduces the gradient.
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Launch from creep with simple actuator model
Accelerator pedal
position [%]
Launch hesitation t
LH

[s]
Launch t
L
[s]
Total time t
T
[s]
100 0.30 0.52 0.82
70 0.32 0.61 0.93
50 0.31 0.83 1.14
30 0.15 1.02 1.17
Table 9: Evaluation criteria for launch from creep with simple actuator model
The clutch full engagement time is longer the lower the accelerator position is. For accelerator pedal
position higher than 50 %, the launch hesitation time of around 0.3 s is achieved. The launch time
increases with decreasing accelerator pedal position. Even though a low desired engine speed is set
for low accelerator pedal position, the low load causes a late full clutch engagement. Initial
acceleration until 30 % accelerator pedal actuation in each case is the same. This is confirmed from
the acceleration curve of figure 52 and the launch hesitation at 30 % pedal actuation is half of the
rest.
The same evaluation was done using the complex clutch actuation model and the following figure 53
was obtained.
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Figure 53: Launch from creep with the complex clutch actuator model (see chapter 4.4.2)
The engine shaft accelerates quite instantaneously to the desired speed as soon as stage 2 begins
because of the late begin of clutch actuation. From the shaft 1 speed, it can be deciphered that the
maximum creep speed is also reached a little later compared to that of the simple clutch actuator
model. The clutch full engagement time is in total longer for every case. The controller parameter for
pedal position of 30 % at full clutch engagement is not fully optimised, as displayed by the high
acceleration overshoot at around 7 s.

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Launch from creep with complex actuator model
Accelerator pedal
position [%]
Launch hesitation t
LH

[s]
Launch t
L
[s]
Total time t
T
[s]
100 0.75 0.42 1.12
70 0.78 0.49 1.27
50 0.81 0.63 1.44
30 0.74 2.01 2.75
Table 10: Evaluation criteria for launch from creep with complex actuator model
The total time confirms the generally late full clutch engagement from the application of the
complex clutch actuator. The launch hesitation is more than twice longer compared to that of the
simple clutch actuator due to the limited power and hence the torque limit of the actuator motor.
The total time increases around 0.3 s if compared with the total time using the simple clutch
actuator model. The application of the complex clutch actuator for the simulation of launch is thus
more realistic.

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Launch from Brake
For launch from brake, the accelerator pedal is actuated before vehicle creep begins. One pre-
assumption that can be made is that the full clutch engagement period is longer than that of the
launch from creep because of the bigger speed difference between the engine shaft and shaft 1 in
the beginning. Launch from brake was also done using both clutch actuator model. The results would
then be compared to launch from creep according to their respective actuator model (launch from
creep with simple actuator model with launch from brake with simple actuator model, and the same
for complex actuator model).

Figure 54: Launch from brake with simple clutch actuator model
Table 11 presents the evaluation criteria for launch from brake with the simple actuator model.
Launch from brake with simple actuator model
Accelerator pedal
position [%]
Launch hesitation t
LH

[s]
Launch t
L
[s]
Total time t
T
[s]
100 0.3 0.91 1.21
70 0.33 1.05 1.38
50 0.32 1.43 1.75
30 0.13 2.50 2.63
Table 11: Evaluation criteria for launch from brake with simple actuator model
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The launch hesitation is approximately the same compared to launch from creep, meaning the
vehicle reaches the maximum acceleration at approximately the same time. Due to the big speed
difference of the engine shaft and shaft 1 in the beginning, the launch period is longer and hence
causes the total time taken until full clutch engagement longer too.
Launch from brake was also simulated using the complex actuator model. The following curves
(figure 55) are obtained as a result of the simulation. The same trend of relation between
accelerator pedal position and the full clutch engagement time is detected here. Comparing the
following figure to figure 53 (launch from creep with complex clutch actuator), one can see that the
controller is optimised for accelerator pedal position 30 %. However, for accelerator pedal position
of 100 %, an instantaneous sudden deceleration from 5.6 m/s
2
to 4 m/s
2
is detected as soon as the
clutch is fully engaged at 2.25 s. This can cause an uncomfortable feeling for the driver due to the
high negative rate of change of acceleration. The controller parameter must still be optimised for a
more comfortable driving.

Figure 55: Launch from brake with complex clutch actuator model

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For launch from brake with the complex actuator model, launch hesitation and launch is longer
compared to launch from creep of the same clutch actuator model. However one anomaly can be
detected for the accelerator pedal position 30 %, whereby the values are lower than the values from
launch from creep. This is because the controller parameters were not optimised for the situation of
launch from creep.
Launch from brake with complex actuator model
Accelerator pedal
position [%]
Launch hesitation t
LH

[s]
Launch t
L
[s]
Total time t
T
[s]
100 0.81 0.46 1.27
70 0.87 0.76 1.53
50 0.79 1.03 1.82
30 0.66 1.72 2.38
Table 12: Evaluation criteria for launch from brake with simple actuator model

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Launch on Hill
As stated before, launch on hill is simulated from creep. The evaluation criteria for this driving
situation are maximum creep speed, time to maximum creep, launch hesitation, t
LH
and launch, t
L
.
Launch on hill is simulated by varying the gradient (6 %, 10 % and 15 %) at the same accelerator
pedal position (here 100 % pedal position). It is simulated using the simple clutch actuator model.

Figure 56: Launch on hill with simple actuator model
The negative acceleration at 1 s is due to the let off of the brake pedal (not shown in the figure). The
vehicle starts to creep at 1 s and the accelerator pedal is pressed from 0 % to 100 % at 5 s (also not
shown in figure). The speed gradient and the maximum acceleration decreases with increasing hill
gradient. As hill gradient increases, the grade resistance on the vehicle increases, resulting in extra
drive torque used to overcome the resistance. Hence the rest of the drive torque available for
acceleration is reduced. Grade resistance is defined as follows.

(5.1)
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where m
car
is the mass of the vehicle, g is the standard gravity and the gradient angle.
The vehicle speed has a proportional relation with shaft 1 speed. It is expected that the launch, t
L

and total time t
T
is longer due to the low speed gradient at high hill gradient. The following table
presents the evaluation criteria for launch on hill.
Launch on hill with simple actuator model
Gradient
[%]
Time to max.
creep [s]
Max. creep
speed [km/h]
Launch hesitation t
LH

[s]
Launch t
L
[s]
Total time t
T
[s]
15 3.02 4.33 0.33 1.02 1.35
10 2.06 5.10 0.31 0.79 1.10
6 1.60 5.12 0.34 0.63 0.97
0
(on plane)
1.16 5.26 0.30 0.52 0.82
Table 13: Evaluation criteria for launch on hill with simple actuator model
The maximum creep speed decreases and the time taken to reach maximum creep increases with an
increase in hill gradient. While the launch hesitation are approximately the same for all cases, the
launch and hence the total time increases due to the mentioned increase of gradient resistance.
The following conclusions were made from the simulation of all variations of launch:
Launch hesitation is determined by the accelerator pedal position, the control settings of the
clutch actuator and the power limit of the actuator itself. Power limit of an actuator motor
limits the reaction time of the actuator and hence the time to reach maximum acceleration
By setting a smooth clutch full engagement as a pre-condition, the criterion launch is
determined by the accelerator pedal position. The higher the accelerator pedal position, the
higher the engine load and subsequently the shorter the launch period.
The criterion launch values for launch from brake are longer than launch from creep due to
the big speed difference between the engine shaft and shaft 1 in the beginning.
A smooth full clutch engagement can be detected from a smooth vehicle acceleration profile
during the engagement.
For launch on hill, gradient resistance increases the resistance on the vehicle causing longer
period of launch hesitation and launch. Maximum creep speed decreases and time to
maximum creep are longer for increasing gradient.

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5.2.2 Upshift
Comparison of Gear Upshift between the Simple and the Complex Actuator Model
To explain the figures and curves under this chapter, terms such as torque phase and speed phase
are used. These terms are already explained under chapter 3.3.2 Gear Upshift and Downshift and
chapter 4.6.2.
Before proceeding with the simulation of upshift, the clutch actuator model must first be chosen
between the simple and the complex model. The simple clutch actuator has the advantage of easier
parameter setting and short simulation and calculation time. The complex clutch actuator, even
though more realistic, consumes a lot of effort for parameter fine tuning and simulation time as well
as RAM memory. Simulation for upshift for gear 1 to gear 2 was done using both clutch actuator
model. Both results were compared.

Figure 57: Comparison of upshift of gear 1 to gear 2 between the simple and complex actuator model
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Figure 57 presents a comparison of upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 of the simple and complex clutch
actuator. At first glance, the engine and the shaft speeds from simulation are very similar. However,
by observing the torque curves closely, one can see that torque phase of the simple actuator is
shorter than that of the complex actuator. Clutch 2 torque of the complex actuator are also difficult
to control, as can be seen from the overshoot and undershoot around 6.65 s. There is a different
control strategy implemented in the torque phase for both clutch actuator model. For the simple
actuator model, the torque capacity of clutch 2 is controlled to achieve a constant torque in the
speed phase. Clutch 2 is only allowed to increase its torque capacity at the end of its speed stage.
For the complex actuator model, clutch 2 torque capacity is allowed to increase to help the
deceleration of the engine shaft to the shaft 2 speed. At the end of its speed phase, clutch 2 torque
capacity decreases slowly to its normal value.
Based on the similar torque and speed profiles of both clutch actuators, it is decided that the simple
clutch actuator would be used. A comparison of upshift of gear 1 to gear 2 is already sufficient since
the upshift involves a change of high gear ratio between gear 1 and gear 2. The next gear upshifts
involve smaller ratios between the gears change and does not have a very significant influence on
the torque and speed curves.
Sequential Upshift from Gear 1 to Gear 4
The driving situation upshift was simulated from gear 1 to gear 4 simultaneously. The evaluation of
upshift was done and displayed separately, meaning from gear 1 to gear 2, from gear 2 to gear 3 and
from gear 3 to gear 4, for different accelerator pedal positions.
Figure 58 presents the speed and torque curves of upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 for the accelerator
pedal position of 100 %, 70 % and 40 %.
The average jerk during the torque and speed phase was calculated using the evaluation App (see
chapter 5.1) and the average value was drawn as a straight green line to display it alongside the
jerk curve. Figure 59 displays the jerk and average jerk curves taken from the evaluation App.
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Figure 58: Upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 %
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Figure 59: Jerk of upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 %
Table 14 presents the evaluation criteria for upshift gear 1 to gear 2.
Upshift gear 1 to gear 2
Accelerator
pedal [%]
Torque phase time t
TP

[s]
Speed phase time t
SP

[s]
Total time t
T
[s]
Average Jerk
[m/s
3
]
40 0.296 0.39 0.685 -1.15
70 0.3 0.336 0.636 -1.18
100 0.302 0.454 0.756 -1.64
Table 14: Jerk of upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 %
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Through a careful observation of the speed curves, one can notice that the torque phase begins at
different engine and shaft 1 speed. This is due to the gearshift diagram (see Figure 32). The reason of
the implementation of the gearshift diagram is also explained under the chapter 4.4.3.
During the torque phase, clutch 1 is controlled to reduce its torque capacity constantly until zero in
the duration of 0.3 s. A value around 0.3 s is achieved for torque phase time of all three accelerator
pedal position, signifying a good controller parameter setting. The speed phase time meanwhile is
influenced by the value of engine torque down. The lower the engine torque is brought down during
the speed phase, the higher the deceleration of the engine speed to the shaft 2 speed, thus the
shorter the speed phase is. This is also seen from the slight difference of the engine speed gradient.
The different values of speed phase time for different accelerator pedal positions reflects the
different desired value of engine torque down used in each case. Thus, the shifting time is also
different for each case.
The average jerk is calculated for the duration of the shifting time, which is around 0.7 s. This
method is deemed sufficient because the period of torque and speed phase altogether (around 0.7 s
here) is quite short. A more accurate improvement to the calculation of average jerk can be done by
calculating the average jerk during torque phase and speed phase separately. This is because high
amplitude jerk is detected mainly during the torque phase. Jerk during the speed phase has a value
nearly zero except for 3 to 4 high amplitude peaks. An early observation from the jerk values can be
made, whereby the higher the accelerator pedal position is, the bigger the value of jerk.
For upshift from gear 2 to gear 3, clutch 1 is controlled to increase its torque capacity from zero to
the initial level of clutch 2 torque in 0.3 s, while clutch 2 is controlled to maintain a constant slip
between the engine shaft and shaft 2. The torque phase is set to end when clutch 2 torque is equal
and smaller than zero. Thus, the torque phase time here is determined by how accurate the
controller parameter setting of clutch 2. The duration of speed phase is determined by the engine
torque down level as before. Figure 60 presents the speed and torque curves during the upshift
while figure 61 presents the respective jerk curves.



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Figure 60: Upshift from gear 2 to gear 3 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 %
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Figure 61: Jerk of upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 %
Table 15 presents the evaluation criteria for upshift gear 2 to gear 3.
Upshift gear 2 to gear 3
Accelerator
pedal [%]
Torque phase time t
TP

[s]
Speed phase time t
SP

[s]
Shifting time t
S
[s]
Average Jerk
[m/s
3
]
40 0.349 0.385 0.734 -0.71
70 0.324 0.308 0.632 -1.1
100 0.313 0.421 0.734 -1.2
Table 15: Jerk of upshift from gear 2 to gear 3 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 %
The evaluation parameters for all cases do not show a definite trend in relation with the accelerator
pedal position, besides the parameter jerk. The torque phase time is considerably longer compared
to the value during upshift from gear 1 to gear 2. This shows a slightly unoptimised clutch 2
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controller parameters during upshift from gear 2 to gear 3 and consequently causes the shifting time
longer. The values of average jerk during this upshift are lower than during upshift of gear 1 to gear
2.
The controlled reduction of clutch 2 torque is not as uniform as expected in the beginning and at the
end of the torque phase. This is the main cause of the high amplitude jerk during the torque phase.
Improvement can be made through better PID-controller settings. An easier improvement is by
altering the desired torque increase of clutch 1, so that the increase in the beginning is at a lower
gradient and then followed by a steep increase to the desired torque.
Finally, the upshift for gear 3 to gear 4 was simulated. Clutch 1 is controlled to reduce its torque
capacity to zero while clutch 2 is controlled to maintain a constant micro slip between the engine
shaft and shaft 1, as during the upshift from gear 1 to gear 2. Figure 62 presents the speed and
torque curves during the upshift while figure 63 presents the respective jerk curves.

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Figure 62: Upshift from gear 3 to gear 4 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 %
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Figure 63: Jerk of upshift from gear 3 to gear 4 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 %
Table 16 presents the evaluation criteria for upshift of gear 3 to gear 4.
Upshift gear 3 to gear 4
Accelerator
pedal [%]
Torque phase time t
TP

[s]
Speed phase time t
SP

[s]
Shifting time t
S
[s]
Average Jerk
[m/s
3
]
40 0.296 0.336 0.632 -0.59
70 0.302 0.249 0.551 -0.81
100 0.305 0.373 0.678 -0.95
Table 16: Evaluation criteria for upshift from gear 3 to gear 4 for accelerator pedal position 40 %, 70 %, 100 %
The torque phase time achieved for upshift from gear 3 to gear 4 is similar to upshift from gear 1 to
gear 2 as expected. The speed phase time for accelerator pedal position 70 % is clearly lower
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compare to other accelerator pedal position, causing also consequently a short shifting time. This is
due to the high torque down value during its speed phase which is also displayed in figure 62.
The amplitude of jerk during this gear upshift is smaller compared to the other lower gear upshifts.
As displayed in figure 63, the maximum jerk amplitude is around 5 m/s
3
. As before, the high
amplitude jerk mainly takes place during the torque phase.
From the simulation of the sequential upshift from gear 1 to gear 4, several conclusions can be
made:
The torque phase time is influenced by the controller parameter settings. An optimised
controller settings can bring the torque phase time nearer to the desired value.
The speed phase time is determined by the value of engine torque down. The higher the
engine torque down, the shorter the speed phase time is.
High amplitude jerk takes place mainly during the torque phase. An improvement of average
jerk calculation can be done whereby the average jerk is calculated separately for torque
and speed phase.
Taking only an upshift into account (e.g. upshift gear 1 to 2), the average jerk increases the
higher the accelerator pedal position is, due to a high value of torque transferred from the
off going to the oncoming clutch during the upshift.
Taking all upshifts into account at the same accelerator pedal position, upshift at high gears
displays lower average jerk compared to upshift at lower gears. This is due to the low gear
ratio jump high gear upshift.

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5.2.3 Downshift
Two types of downshift are simulated in this thesis, namely the power on downshift and power off
downshift. Information about both downshift controls and descriptions are available under chapter
4.6.3.
Power On Downshift
Power on downshift is simulated from gear 4 to gear 3 due to extra torque demand from the driver.
The torque demand is recognised from the abrupt accelerator pedal position change that crosses the
downshift curve in the gear shifting diagram (see chapter 4.6.3 and Figure 46). The speed phase
takes place first, and then the torque phase during power on downshift.
Two variants of power on downshift were simulated. Both variants begin at 50 % accelerator pedal
position at the same time but one ends at 70 % and the other at 100 % accelerator pedal position.
The period of the increase in accelerator pedal position is 0.3 s. The differences in torque phase
time, speed phase time and average jerk values were observed.
Figure 62 presents the speed and torque curves during the power on downshift while figure 63
presents the respective jerk curves.
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Figure 64: Power on downshift from gear 4 to gear 3
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Figure 65: Jerk of power on downshift from gear 3 to gear 4 for different accelerator pedal position change
Table 17 presents the evaluation criteria for the power on downshift from gear 4 to gear 3.
Power on downshift from gear 4 to gear 3
Accelerator
pedal [%]
Speed phase time t
TP

[s]
Torque phase time t
SP

[s]
Shifting time t
S
[s]
Average Jerk
[m/s
3
]
50-100 0.159 0.247 0.406 3.399
50-70 0.171 0.227 0.398 1.888
Table 17: Evaluation criteria for power on downshift for gear 4 to gear 3
The torque curves with the accelerator pedal position change from 50 % to 100 % displays a steeper
increase of engine torque due to its higher end position compared to the change from 50 % to 70 %.
Due to the same reason too it enters the speed phase and subsequently the torque phase first.
Clutch 2 torque capacity reduction to approximately half of its initial value helps to increase the
engine speed to shaft 1 speed without the help from engine torque (engine torque up).
The speed phase time and torque phase time are approximately the same in both cases, differing no
more than 0.02 s. Thus, the shifting times for both of them are also approximately the same. The
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relation between jerk and torque is also seen here, whereby the average jerk at higher engine
torque is higher compared to at lower engine torque. The average jerk values recorded are also
bigger compared to those recorded during upshift. The jerk curves show the same trend as in other
gear shifting situation: high amplitude jerk mainly takes place during the torque phase, which starts
around 2.84 s for the accelerator pedal position change from 50 % to 100 % and 2.98 s in the other
case.
Several conclusions can be made from the simulated power on downshift:
Speed phase time is determined by the initial reduction level of the off going clutch capacity
and the engine torque increase due to the acceleration demand from the driver
Torque phase time is determined by the controller parameter settings. The faster the
oncoming clutch controller reacts, the shorter the torque phase time is.
Higher average jerk occurs at higher accelerator pedal position change.
Power Off Downshift
During power off downshift at 0 % accelerator pedal position, the clutch experiences a negative
torque due to the drag torque of the ICE and the rotating components of the powertrain.
The simulation of power off downshift was done for the gear 4 to gear 3 and the gear 2 to gear 1.
Contrary to power on downshift, the torque phase takes place first followed by the speed phase
during power off downshift. The speed and torque curves for the power off downshift are as
displayed in Figure 50 under chapter 4.6.3 Power Off Downshift. Figure 66 displays the torque and
speed curves for the power off downshift of gear 4 to gear 3 while figure 67 displays the jerk curves
for both cases simulated. The simulations were done at 0 % accelerator pedal position.
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Figure 66: Power off downshift for gear 4 to gear 3

Figure 67: Jerk during power off downshift from gear 4 to gear 3 and gear 2 to gear 1
Table 18 presents the evaluation criteria for the power on downshift from gear 4 to gear 3.
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Power off downshift at 0 % accelerator pedal position
Gear shift [-]
Torque phase time t
SP

[s]
Speed phase time t
TP

[s]
Shifting time t
S
[s]
Average Jerk
[m/s
3
]
4-3 0.34 0.75 1.09 -0.17
2-1 0.33 0.55 0.88 -0.27
Table 18: Evaluation criteria for power off downshift for gear 4 to gear 3 and gear 2 to gear 1
The torque phase time in both cases are approximately the same. However, the speed phase time
for power off downshift gear 2 to gear 1 is shorter compared to the other. As one can see, the clutch
actuation forces in both Figure 66 and Figure 50 are at the same level. The power off downshift
occurs at a slightly higher engine speed, causing a slightly higher negative torque at the beginning of
the speed phase. Thus, a slightly longer time is needed to synchronise the engine shaft to the shaft 1
speed if the same actuation force is applied.
The high jump in ratio at low gear power on downshift causes the higher average jerk values
compared to the high gear power off downshift. High amplitude jerks of power on downshift gear 4
to gear 3 are in the range of 5 m/s
3
while the power off downshift of gear 2 to 1 exhibits jerks
bigger than 10 m/s
3
. As before, high amplitude jerks occur mainly during the torque phase.
The following points are concluded from the simulated power off downshift:
Torque phase time is determined by the controller parameter settings. The faster the
oncoming clutch controller reacts, the shorter the torque phase time is.
For the same level of clutch actuation force, speed phase time is determined by the engine
speed dependant torque.
The trend of high average jerk at low gear shifting also applies here.

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5.3 Comparison of Simulated Driving Situations with the Real
Measurement Data
The simulation results were briefly compared to the measured data from test drives provided by
hofer. In fact, comparisons were done continually as a mean to improve the parameter settings of
the simulation model. The comparisons of launch and upshift from gear 1 to gear 2 are displayed in
this chapter.

Figure 68: Launch comparison between measured data and simulation
Figure 68 presents speed and acceleration curves during launch. The speed curve gradient and
acceleration differences between the measured and the simulation results indicate a slightly
different torque capacity of the clutch. This can be due to the difference in the engine torque map or
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the difference in inertia of the rotating components and the whole weight of the vehicle. The
oscillation of the shaft 1 speed of the measured results indicates a considerably low stiffness at the
transmission shaft side. The measured acceleration curve displays a sink in acceleration during full
clutch engagement. The acceleration fall however does not occur at a steep gradient and hence will
not be felt as uncomfortable for the driver.
The evaluation criteria defined for the simulation can also be implemented for measured data
results. Even though the measured acceleration of the vehicle seems to increase gradually until the
full clutch engagement, constant acceleration can still be seen around 5.1 s. Thus, launch hesitation
time can be calculated. Launch time can be calculated normally.

Figure 69: Upshift gear 1 to gear 2 comparison between measured data and simulation
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Figure 69 presents speed and engine torque curves for the upshift of from gear 1 to gear 2. The
measured engine torque displays a slightly lower engine torque value compared to the simulated
engine torque. The reason is the same as the reason for the acceleration difference of the figure 68.
Unfortunately, the torque on each sub gearbox shaft is not available. However, the speed phase can
be approximately identified from the torque down duration.

Figure 70: Comparison of acceleration between measured and simulation
Another way to approximately identify the torque phase is to observe the acceleration during gear
upshift. The torque phase starts as the acceleration begins to reduce and ends as the acceleration
reaches the minimum value. Likewise the speed phase begins at the minimum acceleration and ends
before the acceleration falls again as the engine and the oncoming shaft reaches speed equality and
the oncoming clutch fully engage (see also chapter 3.3.2 Gear Upshift and Downshift).
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6 Conclusions and Future Improvements
This chapter discusses the contribution and the tasks that this thesis cover on the simulation based
comfort evaluation of an automated transmission. The simulation was done using a type of an
automated transmission, namely the dry dual clutch transmission (DDCT). At the end of this chapter,
future improvements and possible research activities are examined.
This thesis mainly consists of 3 main parts. In the first part of the thesis, several driving situations
where the driving comfort is mainly affected were listed. Several test drives were performed for
the author to experience the listed driving situations and hence increase the understanding of
evaluation of comfort through subjective perception. Then, relevant evaluation criteria were defined
for the driving situations. Subsequently, suitable driving situations were chosen considering the time
constraint of the thesis and the difficulty to realise such driving situations in a simulation program.
In the second part of this thesis, the simulation process was firstly planned. The evaluation criteria,
variable parameters and simulation model complexity were listed in a table for each chosen driving
situations to give an overview of the simulation tasks. Next, simulation models were built for each
driving situation and continually improved in terms of model component parameters and control
parameters. The improvement of the simulation model was not done intensively to not stray away
from the main objective of this thesis. Scripts were written to automate the obtaining of evaluation
parameters from the simulation.
In total there were 3 main driving situations simulated with further variations of them. They are
launch, upshift and downshift. Launch is further divided into launch from creep, launch from brake
and launch on hill. Downshift is divided to power on downshift and power off downshift. With the
application of the app, the evaluation criteria were successfully read and extracted from the
simulation. The extracted evaluation criteria of each driving situation return plausible values that can
be related to the simulation parameters. Conclusions were made at the end of each simulation to
determine the relationship of the evaluation criteria to the simulation parameters. An improvement
can be made to one evaluation criterion during gear shift, namely the jerk (or shock intensity). In the
simulation, total average jerk of both torque and speed phases were calculated. From the simulation
results, it was recognised that jerk levels during torque phase are significantly higher in amplitude
compared to during the speed phase. So, average jerk can be calculated separately for each phase.
To conclude the evaluation chapter, a short comparison was done between the simulation results
and the test drive results from hofer.
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A lot of improvements in terms of parameter settings can be made for the simulation model to
achieve more realistic results. In addition to the parameter settings, the simulation model can be
used as a basis for simulation of further driving situations listed under the chapter 3.3.2. Alternative
control strategy can also be implemented and the results can be compared to the present control
strategy. One example is the torque down control during gear upshift. Instead of using torque down,
the oncoming clutch torque capacity is increased to accelerate the engine shaft to the oncoming
shaft speed. Such measures can be done by using the current simulation model as basis.
The long term aim of this thesis is to provide a knowledge of simulation based comfort evaluation.
This thesis does provide the foundation knowledge of the listed simulated driving situations and also
the simulation model basis of the powertrain of a vehicle.




Reference Index
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 87
7 Reference Index

[1] Naunheimer, H.; Bertsche, B.; Ryborz, J.; Novak, W.: Automotive Transmissions -
Fundemental, Selection, Design and Application. Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New
York, 2011
[2] Kimmig, K.L.; Agner, I: Double clutch Wet or dry, that is the question, LuK SYMPOSIUM,
2006
[3] Dong, P.; Tenberge, P.; Qu, W.; Dai, Z.: Optimized shift-control in automatic transmissions
with respect to efficiency, shift loads and comfort. VDI-Berichte 2158, 2012
[4] Wagner, U.;Berger, R.; Ehrlich, M.; Homm, M.: Electromotoric actuators for double clutch
transmissions - Best efficiency by itself. LuK SYMPOSIUM, 2006
[5] Kirchner, E.; Leistungsbertragung in Fahrzeuggetrieben Grundlagen der Auslegung,
Entwicklung und Validierung von Fahrzeuggetrieben und deren Komponenten. Springer
Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2007
[6] Werneke, J.; Kassner, A.; Vollrath, M.: An Analysis of the Requirements of Driver Assistance
Systems When and why does the driver like to have assistance and how can this assistance
be designed?, DLR Journal 2007
[7] Aversa, P.; DeVincent, E.: Evolution and outlook - Powershift DCT250. Getrag Presentation
2010
[8] Kimmig, K.L.; Bhrle, P; Henneberger, P.; Ehrlich, M.; Rathke, G.; Martin, J.: Dry Double
Clutch Success with efficiency and comfort. LuK SYMPOSIUM 2010
[9] Wikipedia article: Ford Sigma engine Duratec Ti-VCT.
Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Sigma_engine#Duratec_Ti-VCT (22.12.2012)
[10] PDF from Internet: Der neue Ford Focus Auto Online Magazin.
Link: http://www.auto-online-magazin.de/pdf/focus_technik.pdf (22.12.2012)
[11] Internet article: The New Ford Duratec 1.6L Ti-VCT Engine ATZ Online
Link: http://www.atzonline.com (22.12.2012)
[12] Andersson, S.; Sderberg, A.; Bjrklund, S.: Friction Models for Sliding Dry, Boundary and
Mixed Lubricated Contacts. Journal Science Direct 2006
Reference Index
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 88
[13] LMS.Imgine.Lab AMESim Help Files (Internal Software)
Link: http://nupet.daelt.ct.utfpr.edu.br/_ontomos/paginas/AMESim4.2.0/doc/ (19.02.12)
LMS.Imgine.Lab AMESim Website: http://www.lmsintl.com/LMS-Imagine-Lab-AMESim
(19.02.12)
[14*] Hagerodt,A: Automatisierte Optimierung des Schaltkomforts von Automatikgetrieben.
Shaker Verlag 2003
[15*] Ni, C.; Lu, T.; Zhang, J.: Gearshift Control for Dual Clutch Transmissions. WSEAS 2009
[16*] Wang, Y: Optimal Gear Shifting Strategy for a Seven-speed Automatic Transmission Used on
a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle. Master Thesis University of Toledo 2012
[17*] Kulkarni, M.; Shim, T.; Zhang, Y.: Shift Dynamics and Control of Dual Clutch Transmissions.
Science Direct 2006
[18*] Goetz, M.; Levesley, M. C.; Crolla, D. A.: Dynamics and Control of Gearshifts on Twin-Clutch
Transmissions. Dissertation University of Leeds 2005
[19*] Dylla, S.: Entwicklung einer Methode zur Objektivierung der subjektiv erlebten
Schaltbettigungsqualitt von Fahrzeugen mit manuellem Schaltgetriebe. Dissertation
Institut fr Produktentwicklung KIT 2009
[20*] Schfer, J.: Wirkungsgraduntersuchung verschiedener Steuerungs- und Aufbaukonzepte
eines automatisch geschalteten KFZ-Triebstrangs mit Hilve von Simulationmodellen.
Diplomarbeit hofer/Universitt Stuttgart 2008
Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 89
8 Appendix
8.1 AMESim Submodels Used in Simulation
Figure Name Description

Constant signal
source
Used to generate constant value

Piecewise linear
signal source
Consist of 8 stages and used to generate piecewise
linear signals like ramp, steps, squares etc.



Gain

Variable gain
The output signal is formed by multiplying the input
signal at input by a user specified gain

Variable gain is activated by binary 1

Differentiator
Produces a signal output which is an approximation of
the derivative of the input by using a time constant

First order lag
First order lag with gain and positive time constant
setting


PID controller

Variable PID
controller
PID controller with options of P,PI, PD, and PID modes &
anti windup methods. Variable PID enables user to
change parameter values during simulation

Function of input
block
Output as a function of input. Function can be defined
by user. Also support logic function.


Function of input
defined by ASCII file
Output as interpolation of input. Interpolation function
provided by users ASCII file

Continuous delay Continuous delay with user specified delay time.



Saturation

Variable saturation
Upper and lower limit specified by the user. Variable
saturation enables variable limit during simulation.



Dead band

Inverted dead band
User defined maximum and minimum dead zone value.
Useful to avoid zero division.

Two way ideal switch
signal
Contains 2 input s, 1 output and 1 input treshold.
Output controlled by input treshold
Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 90
Figure Name Description

Bus source Ideal bus source channel. Creates a BUS line.



Add signal to BUS

Get signal from BUS

Adds an item or another BUS line into a BUS.

Get value from BUS



Transmitter

Receiver
Transfer and receive variables without any visible
connection
Table 19: AMESim Signal and Control library
Figure Name Description


Zero force source

Zero linear speed
source
Supplies zero/no force.

Zero velocity source. It also provides constant values of
displacement and acceleration.

Force transducer
Force transducer equipped with offset and gain
function. Supplies force value in signal.

Linear displacement
transducer
Linear displacement transducer with offset and gain
function. Supplies displ. value in signal.

Power, energy and
activity sensor
To calculate energy/power dissipation of a part, connect
it before and after the part and substract values with
each other.

Linear mechanical
node
Enables two linear shafts to be connected to another

Linear elastic end
stop
Elastic contact between two bodies capable of linear
motion. Gap between bodies defined by user

Torque converter Converts signal input to torque

Torque transducer
Torque transducer equipped with offset and gain
function. Supplies torque value in signal.

Rotary speed
transducer
Rotary speed transducer equipped with offset and gain
function. Supplies speed value in signal.


Zero torque source

Zero angular speed
source
Supplies zero/no torque.

Zero angular speed source

Rotary load with
friction
Rotary load model with external torques applied to ist
two ports. There is provision for viscous friction,
Coulomb friction and stiction.
Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 91
Figure Name Description

Rotary spring and
damper
Ideal spring damper system for a rotary shaft. Spring
stiffness and damper rating set by user.



Variable friction
between rotary parts

Variable friction
between a fixed part
and a rotary part
Rotary friction torque generator modelled by Coulomb
friction with option of tanh, dahl or Lugre model. Signal
form: 0 to 1, force or friction torque

Rotary mechanical
node
Enables two rotary shaft to be connected to one
another

Rack and pinion
converts a linear displacement x1 into an angle theta2 ,
a linear velocity v1 into an angular velocity w2 and a
torque t2 into a force f1 with a transformation ratio set
by the user
Table 20: AMESim Mechanical library
Figure Name Description

Half synchronizer
Ideal synchronizer for coupling with idle gears. 2
synchronizer model available: Friction model & stiction
model

Rotary link
Rotary link between gears. Normally used for linkage in
planetary gear system.

Tyre and wheel
Models and generates the contact force at the tyre/road
interface and rolling resistance for driving situations

Road profile
Presents the option of modelling with plane or slope
road. Slope road is also provided with radius of cyllindric
section of the slope

Vehicle suspension
models suspension damping and stiffness as well as
spindle mass in 3 planar degrees of freedom: longitudinal
translation, vertical translation and self-rotation
Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 92
Figure Name Description



Gear with 2 rotary
ports and 1 gear
port

Gear with 2 rotary
ports and 2 gear
port
Simple gear model with radius setting. Used to construct
simple gear systems in a transmission

Idle gear with 3
rotary ports and 1
gear port
Idle gear model with radius setting. Used to construct
simple gear systems in a transmission.
Used together with half synchronizer and other gear
submodels

2D vehichle with 2
axles
2d Submodel of carbody with 2 axles &3 DOF:
- Pitch rotation
- Longitudinal translation
- Vertical translation
Use with suspension & tyre and wheel submodel
Table 21: AMESim Powertrain library
Figure Name Description

SFC enable/disable
action
supercomponent
Logical condition to enable/disable a supercomponent.
Connected to SFC control interface

SFC action end Used to model an end to a step

SFC control interface
Used to enable/disable supercomponent interface.
Must be embedded in the supercomponent.

SFC step Used to model a step. In usage connected to SFC action

SFC initialization and
system connexion
Connects the SFC to the BUS and define action states
value of the SFC system

SFC alternative
branch
Provides an alternative branch of different transition
condition

SFC transition
Used to model a transition. Connected to SFC logic for
transition condition definition

SFC logic condition
expression
Used to model logical transition condition set by user

SFC action
Used to model action executions when a step is
activated
Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 93
Figure Name Description

SFC parallel branch Used to split process to two parallel branches
Table 22: AMESim Sequential Functional Chart (SFC) library
8.2 Table for Subjective Evaluation of Driving Situations
Vibrations on the gear selection lever in neutral position


Rating
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Idle RPM x
2000 1/min x
4000 1/min x

Notes:

Gear engagement and disengagement noises


Rating
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 --> 1 x
1 --> 0 x
0 --> R x
R --> 0 x

Notes:

Shunting


Rating
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 --> 1 --> 0 --> 1 x

Notes:

Engagement when launching on 2nd gear


Rating
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Low gas pedal (F) x
High gas pedal (F) x
Low gas pedal (R) x
High gas pedal (R) x

Notes:


Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 94
Forward launch on grade (uphill)


Rating
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Low gas pedal x
High gas pedal x

Notes:

Reverse launch on grade (uphill)


Rating
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Low gas pedal x
High gas pedal x

Notes:

Hill hold-launch


Rating
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Low gas pedal x
High gas pedal x

Notes: Launch with hill hold is a little aggressive with clear jerk

Creep


Rating
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
uphill (F) x
uphill (R) x

Notes:
Creep at 2nd gear with approx same speed. If more torque needed, auto-shift to
1st gear

Shifting (upwards)


Rating
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 --> 2 x
2 --> 3 x
3 --> 4 x
4 --> 5 x

Notes:

Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 95
8.3 Simulation Model Basis

Figure 71: Simulation model basis for launch
Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 96

Figure 72: Simulation model basis for upshift
Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 97


Figure 73: Simulation model basis for downshift
Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 98
8.4 App Interfaces

Figure 74: App interface for launch with simple actuator model

Figure 75: App interface for launch with complex actuator model

Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 99

Figure 76: App interface for upshift (shift time)

Figure 77: App interface for upshift (jerk)

Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 100

Figure 78: App interface for power on downshift (shift time)


Figure 79: App interface for power on downshift (jerk)
Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 101


Figure 80: App interface for power off downshift (shift time)


Figure 81: App interface for power off downshift (jerk)
Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 102
8.5 Python Code Snippets

Figure 82: Code snippet for basic plotting app class

Appendix
Ahmad Hakim Mohd Sorihan 103

Figure 83: Code snippet for basic LED display of calculated values