Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

co lum bia.

e du

http://www.co lumbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ghalib/apparatus/terms_index.html?

INDEX OF TECHNICAL TERMS

T HIS GLOSSARY IS IN ENGLISH ALPHABET ICAL ORDER. MORE T ERMS AND


INFORMAT ION WILL BE ADDED T O IT AS T HE COMMENTARY PROGRESSES.
ST UDY MAT ERIALS: *SET S* SELECT ED VERSES GROUPED ACCORDING T O
COMMON VOCABULARY OR ST RUCT URE
ST UDY MAT ERIALS: *GRAMMAR NOT ES* SOME HELP FOR ST UDENT S (AND
ALL OF US ARE ST UDENT S)
ba;hr (meter) For practical purposes, see the list of meters used f or this site; it
includes links to 'A Practical Handbook of Urdu Meter'. A short meter [ chho;Tii ba;hr]
is a particularly important source of inf luence on the structure of a ghazal. == {21,1};
{21,13}; {85,1}; {170,3}. Awkward scansions: {4,4}; {15,1}.
bait ul-;Gazal (high point of the ghazal) T he f ruit [;haa.sil] of the ghazal, the
verse that would be declared to be the best verse of some ghazal. [dars-e balaa;Gat
151-52] == {26,6}; {26,7}; {100,6}; {111,8}; {115,8}; {120,10}; {124,5}, ;haa.sil-e zamiin
; {173,2}; {193,1}; {201,8}; {202,6}; {208,2}; {208,11}; {219,8}, ;haa.sil-e zamiin ;
{228,6}
buland-parvaazii (high-f lyingness) {5,4}; {18,1}; {85,4}
daliil (proof ) [inf o f rom Dars] {1,3}; {32,2}; {199,1}
diivaan (divan) A collection of (some of ) a single poets work, normally compiled by
the poet himself . Within it poems are grouped into genres; ghazals are then
alphabetized by the last letter of the ref rain (or the rhyme if there is no ref rain), but
within each letter-group ghazals are arranged only according to the poets choice.
== {1,1}; {18,5}; {61,5}
do-la;xt (two-part) [do we need this one?] == {17,7}; {19,6} with def .; {126,6};
{167,6}
fard (individual verse) A verse presented in isolation, as a kind of mini-ghazal.
Asterisks mark those that apparently were originally composed as individuals; the
rest were selected f rom longer ghazals f or divan publication. == {2}; {23}; {52}*;
{55}*; {65}; {74}; {82}; {84}; {84,8x} {93}; {103}*; {109}; {128}; {135}*; {144}*; {144,1};
{150}; {156}
;Gazal (ghazal) [give Azad's def ?] == {26,10}; {46,6}, with a list of other genres
too; {53,11}; {85,1}, ;Gazal-e musalsal; {111,9}; {117,12}; {234,8}
;hamd (praise [of God]) T he f irst verse in a poets volume is traditionally expected
to be one that praises God. == {1,1}; {91,2}
;husn-e ta((liil
(elegance in assigning a cause) ta((liil means to establish a reason or to express a reason. ;husn-e
ta((liil is to give a f ine and superior example of that action. If a reason is expressed f or something such that
even if its not real, it has in it some poetic richness and subtlety, and it has some af f inity with reality and
nature as well, then that is called ;husn-e ta((liil. ( dars-e balaa;Gat, pp. 49-50) == {1,1}; {1,3}; {1,5}; {6,3};
{16,7x}; {48,5}; {48,7}; {48,10}; {49,2}; {58,7}; {60,5}; {61,1}; {74,1}; {75,4}; {75,7}; {80,8}; {111,1}; {130,3};
{140,6}; {143,3}; {143,4}; {147,1}; {196,2}; {208,4}; {210,4}
iihaam Derived f rom the root vahm, the term literally means to put into deception. It ref ers to special
kinds of punning. Mir def ines it as a case when a poet uses a word with two meanings, one of which is wellknown and one obscure, and leads the hearer to think initially of the well-known meaning, but its really the

obscure meaning that the poet intends, so that he practices a kind of misdirection. T he term is also used
more loosely, f or other kinds of wordplay that rely on double meanings, and (by me) also f or other verse
structures that deliberately 'misdirect' the reader (I call these '1,2' verses). == {11,2}; {15,5}; {17,9}; {19,7};
{21,7}; {31,2}; {34,4}; {34,8}; {49,5}; {56,5}; {58,5}; {60,11}; {61,02}; {68,4}; {69,1}; {71,7}; {91,10}; {91,11};
{98,11}; {108,6}; {114,4}; {115,3}; {120,3}; {120,6}; {155,2}; {158,4}; {182,1}; {191,7}*; {208,3}; {208,7}; {217,5};
{234,7}
inshaa))iyah A f orm of speech that is non-f alsif iable usually interrogative, exclamatory, vocative,
subjunctive, hypothetical. It is def ined in opposition to inf ormative [;xabariyah] speech. == {1,1}, with
def inition; {17,8}; {20,11}, {34,7}; {62,6}, {71,7}, {72,7}, {107,7}; {111,1}; {126,3}; {158,9}; {160,2}*; {178,10};
{208,5}
inti;xaab (selection) An anthology or, literally, selection of verses, either by one poet or by various poets
of the anthologists choosing; some explanatory comments about the poets and poetry are of ten included.
== {82,3x}; {149,5}
i.slaa;h (correction) T he evaluation, criticism, and improvement that an Ustad perf orms on the poetry of
a shagird. == {155,3}; {161,1}; {177,2}; {180,7}
isti((aarah (metaphor) T he term is used rather loosely by the commentators. == Some examples: {24,3};
{30,3}; {34,1}; {34,7}; {45,2}; {59,6}, discussion of poetics; {77,7}; {98,7}; {105,2}; {111,13}; {120,1},
contrasted with tam;siil ; {146,1}
i.zaafat T his grammatical construction, borrowed f rom Persian, is very common in classical ghazal. Here
is C. M. Naims account of how it works. == {16,1}; {56,2}; {194,4}; {226,2}
kaifiyat (mood) [def , srf ?] == {5,6}; {17,2}; {17,8}; {18,3}; {33,6}; {35,1}; {37,1}; {49,10}, used in verse;
{58,8}, about Mirs verse; {78,1}; {116,5}; {145,1}; {187,2}; {190,6}; {210,5}; {211,1}
kinaayah (implication) [def ] == {19,1}; {36,3}; {36,5}; {39,2}; {40,1}; {52,1}; {52,1}; {53,6}; {62,4}; {73,2};
{107,2}; {111,8}; {121,4}, def .; {126,3}; {133,4}; {140,2}; {159,4}; {160,4}; {186,2}; {210,7}
laff -o-nashr (collecting and scattering) In Rhetoric, collecting and scattering, a f igure corresponding to
the Chiasmus of the classics. (Platts p.958) == {77,3}; {115,7}; {169,8}
ma;h;zuuf (omitted) T his is a complaint made almost exclusively by Nazm: that some word has been
(undesirably) omitted. == {12,1}; {17,7}; {19,6}; {20,3}; {24,7}; {27,2}; {33,7}; {35,3}; {35,4}; {36,7}; {37,1}:
{42,4}; {53,5}; {59,7}* (as a virtue); {64,2}; *{72,7} (as a virtue); {88,1}; compare {95,3}; *{95,5}; {96,4}; {97,3}
(as a virtue); {97,5} (as a virtue); {97,8} (as idiomatic); {136,1}; {141,3}; {234,9}
ma((nii-aafiriinii (meaning-creation) Faruqis def inition is the best and simplest. == {4,8x}; {15,10}; {20,8};
{28,1}; {27,3}; {34,5}; {38,6}; {43,3}; {43,6}; {74,1}; {91,7}; {119,7} (Ghalib); {120,10}; {166,1}; {228,2}; {231,5}
maq:ta(( (closing-verse) Literally, point of cutting of f . A verse that both includes the poets pen-name
and appears as the last verse or sometimes next-to-last, especially at the start of a verse-set, as in
{48,9}, {131,6}, and {189,9}.) == {75,7} (none); {92,7}; {123,10}
mar;siyah (elegy) [cf . dars-e balaa;Gat pp. 140-42]== {66,1}; {86,9}; {99,1}; {139,1}; {145,5x}
ma;snavii(masnavi) [def ] == {71,1}; {167,6}
ma:tla(( (opening-verse) In a ghazal, an (optional but extremely common) introductory pattern-setting
verse that has the rhyme (and ref rain, if any) at the end of each of its two lines. == Extra: {4,2}; {10,2};
{14,2}; {24,2}; {121,2}; {212,5x}, ;husn-e ma:tla(( (f or an excellent verse that f ollows the opening-verse);
{126,1}; {146,3x}
ma.zmuun (theme) pl. ma.zaamiin. [def ]== {1,1}; {17,2} with f amous quote; {17,4}; {18,5}; {29,4}*; {29,6x};
{29,9x}*; {108,1}; {108,6}; {111,13}; {136,2}*; {169,13}*
ma.zmuun-aafiriinii (theme-creation) T he invention of new themes, is a f orm of originality much admired
in the ghazal world. == {15,9}; {17,4}; {36,6}; {39,4}; {88,1}; {91,7}; {111,13}; {120,10}; {140,4}; {167,6};
{192,5}
mi.sra(( (line) (how much explanation?) mi.sra(( lagaanaa (joining lines) == {60,4}, def inition; {115,1};
{125,10}, mi.sra((-e ;tar;h , or pattern line (f or a mushairah); {167,6}; {201,1}; {204,5}; {223,1} on joining
lines
mu((aamilah-bandii (description of an af f air) (def ) == {3,3}, literal use; {91,7}; {119,5}, literal use; {125,1};
{144,1}; {148,2}; {149,5}; {153,3}; {167,6}
mubaali;Gah (exaggeration) (def ) == {111,13}; {111,15}; {195,2}*
munaasibat (af f inity) ; also munaasib , suitable, harmonious. [DEF]. See also muraa((at un-na:ziir. == {5,6};
{18,1}; {21,10}; {23,1}; {33,7}; {69,2}; {75,3}; {111,11}; {143,6}; {181,7}

muraa((at un-na:ziir (af f inity) Two words with a connection in their meanings, but not one of opposition
and comparison ( dars-e balaa;Gat, pp. 56-57). See also munaasibat. == {1,1}; {69,2}; {95,2}; {112,5};
{114,2}; {117,3}
musalsal (continuous) A ghazal that is meant to be read as a unif ied whole, with all its verses intact and
in the order given on the page. Such ghazals tend to be narrative; they of ten have titles. == {15,1}; {57,1};
[{139,1}]; {181,1}; {233,1}
mushaa((irah (mushairah) A gathering of poets and patrons f or recitation, appreciation, and literary
discussion. A poet reciting in a mushairah usually repeated the f irst line of a verse at least two or three
times, and even paused f or a bit longer bef ore reciting the second line. For more inf ormation and
ref erences, see Nets of Awareness, Chapter 5. == {14,1}; {14,9}; {43,6}; {43,7}; {111,1}; {201,1}; {208,1};
:tar;hii mushaa((irah (patterned mushairah) [def ] == {26,10}
mu;xammas (mukhammas) Every stanza includes f ive lines. In the f irst stanza, all f ive lines rhyme. In the
later stanzas, the f irst f our lines rhyme, but the f if th line breaks the rhyme. It can be repeated, or else its
rhyme can be that of the f irst stanza. For more details, see dars-e balaa;Gat , p. 148. == {115,1}
naazuk-;xayaalii (delicacy of thought) Faruqis def inition is nicely illustrated with a verse f rom Ghalib. ==
{4,8x}; {28,1}; {38,6}; {45,2}; {48,10}; {68,8x}; {75,4}; {147,4x}; {147,6x}; {192,4}
qaafiyah (rhyme) In a ghazal, the rhyming syllable at the end of the second line of each two-line verse. It
is most usually (though not always) f ollowed by a ref rain. == {4,2}; {9,7}; {24,2}; {26,8}; {49,2}; {60,4}; {95,1};
{108,2}; {114,1}; {125,1}; {125,7}; {125,10}; {167,6}; {172,4x}; {174,4}; {198,2}; {208,1}; {210,2}; {223,1};
{223,3x} (three repetitions); qaafiyah-e ma((muulah (contrived rhyme) == [{8,1}]; [{26,8}]; {26,9} (def .);
{35,1}; {136,7}; {234,7}; {234,10}
qa.siidah (ode) A poem with a purpose [ maq.sad]. T he term generally ref ers to poems in praise of
something or someone of ten a patron. == {14,2}; {46,6}; {74,1}; {92,7}; {167,6}; {168,1}; {178,1}; {181,1}
qaul-e mu;haal (paradox) {23,1}; {70,2}; {75,3}; {102,3}; {111,11}; {111,14}; {112,3}; {114,2}; {115,6};
{121,4}; {126,7}; {153,1}; {163,6}; {164,8}; {169,1}; {183,4}; {183,8}; {196,7}
qi:t((ah (verse-set) Literally, cutting, section. Within a ghazal or qa.siidah , a series of verses meant to
be read as a connected sequence. Its f irst verse is traditionally marked with the letter qaaf ; its f inal verse is
not marked. Here, Arshis of f icial verse-sets are marked with an asterisk; many other inf ormal ones are
also discussed. A qi:t((ah also sometimes appears as a separate poem == {15,2}, {15,13}*, {37,1}; {46,6};
{48,9}; {49,4}*; {53,6}*; {59,6}; {70,1}; {71,8}; [{84,6x}]; {89,1}; {91,5}*; {91,7}; {95,1}; {97,11}; {107,3}; {110,5};
{123,9}*; {127,1}; {131,6}*; {139,1}; {162,4}*; {164,4*; {164,9}*; {169,6}*; {177,9}*; {181,1}; {186,4}*; {189,9}*;
{198,1}; {208,1}; {209,6}; {209,9}; {215,6}; {234,8}
rab:t (connection) T he quality of internal relationship, parallelism, and self -ref erence within a single
verse, especially between its two lines. == {10,7}; {25,1}; {42,10x} (in the verse); {44,5x} (in the verse);
{60,4}*, Nazms discussion of marbuu:t lines; {60,10}; {62,9}, Ghalib uses the term; {71,3}; {81,13x} (in the
verse); {99,3}; {126,6}; {141,3}; {146,4x} (in the verse); {155,1}; {163,1}; {167,6}*, more f rom Nazm
radiif (ref rain) In a ghazal, the identically repeated word or words at the end of the second line of each
two-line verse, af ter the rhyme. A radiif is extremely common but not compulsory; an example in which radiif
is preserved: {49}. == {49,1}; {53,11}; {58,1}; {85,1}; {116,1}; {167,6}
ravaanii (f lowingness) [f luency] == {8,4x}; {44,1}; {62,10}
ri((aayat (wordplay) [give def ] == {34,3}; {38,6}; {41,4}; {41,6}; {42,2}; {43,7}; {44,1}; {48,10}; {53,8}; {58,5};
{61,5}; {69,2}; {71,2}; {77,4}; {81,12x}; {88,1}; {110,1}; {180,1}
rubaa((ii (quatrain) A f our-line poem in one or more of a group of traditionally prescribed meters, usually
rhyming AABA. == {46,6}; {120,1}; {141,1}
sahl-e mumtana(( (unattainably simple) T he kind of verse that makes you think you can go home and do
the same thing. But you cant. == {3,4}; {4,6}, {20,8}; {95,6}, in slightly altered f orm; {95,6}*; {97,10}, in
slightly altered f orm; {155,2}; {173,2}
.san((at (verbal device) A general term of broad meaning, including a whole range of stylistic and
rhetorical possibilities; these are usually analyzed into devices of word (laf:zii) and of meaning (maa((navii).
== {1,1}; {5,1}; {18,3}; {42,6}; {49,11}; {53,5}; {56,5}; {59,5}; {59,9}; {60,11}; {69,1}; {69,2}; {75,7}; {89,1};
{111,13}; {126,6}; {131,1}; {152,2}
shar;h (commentary) A systematic analytical discussion and explanation of all or some of the verses of a
poets diivaan . == {34,3}; {49,11}; {69,1}; {84,8x}

shi((r (verse) A distich or two-line verse, treated in the ghazal as an independent poetic unit; both lines
must be in the same meter and must make a complete poetic ef f ect of their own, without regard to the rest
of the poem. T he second line must end in the rhyme and ref rain (if any). In Persian, the term bait is more
commonly used f or the verse. == {14,1}; {53,11}; {114,7}; {126,1}, bait ; {149,5}
tajaa;hul-e ((aarifaanah (f eigned ignorance) [def ] == {1,1}: {46,7}
takrar (repetition) For discussion and examples (including more general instances of padding), see
{17,9}; see also REPET IT ION on the SET S page.
:tar;h (pattern) Specif ication of meter, rhyme, and ref rain, such that any two ham-:tar;h or patternsharing ghazals will be f ormally identical (f or discussion see {15,1}), and their verses could be commingled
undetectably. == {8,5x}; {26,10}; {89,1}; {123,5}; {209,1}
tari;x (chronogram) See the abjad system. == {202,9}
tar.sii(( (parallelism) Making the words of a clause of rhyming prose, or of verse, conf ormable in their
measures, and agreeing, in their latter parts, with the corresponding words of the corresponding clause (cf .
mura.s.sa(( ). (Platts p.318) == {22,5}*; {22,6}; {26,8}; {31,1}; {34,5}; {49,11}; {62,9}; {62,10}; {63,1}; {71,2};
{71,7}; {77,4}*; {91,3}; {126,6}, applied to metrical f eet; {194,2}
tashbiih (simile) Although it technically means simile, the term is of ten casually used in cases where
metaphor would be more correct. == {23,1}; {29,2}; {49,8}; {59,6}, discussion of poetics; {98,4}; {98,7};
{137,2}
tavaarud (coincidence) T he unintentional duplication of another poets verse. == {60,4}
ta;xallu.s (pen-name) A literary pseudonym adopted by a poet; it is of ten a meaningf ul word, and may or
may not have some connection with the poets real name. It is usually incorporated into the last verse of
each poem (which thus became a closing-verse), as a kind of signature meant to be apparent in oral
perf ormance. == {66,5}; {86,9}; {111,1}; {132,7}; in the penultimate verse: {186,4}; {203,5}. Other poets
names could also be incorporated. == {8,5x} (Bedil); {12,7x} (Bedil); {29,10x} (Bedil); {36,11} (Mir); {40,5x}*;
{92,7} (Mir); {92,8x} (Mir); {100,9}
ta.zaad (opposition) [def ] == {76,1}
;xayaal-bandii (inventiveness) [Get SRF def .] == {15,1}; {61,2}
zamiin (ground) T he specif ication of a certain rhyme and ref rain; two ghazals in the same zamiin will be
similar but not necessarily identical, since their meters may dif f er. (Only ghazals in the same :tar;h are
always f ormally identical.) == {11,3x}*; {52,1}; a stony ground, {58,3}; another stony ground, {59,1};
{111,1}; {115,8}; {125,1}; {125,10}; {173,4}; {193,1}
.zil((a A f orm of punning. == { 5,4}; {6,4}; {23,1}, with def inition; {34,8}; {69,2}*; {75,2}; {75,3}; {92,7};
{100,8}; {101,8}; {102,2}; {111,11}; {114,2}; {121,8}; {131,1}; {137,1}; {143,6}; {147,2}; {147,3}; {152,1};
{152,2}; {152,4}; {167,6}; {182,1}