You are on page 1of 12

Hort 403 Lecture 1

1
Lecture 1 Lecture 1
Introduction to Tropical Introduction to Tropical
Horticulture Horticulture
Horticulture 403
TROPICAL HORTICULTURE
ecourses.purdue.edu
Instructor: Jules Janick
330 Horticulture Bldg
494-1329
janick@purdue.edu
Grader: Anna Whipkey
116A Horticulture Bldg.
494-6968
awhipkey@purdue.edu
Grades will consist of quizzes, two exams, a final and a
term paper and one extra credit exercise.
Final grade will be based on total points.
Points:
Quizzes 100 540-600 = A
Exam 1 100 480-539 = B
Exam 2 100 420-479 = C
Term Paper 100 360-419 = D
Final 200 <359 = F
Total 600
Grades:
Hort 403 Lecture 1
2
An introduction to the agriculture of the tropics
and subtropics emphasizing horticultural crops.
The course covers aspects of tropical geography
and ecology, as well as historical aspects of the
tropics and subtropics.
Introduction to The Tropics
Course Outline I. Tropical Agriculture
Introduction to the Tropics
Theory of the Tropics
Tropical Climate
The Koppen Classification of Climates
Tropical Vegetation
Tropical Soils
Agricultural Potential of the Humid Tropics
Agriculture in Tropical Systems
Plantation Agriculture
Hacienda System
Agricultural Development in Tropical America
Tropical Forestry
Themes in Tropical Agriculture
World Population
II. Major Tropical Crops
Tropical Agr. Research
Weed Control & IPM
Coffee
Cacao
Tea
Rice
Sugar
Rubber
Oils
Oil palm
Coconut & Date
Cassava
III. Horticultural Crops
Taro & Yams
Miscellaneous Starch Crops
Banana
Pineapple
Papaya
Citrus
Avocado
Misc. Fruit Crops
History of Spices
Spice Crops
Tropical Ornamentals
Overview
Hort 403 Lecture 1
3
There are dramatically apposing attitudes
towards the tropics, both anti- and pro-
tropic sentiments:
Salubrious and Balmy vs. Hot and Steamy
Cruise Ships, Waving Palms vs. Poisonous Snakes & Crocs
Resorts & Retirement Havens vs. Slums & Shacks
Hort 403 Lecture 1
4
Birth of Civilization vs. Uncivilized
Green and Bountiful vs. Starvation & Malnutrition
Rich in Flora vs. Monotonously Green
Hort 403 Lecture 1
5
It turns out that all of the above views are true.
This course will attempt to present a balanced
picture of the tropics.
It is true, however, that the tropical world tends to
be underdeveloped.
This course will try to develop answers to the
following questions:
Reality Check
It turns out that all of the above views are true.
This course will attempt to present a balanced
picture of the tropics.
It is true, however, that the tropical world tends to
be underdeveloped.
This course will try to develop answers to the
following questions:
Why are the tropics poor?
Why is hunger endemic in the tropics?
What is the agricultural potential for the tropics?
What is the horticultural potential of the tropics?
Reality Check
Narrowly defined the tropics are those areas on the
earth's surface between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5N)
and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5S).
The tropics represent:
36% of the earth's surface
20% of the land surface
43% of ocean surface
The Tropics
Hort 403 Lecture 1
6
Narrowly defined the tropics are those areas on the
earth's surface between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5N)
and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5S).
The tropics represent:
36% of the earth's surface
20% of the land surface
43% of ocean surface
The tropics are winterless climates where the
temperature differences between night and day are
small but exceed by several times the difference
between the warmest and coolest months.
Night is the winter of the tropics!
The Tropics
1. Warm temperatures (winterless climates; lack of
frost)
2. Abundant rainfall
Distributed either equally throughout the year
(tropical rain forest)
Extremely high in one period (monsoon)
Divided into a wet and dry seasons (tropical savanna)
3. Daylength is close to 12 hours throughout the year
(continual short days)
These conditions have a tremendous effect on the type of
natural vegetation and influence the type of
horticulture.
Tropical Climates
Hort 403 Lecture 1
7
Short day plants
Colorful flowers attracting insects
Perennial (some grown as annuals in
temperate climates)
Frost sensitive, some cold sensitive
Enormous plant diversity
Characteristics of Tropical Plants
No break in the growing cycle;
pests and diseases more intense
Leached soils common
Excessive rain in Tropical Rainy and Monsoon climate
Dry season in Savanna climates requires irrigation
Short days and cloud cover restrict light
High night temperatures increase respiration
Agricultural Problems of the Tropics
Beverage Crops
Fruits and Nuts
Starchy Root Crops
Industrial Crops
Grasses (rice & sugar)
Spices
Ornamentals
Tropical agriculture involves important well-known
crops. Major crops covered in this course will include:
Tropical and Subtropical Crops
Hort 403 Lecture 1
8
Tea
Cacao
Coffee
Beverage Crops
Avocado
Date
Citrus Banana & Plantain
Papaya Pineapple
Fruits and Nuts
Cassava
Taro Yam
Sweetpotato
Starchy Vegetables
Hort 403 Lecture 1
9
Coconut
Rubber tree
Industrial Crops
Rice Sugarcane
Grasses
Ginger
Nutmeg
Clove Pepper Vanilla
Cinnamon
Spices
Hort 403 Lecture 1
10
Bougenvillia
Orchids
Philodendron
Plumeria Poinsettia
Streletzia
Ornamentals
The tropics are the region of the earth's surface lying
between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5N of the equator)
and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5S of the equator).
The following countries are found in the tropics.
The Tropical World
Monrovia Liberia Nairobi Kenya
Banjul Gambia Libreville Gabon
Djibouti Djibouti Moroni Congo Republic
Gaborone Botswana Porto-Novo Benin
Antananarive
Abidjan
Conakry
Addis Ababa
Malabo
N'Djamena
Yaounde
Luanda
Capital
Madagascar Tripoli Libya
Ivory Coast Bissau Guinea-Bissau
Guinea Accra Ghana
Ethiopia Massawa Eritrea
Equatorial Guinea Cairo Egypt
Chad Bangui Central African Empire
Cameroon Bujumbura Burundi
Angola Algiers Algeria
Country Capital Country
Africa
Hort 403 Lecture 1
11
Khartoum Sudan Cape Town, Pretoria South Africa
Lusaka
Ouagadougou
Lom
Mogadishu
Dakar
Kigali
Lagos
Windhoek
Rabat
Bamako
Capital
Zambia Kinshasa Zaire
Upper Volta Kampala Uganda
Togo Dar es Salaam Tanzania
Somalia Freetown Sierra Leone
Senegal Sao Tom Sao Tom e Principe
Rwanda Salisbury Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
Nigeria Niamey Niger
Namibia Maputo Mozambique
Morocco Nouakchott Maurtania
Mali Lilongwe Malawi
Country Capital Country
Africa
Caracas Venezuela Paramaribo Surinam
Lima Peru Asuncin Paraquay
Georgetown Guyana Cayenne French Guiana
Quito Equador Bogota Colombia
Santiago Chile Brasilia Brazil
La Paz Bolivia Buenos Aires Argentina South
America
Panama Panama Managua Nicaragua
Mexico City Mexico Tegucigalpa Honduras
Guatemala Guatemala San Salvador El Salvador
San Jose Costa Rica Bemopan Belize Central
America
Washington, DC
United States
(Hawaii)
North
America
Capital Country Capital Country Continent
St. Thomas Virgin Islands San Juan Puerto Rico
Kingston Jamaica Port-au Prince Haiti
St. George's Grenada Bassa-Terre Guadeloupe
Santo Domingo
Dominican
Republic
Roseau Dominica
Havana Cuba Hamilton Bermuda
Bridgetown Barbados St. John's Antigua West Indies
Capital Country Capital Country Continent
Hort 403 Lecture 1
12
San'a
YememArab
Republic
Hanoi Vietnam Abu Dhabi
United Arab
Emirates
Bangkok Thailand T'aipei Taiwan
Mecca, Rujadh
Saudia
Arabia
Singapore Singapore
Manila Philippines Peking China
Aden Yemen Port Moresby New Guinea
Muscat Oman Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
Vientiane Laos Djakarta Indonesia
New Delhi India Victoria Hong Kong
Phnom-Penh Cambodia Rangoon Burma
Bandar Seri
Begawan
Brunei Dacca Bangladesh
Asia
Capital Country Capital Country Continent
Apia Western Samoa
Matautu
Wallis and
Futuna
Tongafale Tuvalu
Nuku alofa Tonga Fenuafala Tokelau
Homaro Solomon Islands Adamstown Pitcairn Islands
Alofi Niue Vila New Hebrides
Yaren Nauru Honolulu
Hawaiian Islands
(U.S.)
Agana Guam Bairiki Gilbert Islands
Papeete French Polynesia Suva Fiji
Ponape Caroline Islands Pago Pago American Samoa Pacific Ocean
Canberra Australia Australia
Capital Country Capital Country Continent